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3665. [Ps. xlviii. 7.7 In the days of David, the ships of 1 of the state and form of the organic substances of his mind, Tarshish were become a common appellation for all vessels of Au idea of such changes and variations' inay be had from the trade; and to go to Tarshish, a proverbial expression for heart and lungs, in that there are alternate expansions and setting out to sea in such vessels. That part of the Medi compressions, or dilatations and contractions, which in the terranean which was contiguous to Cilicia was called the sea heart are called its systole and diastole, in the lungs respiof Tarshish. — The inhabitants of Tarsus not only occupied rations that are reciprocal extensions and retractions, or distheir business in great waters, but they also traded on the tensions and coarctalions of its lobes. Such are the changes continent. They had factories at Dedan and Sheba on the and variations of the state of the heart and lungs : The like Euphrates, with which they trafficked in Silver, &c.

takes place in the other viscera of the body, and also in their Ezek. xxxviii. 13. See Beloe's HERÓDot. Urania, 1 parts, by and through which the blood a ch. Ixviii. note 60.

received and circulated. There are also similar changes and variations of state in the organic forms of the mind, which are the subjects of 'a man's affections and thoughts; with this difference, that the expansions and compressions, or reciprocations of the latter, are respectively in so much greater perfection, that they cannot be expressed in the words of a

natural language, which can only import, that they are vor3666. [Ps. xlix. 14.] In Egypt, when a cow died they

tical ingyrations, and egyrations, aster the inanner of perpetual threw her into the River ; but a bull was buried without

spiral circuinflexions, wonderfully confasciculated into forms the cities, one or both horns being left sticking up as a

receptive of life. With the good these forms are spirally mark of the grave. The flesh being perfectly consuined, and

convoluted forwards, but with the wicked backwards. Those nothing but the bare bones left, they were transported to an

which are spirally convoluted forwards are turned to the island of the Delta, called Prosopotis, whence vessels were

Lord, and receive influx from Him; but those which are dispatched to several parts of the kingdom, to collect the

spirally convoluted backwards, are turned towards hell, and bones, to carry them away, and bury them together. The

receive influx thence. In proportion also as they are turned same was observed in regard to other cattle, the Egyptians

back wards, they are open behind, and closed before : on the being forbidden to kill any.

coutrary, in proportion as they are turned forwards, they are Heron. l. 2.

open before, and closed behind. It may hence appear, that, as the organic forms of a good, and of a wicked man, are respectively turned contrary ways; and as an inversion once induced cannot be retwisted, such as a man's organization is when he dies, such it remains to eternity. It is the love of

a man's will, which makes this turning; or which thus inverts 3667. [Ps. liii. 1.] A fool, or false reasoner, might also and converts. — Wherefore all the angels of heaven turn say, “ The light of the sun is not a fluid, for it cannot be their faces to the Lord as their Sun; and all the spirits of agitated by the wind ; it is not a solid, for the parts of it hell (or Hades) turn away their faces from the Lord (towards cannot be separated; it is not fire, for it is inextinguishable the earth). (SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence, nn. in water; it is not spirit, as it is visible; it is not a body, 319, 326.) — Towards an interior manifestation of the natural for we cannot handle it; it is not even a moving power, for sun. it agitates not the lightest bodies : it is therefore nothing

at all.”

St. Pierre's Works, vol. iv. p. 487.

3670. [Ps. Ivii. 4.] There was a sort of swords called. Lingulæ, as being in the shape of a tongue.

See A. Gell. Noct. Attic. l. 8. c. 25.

3668. [Ps. lv. 17.] It is an invariable rule with the Brahmins to perform their devotions three times every day : at sun-rise, at noon, and at sun-set.

MAURICE's Indian Antiq. vol. v.
p. 129.

