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of its stripes, as well as the fineness of its shape and limbs, i lu tuenty-five thousand nine hundred and twenty years, excels all the other quadrupeds (of Africa), either of the the fixed stars appear to perform their long revolution wild or tame kind.
eastward. Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xiv. p. 78. The practice of observing the stars began, with the radi
ments of civil society, in the country of those, whom we call Chaldeuns ; from which it was propagated into Egypt, India,
Greece, Italy, and Scandinavia, before the reigu of SISAC 3557. (Job vi. 6.] The Eastern people often make use of or Sa'cya, who by conquest spread a new system of religion bread, with nothing more than salt or some such trifling | and philosophy from the Nilé to the Ganges about a thousand addition, such as summer-savory dried and powdered.
years before Christ. (Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. See Russel's Hist. of Aleppo, pp. 115, 283, 348.) — Arcturus, rising in September, ushers p. 27.
in the Autumnal quarter. Orion makes its first appearauce in December, at the commencement of Winter. The Pleiades lead the Spring; and, during Summer, Sirius and four others issue successively from the chambers of the south.
See I Kings xiv. 25. 3558. [Job vii. 5.] While a person has the small-pox, it is observable, that the tiger, however voracious, will not touch hiin.
3562. [Job ix. 26.] They are passed away as the ships Captain HAMILTON.
of Abel or Obah. There are two rivers of this name in the country where Job dwelt; one near Cupha, the other in the
province of Babylon called Wasit : This latter is the Mise3559. [- 19. Let me alone till I swallow down num of the Greeks. my spittle] This is, among the Arabs, a proverbial saying to
R. SOLOMON, VATABLUS, PAGNINUS, the present day ; by which is uvderstood, “ Give me leave to
Mercer, &c. —- Bib. Research. rest after my fatigue.”
vol. ii. p. 105. See Biblical Researches, vol. i.
3563. - Camels are the ships of Arabia ; their seas are the deserts. (Sandys, p. 138.) What enables the shepherd to perforın his long and toilsome journeys across Africa is the camel, emphatically called by the Arabs, the ship of the desert. See Jer. ii. 23.
3560. Job ix. 9.] He has made Ursa Major, and the star called the heart of Scorpio, and the Pleiades, and the most secret parts of the South.
Essay for a New Translation,
part ii. p. 59.
3564. [Job xviii. 5, 6.] William the Conqueror, in the first year of his reign, commanded that in every town and village, a bell should be rung every night at eight o'clock, and that all people should then put out their fire and candle, and go to bed. The ringing of this bell was called in French, Curfew; that is, Cover-fire.
Observations on Popular Antiq.
p. 18, note,
There are in all only sixteen fixed stars besides the sun, (supposed to he one of them), that can indisputably be accounted of the first magnitude ; of which four are Extra Zodiacım ; viz. Capella, Arcturus, Lucida Lyræ, and Lacida Aquilæ, to the north ; four in the way of the moon and planets, riz Palilicium, Cor Leonis, Spica, and Cor Scorpii; and five to the southward, that are seen in England, viz. The foot and right shoulder of Orion, Sirius Procijom, and Fomalhaut; and there are three more that never rise in our horizon, viz. Canopus, Acharnâr, and the foot of the Centaur (Abs. Phil Trans. R. S. vol. vi. p. 458.) — The adventurous Idumeans, who first. gave names to the stars, and hazarded long voyages in ships of their own construction, could be no other than a branch of the Hindoo race, under the name of Phenicians.
3565. [Job xix. 20.) An order had been issued to Suruparatana, to put to death some of the principal inhabitants of Cirtipur, and to cut off the noses and lips of every one. As this order was carried into execution with every mark of horror and cruelty, it soon became most shocking to see so many living people with their teeth and noses resembling the skulls of the deceased.
Asiat. Research. vol. ii. p. 187.
perceive its approach at a distance; and, in general, have time to avoid it, or turn out of its ways, as it generally extends but to a moderate breadth. However, when it is extremely rapid, or very extensive, as sometimes is the case, no swiftness, no art, can avail; nothing then remains, but to meet death with fortitude, and submit to he buried alive with resignation.
GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, fc.
vol. i. p. 363.
3566. Job xix. 20.] The winds from the eastward, in passing over the snowy mountains and dry sandy descrts of Thibet in Tartary, come divested of all vapor or moisture, and produce the same parching effect as the hot dry winds in more southerly situations. — The nativos say, a direct exposure to those winds occasions the loss of their foreteeth ; and our faithful guide, says Mr. Robert SAUNDERS, ascribed that defect in bimself to this cause. We escaped, he adds, with the loss of the skin from the greatest part of our faces.
Abs. Phil. Trans. (1789), p. 546.