3671. [Ps. Iviii. 4, 6.] It is a well attested fact, says FORBES, that when a house in Hindostan is infested with

snakes of the coluber genus, which destroys ponitry and small 3669. [ 19.] The affections of a man's love, and domestic animals, as also by the larger serpents of the boa the thoughts derived from them, are changes and variations | tribe, certain musicians are sent for; who, by playing on a

flagelet, find out their hiding places, and charm them to destruc- ll of Animals, where there is an excellent drawing of this tion : for no sooner do the snakes hear the music, than they creature furnished by PENNANT. — In the East, the wolf and come softly from their retreat, and are easily taken.

the real fox are very rare ; but there is a prodigious quantity See Month. Mag. for Jan. 1814, of the middle species named shacal or shual : these are conp. 581.

cealed by hundreds in the gardens, and ainong ruins and tombs. (VOLNEY, vol. i. & ii.) — At Gambroon, says HerBERT, we were offended by those troops of jackals, which here, more than elsewhere, mightily invaded the town; and for prey violated the graves by tearing out the dead, all the

while, ulutating in offensive noises and echoing out their 3672. [Ps. lix. '6.] Near the site of antient Canopus, sacrilege. We attacked them with swords, lances and dogs ; which is now become a desert, “I met,” says DENON, but we found them too many to be conquered, too unruly to " with a jackal which I should have taken for a doy, if I be banished, too daring to be affrighted. (Trav. p. 113.) had not had an opportunity to examine very minutely his -- These chakalls, says Thevenot, are as big as foxes, and pointed uose, his erected ears, bis length of tail sweeping the have something of a fox, and something of a wolf, but are ground, and his coat of fur like that of the fox, to whom he not mongrels begot of them as many have said. has a greater resemblance than to the woll, not withstanding See Cant. ii. 15.

Part ii. p. 60. the jackal is considered as the wolf of Africa."

AIKIN's Trans.

3677. [Ps. Ixiii. 11.) A species of honor paid to a chief

tain in the Hebrides is that of swearing by his name, and 3673. [- 9.] The Septuagint read, “My strength paying as great a respect to that as to the most sacred I will keep to thee''; which reading St. Jerome follows. oath.

Pinkerton's Coll. part x.p. 264.

3674. [Ps. Ix.] See, on this Psalm, Essay for a New Translation, part ii. p. 195. See again Ps. cviji.

Verse 8.] Over Edom will I cast out my shoe : see Ruth iy. 7.

See No. 2978.

I will reduce the Moabites to the meanest servitude; I will also triumph over the Edomites making them my slaves ; and the Philistines shall add to my triumph.

3678. (Ps. Isiv, 3.] This appears to be an allusion to the practice of fixing letters in arrows, and shooting or directing them where it was desired they should fall and be taken up. Timosenus and Artabazus sent letters to one another in this way at the siege of Potidæa. Thus the Jews say Shebna and Joah sent letters to Sennacherib, acquainting him that all Israel were willing to make peace with him, but Hezekiah would not suffer them.

GILL, in loco.

3679. - Each of the negroes took from his

quiver a handful of arrows, and putting two between his 3675. [Ps, Ixiii. 6.] In India, the Brahmins employ in || teeth, and one in his bow, waved to us with his hand, to celestial observations four watches: the two first last till keep at a distance. midnight; the other two till morning.

Mungo Park, p. 99. BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 352.

3676. [- 10.] The large jackals, the shuals, hunt in packs of forty or fifty, and soinetimes of hundreds ; eat every thing made of leather; ransack the repositories of the dead, and greedily devour the most putrid bodies : for which reason the inhabitants of the countries where they abound, make their graves very deep in the earth, and secure them with spines, thorns, &c. They even attend caravans and follow armies in hopes of prey. See the Newcastle Ilistory

3680. [Ps. Ixv. 9 – 13.] It is an ingratitude in people who dwell on the banks of rivers, when they complain of inundations : a large river overflowing ravages, it is true, cultivated fields ; sometimes carries away hamlets with their inhabitants and flocks; destroys the provisions of one year, the crops of another, and the resources of several. But this

river has produced during ages an immense population, by the fertility of its banks, by navigation and commerce ; it has given water to the cattle that manure the land, and yield food to man : if it had not the regions which it traverses, we should not behold them covered with fields, towns, rich and populous cities. Happy therefore are the states which are watered by great rivers, if the inhabitants know how to take advantage of the benefits they offer, and provide against the disasters they may occasion !

Pinkerton's Coll. part ii. p. 352.

and Europe, and has not any where upon it a single black feather.

The wild American turkey-cocks begin crowing at early dawn, and coutinue till sun-rise, from March to the last of April : the watch word of these social sentinels being caught and repeated, from one to another, four hundreds of miles around ; insomuch that the whole country is for an hour or more in a universal shout. A little after sun-rise, their crowing gradually ceases, they quit their high lodgingplaces, and alight on the earth, where, dancing round about the coy female, they proudly expand their silver bordered train.

Bartram's Trav. pp. 14, 81.

3681. [Ps. Ixvi. 18.] On this text, the celebrated Kimchi says, Although I should design iniquity in my heart, and were just ready to execute it -- Yet God will not hear it; for God never esteems an evil design for the deed.This was the very hypocrisy of the Pharisees, who valued no instance of religious duty, but as it was seen of men ; nor have the Jews at this day any opinion of the necessity of internal holiness.

Bp. Browne's Procedure of the

Understanding, p. 338.

3685. [Ps. Ixviii. 30. Rebuke the beasts of the reeds] That is, the wild boars, so destructive to Israel, Ps. lxxx. 13; and which, it seems, abound in marshes, fens, and reedy places. — We were, says Le Bruyn, in a large plain full of canals, marshes, and bull-rushes. This part of the country, he adds, is infested by a vast number of wild-boars, that march in troops, and destroy all the seeds and fruits of the earth, and pursue their ravages as far as the entrance into the villages. — The inhabitants affirmed, that some of these creatures were as large as cows. (Trad. vol. ii. p. 62.) – I suppose the beast of the reeds to be the hippopotamus, and that it is misnamed in the above quotation.

3682. [Ps. Ixviii. 8.] The mountain towards the top, parts into two spires, of wbich the higher is called Jloreb, the other Sinai.

See Neitzschitz's Compend. vol. ii.

p. 151.

3686. [Ps. Ixix. 21.] A royal personage had reason to complain of bis being presented with vinegar as it was used only by slaves and the meanest of the people. (See Ruth ii. 14. And Pitts, p. 6.) — The juice of lemons is what those of higher life now use, and probably among the higher orders the juice of pomegranates might be used to produce a grateful acidity.

HARMER, vol. i. p. 395.

3683. [ 13.] In modern Egypt they make a float of earthen pots tied together, carried with a plat-form of palmleaves, which will bear a considerable weight, and is conducted without difficulty.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iji.

p. 55.


The Ibis of Egypt is a species of goose with golden feathers, proper to the Nile. It pines away and dies, if carried elsewhere. — There is another species which is white, but has the head, neck, and ends of the wings and tail tingell as the former — with yellow gold. (See Univer. Hist. dol i. p. 399 ) — The wild turkey of America is a stately beautiful bird, of a very dark dusky brown color, the tips of the feathers of his neck, breast, back, and shoulders, edged with a copper color, wbich in a certain exposure looks like burnished gold.

This is nearly thrice the size and weight of that of Asia

3687. [Ps. lxxii. 6, 16.] In the East, particularly in India, when the ground has been destitute of rain even nine months together, and looks all of it like the barren saud in the deserts of Arabia where there is not one spire of green grass to be found, within a few days after those fat enriching showers begin to fall, the face of the earth is so revived, and throughout so renewed, that it is presently covered all over with a pure greep mantle.

Sir T. Roe's Voy. to India, p. 360.

3688. (Ps. Ixxiii.] Third Book.