3570. [Job xxiv. 5.] The most remarkable property in wild asses is, that after carrying the first load, their celerityi leaves them, their dangerous ferocity is lost, and they soon contract the stupid look and dullness peculiar to the assinine species. It is also observable, that these creatures will not permit a horse to live among them; and if one of them happens to stray into the places where they feed, they all fall on him, and, without giving him the liberty of flying from them, they bite and kick bim till they leave him dead on the spot.
Ulloa's Voy., by Adams ; 4th. Edil.
vol. i. p. 301.
3567. [- 24.] The Indians use an iron style for writing on palm-leaves. (BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 70.)
- The Antients used wax-tablets to write their first thoughts on, as the wax easily admitted obliteration. There is in the cabinet of Herculaneum, an edged instrument for this kind of writing, rounded off at one end. — The tablets there have on the edges a thick rim of silver ; but the wood of them is burnt to a coal.
WINCKELMAN's Herculaneum, p. 110.
3568. [Job xx. 17.] A great quantity of butter is made in Barbary, which, after it is boiled with salt, they put into jars, and preserve for use.
Shaw, p. 169.
3572. - 16.Such houses were built of mad, or at best of sun-dried bricks.
3569. (Job xxii. 10, 11.] Of all those terrible tempests 3573. [Job xxvi. 7.) He hangeth the earth on nothing ; that deform the face of Nature, and repress human presump- || - the constricting mixture of others. lion, the sandy tempests of Arabia and Africa, are the most
Penrose, Let. xvi. terrible, and strike the imagination most strongly. To
Whiston, in his Prælect. Phys. Mathem. Prop. Ixxxviii. conceive a proper idea of these, we are by no means to suppose them resembling those whirlwinds of dust that we
Corol. 2 says, the common Centre of Gravity of things in sometimes see scattering in our air, and sprinkling their con
this world, being only a Mathematical Point, is plainly a tents upon our roads, or meadows. The sand-storm of
Nothing Africa exhibits a very difforent appearance. As the sand of which the whirlwind is composed, is excessively five, and almost resembles the parts of water, its motion entirely resembles that of a flaid; and the whole plain seems to float onward, like a slow inundation. The body of sand 3574. (Job xxviii. 18. Rubies Dr. Hide shews, that the thus rolling, is deep enough to bury houses and palaces in its Chaldee Jews mention the loadstone in their eldest private bosom : travellers who are crossing those extensive deserts, writings ; and that the Arabians understood its uses. —
This stone is six times mentioned in Scripture, by the name the ether of Newton; and which, pressing every extraneous Peninim (Hebr.).
substance from every side, is the common agent by which are See HUTCHINSON's Confusion of Tongues, inechanically and necessarily effected all the phenomena of p. 117.
gravitation. N. B. Peninim is the Hebrew word, here translated
The above theory supposes a centripetal impulse arising rubies.
from the pressure of the substratum, or subtle medium filling all space, which inclines the planetary bodies mechanically towards each other, on their near sides, by a very slight and
finely diminished force ; and which is counteracted by a cen3575. [Job xxviii. 25. To make the weight for the
trifugal force, created by a rotative motion; which again is winds] By barometrical observations, taken every hour from
itself a consequence oi a nicely adjusted arrangement of the the latitude of l degree north to 1 degree south, it appears,
integral parts of the masses with respect to density and that the combined actions of the sun and moon produce a fux
duidity. It states the result of the combined forces to be a and reflux of the at niosphere, causing in the barometer the
progressive motion of all the 'systems of bodies round their variation of a live and to of the English division, which
cominou centres of motion, such as we observe in the solar supposes a rise and fall in the atmosphere of about a hundred
system, and such as doubtless exists in every system in the feet : while the combined action of the sun and moon, ac
universe, whether of separate bodies of planets and satelcording to Mr. Bernoulli, causes an elevation in the sta at
lites — of suns, comets, and planets of suns among the equator of only seven feet.
themselves — or of systems of suns in regard to each
See Month. Mag. for Oct. 1811,
pp. 209, 214. He weigheth the waters by measure] The fluid part of the contents of the earth, its perpetual oscillation, its excess of quantity over the solid parts, its uniform opposition to the solid parts (all the land having water for its antipodes), seem to indicate that the principle of the earth's rotation is a consequence of the peculiar disposition and adjustment of its component parts. ~The oscillations of the waters necessarily 3576. [Job xxix. 7.] The people of quality in Asia, cause change constantly the centre of the earth's motions, and force carpets and cushions to be carried wherever they please, in it to perform its daily motion round that centre, being at order to repose themselves on them inore agreeably. once an effect of the motion, the cause of its continuance, See No. 2908.