But all this is by far too little to make Egypt a winecountry. See Gen. xliii. 11. See Smith's MICHAELIS, dol, iii.

p. 117,

3689. [P's. lxxv. 8.] The berries of the Large Black Cluster Grape are not delicate, the juice being of a harsh and rough taste. It is the identical grape froin which red Port wine is made.

Speechly, on the Vine, p. 18.

See No. 763.

3692. [Ps. Ixxx. 8.! We learn indeed, from history, that grapes, as well as most other sorts of fruit, were brought, by slow degrees, into the western parts of Europe, principally froin Asia and Egypt.

See History of the Decline and Full of the

Roman Empire, by EDWARD GIBBON, Esq;

vol. i. ch. ii. p. 52. . Verse 10.] At Northallerton, in Yorkshire, there was, in 1789, a Vine about 160 years of age, that once covered a space containing 137 square yards. - At Valentine, near Iltord, in Essex, the seat of the late Sir Charles Raymond, Bart. there was in 1788 a Vine, the Black Hamburgh, whose branches extended over the entire roof of a Pine-stove, seventy feet long by eighteen feet broad. Some of its branches, trained downwards, covered also great part of the back wall of the said building : - The girlh of the main stein, at two feet from the ground, was about 13 inches.

SPEECALY, on the Vine, p. 255.

3690. [Ps. 1xxx. 8, 9, &c.] Some trees grow better in southern countries; and become less as you advance to the north, where they gradually decrease, till at last they will not grow at all. On the other hand, there are, trees and herbs which the wise Creator destined for the northern countries, where they grow to an amazing size. But the further these are transplanted to the south the less they grow, till at last they degenerate so much as not to be able to grow at all. Other plants love a temperate climate ; and if they be carried either north or south, they will always decrease. For example: the Sassafras, growing in Pennsylvania, under forty degrees of latitude, becomes a pretty tall and thick tree ; but at Oswego and Fort Nicholson, between forly three and forty-four degrees of latitude, it hardly reaches the height of two or three feet, and is seldom so thick as the little finger of a full grown person. Again : the 'Tulip-tree, in Pennsylvania, grows as high as a Swedish oak or fir; and its thickuess is proportionable to its heiglit: but, near Oswego, it was observed to be not more than twelve feet high, and no thicker thau a man's arm.

See Kalm's Troo. in Pinkerton's Coll.

part liii. p. 423.

3693. - Near Lake Huron in North America, grapes, plumbs, wild rice, and various fruils, grow spoutaneously and in great abundance.

On the islands also of the Mississippi grow vast numbers of the sugar maple, and around them, vines loaded with grapes, creeping lo their very tops. (Carver's Trav. in N. America, pp. 23, 37.) - Some grape-villes in America, are mine, teo, and twelve inches in diameter : they twine round The trunks of the largest trees, climb to their very tops, and then spread along their limbs, from tree to tree, throughout the forest.

BARTRAM's Trav. p. 85.

3691. - - Throughout the greatest part of Egypt, the vine is not cultivated, nor indeed can be, because the whole country is nearly a flat, whereas the vine delights in hills; and besides, during the months of August and September when the grapes are approaching to maturity, the flats are overfowed by the Nile, and become a lake luthie cities, indeer, vines are reared on the walls of the houses (Gen. xlix. 2:2), and are said to be very beautiful ; and the province of Fium, which lies beyond a sandy desert, and quite separated from the rest of the country on its western side, has vineyards. So likewise has the midd emnost Oasis, or Elvach, that lies still further beyond the deserts Ac. cording to Abulieda, in the city Esue, situated 140 leagles above Cairo, there are vineyards; and Leo Africanus (p. 71) states, that grapes are said to grow about Munia.

3694. [ 13] In the year 1581, a boar was killed near Koningsberg, in Prussia, of six hundred pounds weight. Jn 1507, one was killed in the dukedom of Wirtemberg, seven feet three inches long, by five feet three inches high. 'The length of the head was twenty-three inches. — A boar of this description, ' matured by age in its native forests, must have been an animal more formidable than any wbich ari at present to be met wilb; and, when it made occasional excursions into the nearest cultivated lands, it must have excited the greatest degree of terror and aların among the inhabitants

Phil. Trans. 1801, part ii. p. 328

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'import of this phrase, we must attend to a custoin which ob

tained in Judea and other Eastern countries. At meals the master of the feast placed the person whoin he loved best on his right hand, as a token of love and respect : and as they sat on couches, in the intervals between the dishes, when the master leaned on his left elbow, the man at his right hand, leaning also on his, would naturally repose his head on the master's bosom, John xxi. 20; while at the same time the master laid his right hand on the favourite's shoulder or side, in testimouy of his favourable regard.

Pixie's Works, vol. iii. p. 90.

3700. [Ps. lxxxviii. 5.] Bammetim khopshi (Hebr.). secluded from among the dead. As the graves of the dead, according to the Jewish law, polluted the living who came near them ; so, lest the bodies of the dead should be polluted, those who had died a violent death, or under the anathema, were interred separate from the rest..

See Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 539.

3696. [Ps. lxxxiv. 3.) All over the globe, the sweet warblers of the grove discover an instinct which attracts thein to the habitation of Man. If there be but a single hut in a forest, all the song-birds of the vicinity come and settle around it. — Persons, who have lost their way in unknown woods, may safely conclude, says SAINT-PIERRE, that they are drawing near some inhabited place, when they begin to perceive the sparrows Auttering about.

Studies of Nature, vol. iii. p. 49.


18.) Among the inhabitants of Umnak, when a man dies, the wife retires into a dark hole, where she coutinues forty days : and the husband submits to the same seclusion on the loss of a favourite wife (Captain KRENITZIN and Lieul. LEVASHEF's loyaye.) — The Syrians, while mourning for their deceased, slud hide themselves from the light of the sun, in caves or other obscure places.

Univer. flist. vol. ii. p. 265.
Sic ubi fata, caput ferali obducit amiciu,
Decrevitque pati tenebras, puppisque cavernis
Delituit: sævumque arcte coinplexa dolorem
Perfruitur lacrymis, et amat pro conjuje luctum.

Luc 1. 9. de Cornelici.
So said the matron; and about her head
Her veil she draws, her mournful eves to shade ;
Resolved to sliroud iu thickest shades her woe,
She seeks the ship's deep darksoine hold below :
There lonely left, at leisure to complain,
She buys hier sorrows, and enjoys her pain ;
Still with fresh tears the liviny grief would feed,
And fondly loves it, in her husband's stead.

Mr. Rowe.

3697. [- 6.] The whole territory of Baalbec, to the mountains which separate it from the plain of Damascus, is named in Arabic, Al-bkaa, which we express by Bekaa. It is watered by the river Letanus and by many other streains. It is a delicious country, in nothing inferior to the territory of Damascus, which is so renowned among the Orientals. Beka produces among other things, those beautiful and excellent grapes, which are sent to various parts under the name of grapes of Dainascns. (De la Roque, p. 116.) It lies worth of Judea, among the mountains of Lebanon.

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3698. [Ps. lxxxvi. 16.] God's compassion, without producing the discomposure, produces the effects of the most

3703 - Moses is supposed to have written this sensible pity, by engaging him to a timely relief and ll and the next ten Psalıns to the hundredth inclusive. rescue,

Univer. Hist. Boyle's Seraphic Love, p. 36.

3704. - 10.] Sevenly years comprehend seven ages; an age in the Word being ten years. — Seven ages make seventy years.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, nn. 433, 728.

3699. [Ps. Ixxxvii. 4.] Zeh (Hebr.), iste : this pronoun is usually applied to what is inconsiderable, or disrespected.

Verse 5.] Ish (Hebr.), dir, denotes a person of distinction; adam, a mere man.

See Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 385.


According to the observations of M. Dupre de St. Maur, Such is the condition of the human species at present, that of 24,000 children born, scarcely one

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