CHARDIN. and also the cause of the centrifugal impulse. — for this impulse or force, we have the oscillation of the vast Pacific ocean, ten thousand miles over, besides the Atlantic of three thousand, and the vast seas round the south pole, adapted in that situation to increase the centrifugal force when the earth is in its perihelion. — An excess of water or oscillation in either hemisphere, as in our 3577. [Job xxx. 22.] The life of man is here beautifully southern hemisphere, and an excess of land or defect of oscil
compared to a transitory sand-storm. - At Waadi el HalJation in the other hemisphere, as in our northern hemisphere, boub, says BRUCE, we saw in the desert prodigious pillars will occasion corresponding increases and decreases of cen of sand at different distances, sometimes moving with great trifugal force and motion, produciug an obliquity of the I celerity, and then stalking with a majestic slowniess : at ecliptic, and leading to all the varied phenomena of the intervals we thought they were coming in a few minutes to seasons. — In the months of November, December, and | overwhelm us; again they would retreat so as to be almost January, the earth is at its nearest distance from the sun,
out of sight. Their tops, reaching to the very clouds, osten and the centripetal force is then the greatest ; but in these separated from their bodies, and were then utterly dispersed months the direction of the forces is in the southern heuni in the air. Sometimes they were broken near the middle, as sphere, where we find a vast excess of oscillating Auid ; if struck with a large cannon shot. About noon they began and of course the tides, or oscillations, become equal to the to advance upon us with cousiderable swiftness, the wind increased centrifugal force required to counteract the in- | being very strong behind them. Eleveu of them ranged crease of centripetal force, - and the eartir ascends from along side of us about the distance of three miles. The its peribelion, — till the pressure towards the sun gets the grealest diameter of the largest appeared at that distance as better of the centrifugal force, and then the earth descenus if it would measure ten feet. These phantoms of the plain from its aphelion. — According to this hypothesis, the cen Il before four o'clock in the afternoon, had all of them fallen tripetal force throughout the universe, particularly that to Il to the ground and disappeared. — Un an ensuing day simiwards the suu in our system, is caused by a sulistratum, llar pillars were again seen; but thicker, and apparently confluid, or medium, that fills infinite extension, something like taining more sand. The sun shining through them, exhibited those nearest as as spotted with stars of gold. — We a thurd time beheld these moving pillars, more in namber, but less in size. They began immediately after san-rise, like a thick wood, and almost darkened the sun : his rays shining through them for near an hour, gave them an appearance of pillars of
swell, or distend, as a bladder. — The Editor of Calmet
First Hundred, p. 107.
Trad. col. iv. pp. 553, -555.
3582. [Job xxxii. 21.] The Arabs make court to their superiors by carefully avoiding to address them by their proper
names ; instead of which they salate them with some title or 3578. [Job xxx. 31. Organ) Hugab, which the Chaldee
epithet expressive of respect. renders abuba. — Now abub in its primary sense signifies
PococКЕ. an ear of corn ; and in its derivatives abuba, anbuba, and
See No. 1279. ambubaja, it comes to denote progressively in the lapse of ages, a corn-pipe, a reed, a sonorous tube of wood, brass, or other metal. See among Dr. GREGORY's Posthumous Tracts, that entitled “ What time the Nicene Creed began to be sung in the Church,” p. 48, &c.
3583. (Job xxxvii. 6.] Thus it should seem, in Job's time, snows fell in Arabia, that is, toward the thirtieth degree of North Latitude.
St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, .
vol. i. p. 223. 3579: [Job xxxi. 26 - 28.] In Africa, on the first appearance of the new moon, which the Negroes look upon
3584. ( 9.) Mr. Savary speaking of the southern to be newly created, the Pagan natives, as well as Maho
wind, which blows in Egypt from February to May, says, metans, say a short prayer; and this seems to be the only
torrents of burning sand roll before it, the firmament is envevisible adoration which the Kafirs (unbelievers) offer up to
loped in a thick veil, the sun appears of the color of blood, the Supreme Being. This prayer is pronounced in a whisper;
and sometimes whole caravans are buried by it in the trackless the party holding up his hands before his face : its purport is
waste. to return thanks to God for his kindness through the existence of the past moon, and to solicit a continuation of his favor during that of the new one. At the conclusion, they spit on their hands, and rub them over their faces.
3585. ( 10.] The water at the bottoms of all deep Mungo Park's Travels, p. 271. lakes is constantly at the same temperature (that of 41 de
grees Fahrenheit), suminer and winter, without any sensible variation. — I have hopes, says Count RUMFORD), of being
able to shew why all changes of temperature, in transparent 3580. [- 36. I would — bind it as a crown to
Il liquids, must necessarily take place at their surfaces. — In a me] When the Mogul, by letters, sends his commands to any Paper read before the R. S. February 20, 1804, he combats the of his governors, those papers are entertained with as much hypothesis of modern chemists respecting the materiality of respect as if he himself were present; for the governor, || heat, contending that caloric is nothing more than the having intelligence that such letters are come near him, bim motion of constituent particles of bodies umong themself, with other inferior officers, ride forth to meet the mes. Il selves : 'an hypothesis,' says hé, 'of antient date, aud senger that brings them: and as soon as he sees those lelters, which always appeared to me to be very probable'. he alights from his horse, falls down ou the earth, then takes
1 (- By a transparent Auid, he explains himself to them from the messenger, and lays them on his head l ' mean such a one as admits the calorific and frigorific rays, whereon he binds them fast : then returning to his place of
emitted by hot and by cold bodies, to pass freely through it, public meeting, he reads and answers them.
without obstructing their passage, or diminishing their inSee Exod. xiii. 16. Deut. vi. 8.
bassy, p. 453. - “ The rapid undulations,' he argues, 'occasioned in the See No. 2186.
surrounding ethereal fluid, by the swift vibrations of the hot body, will act as calorific rays on the neighbouring colder solid bodies; and the slower undulations, occasioned by the vibrations of those colder bodies, will act as frigorific rays on the hot body; and these reciprocal actions will continae,
but with decreasing intensity, till the hot body, and those 3581. EJob xxxii. 19.] Aub, in general, signifies to colder bodies which surround it, shall, in consequence of these
actions, have acquired the same temperature, or until their vibrations have become isochronous.'
Phil. Trans. 1804, p. 25.
of cold, and drought of the star called the heart of Scorpio ?
Essay for å New Translation,
part ii. p. 59.
3586. (Job xxxvii. 18.] In the year 1663, James Gregory of Aberdeen in Scotland published in his Optics the first idea 3592. [Job xxxviii. 31.) “ Will it be in thy power to unite and figure of a reflecting telescope,, without being able to find I the brilliant stars, the Plejades; and to dissipate the attraction in his own country a workman capable of executing it of the Arctic Pole." — The Antients had observed seven aright.
stars in the Pleiades. Six only are now perceptible. The Abbe Pluche. seventh disappeared at the siege of Troy. Ovid says, it was
so affected by the fate of that unfortunate city, as from grief to cover its face with its hand. This passage in Job seems to presage such disappearance.
St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature, vol. ii. p. 53.
3587. [Job xxxviii. 6.] The epithet corner-stone seems to denote the North Pole, which, by its magnetic attraction, distinguishes itself from every other point of the Earth. Matt. xxi. 42. St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,
3693. (Job xxxix. 6.] The food of the wild asses is the Eph. ii. 20. vol. i. p. 179.
saltest plants of the deserts, such as the atriplex, kali, and chenopodium; and also the bitter milky tribes of herbs.
They also prefer salt water to fresh. — Hence the propriety 3588. [- 11.] The Indian Ocean flows for six |
of Bochart's rendering what we have translated " barren months toward the East and six toward the West.
Jaud," salt places.
BINGLEY. Ibid. col. iv. p. 515.
3589. [- 17.] The Poles, being uninhabitable, are
1 9 — 12.] The (single-horned) Rhinoceros
is said to run with great swiftness, and from his strength and in reality the gates of Death. They are obviously also, the place of darkness, and that of the Aurora Borealis.
impenetrable covering, is capable of rushing with resistless
violence through woods and obstacles of every kind; the Verse 18.] The Earth's Latitude: - There were in the
sinaller trees bending like twigs as he passes thein, — The times of Job, many Arabian travellers who went eastward,
Asiatics sometimes lame and bring these animals into the and westward, and southward, but very few who had travelled field of battle, to strike terror into their enemies. They are, northward, that is to say, in Latitude.
however, in general so unmanageable, that they do more Ibid. vol. i. p. 181.
harm than good; and in their fury it is not uncommon for them to turn ou their masters.
The single-horued Rhinoceros is a native of several parts
of India ; as well as of the islands of Ceylon, Java and Su3590. [ 22.]: Vapors, fogs, clouds, dews, rains, || inatra. It is also found in Ethiopia. hail, snow, lightning, thunder, earthquakes, subterraneous
Bingley's Animal Biography, vol. i. fires, tempests, regular and irregular winds; all these sur
pp. 116, 118. prising phenomena of nature, are the effects of the elastic power of the air, which is sometimes condensed, and at others rarified, according as its caloric, or solar fluid, is in any particular part, accuinolating or dispersing.
3595. ( 13 — 17] The ostrich, like a weak, See Nal. Delin. vol. iii. p. 190. thoughtless creature, buries her eggs in the sand, and leaves
the care of hatching them, as we are told, to the genial heat of the sun. -- She often, however, leaves her eggs in the
highway, to be trodden under foot by the first passenger; an 3591. 1
3 1.] Can you stop or hinder the sweet incontestible mark of her indiscretion. - When closely purinfluences of the Pleiades, or moderate the binding influences sued, she foolishly hides her head, but more particularly her