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3797. [Prod. xxii. 7.] Whosoever having been given up as a pledge for money lent, performs service to the creditor, recovers his liberty whenever the debtor discharges the debt; if the debtor neglect to pay the creditor his money, and take | no thought of the person whom he left as a pledge, that person becomes the purchased slave of the creditor.

Gentoo Laws.

benevolent affections. Such is the solitary condition of all the carnivorous birds, except a few cowardly tribes which prowl on putrid carrion, and rather combine like robbers, than unite as friends.

BUFFON.

3801. [Prov. xxii, 29 - 32.] The effect of vinous spirit is always to affect the nervous system in a very powerful manner, and to induce that debility as a secondary effect of its operation which we term intoxication, and which powerfully undermines the springs of life.

See No. 322. . NISBET'S School of Medicine.

3798. [Prov. xxiii. 20.) The Japanese, according to Kempfer, eat a large proportion of animal food, which by :, imparting strength and fierceness, to unite with the sensibility

inspired by the climate, may produce that ferocious, daring, implacable, and bloody disposition for which they are so remarkable, and which runs through their system both of laws and government. — The people of Mexico, who used animal food in a large proportion, and part of it raw, and dwelt at the same time in a hot climate, were of a disposition similar to that of the Japanese, being bold, cruel, and revengeful, as appears by the resistance they made to the Spaniards, and the barbarous manner in which they treated their prisoners, and their human sacrifices. It also argues a disposition extremely savage, in a people who had attained à considerable degree of civilization, to eat the flesh of their fellow-creatures, as they are reported to have done. See No. 123. . ROBERTSON's America, vol. ii. p. 310.

. 410. edit.

3802. [Prod. xxiv. 21.) A spirit of innovation is generally the result of a selfish temper and confined views.

Burke, on the French Revolution,

p. 47.

3803. [Prov. xxv. 11.] A word fitly spoken is like oranges in a flowered silver basket.

Luther. - See Essay for a New

Translation, part ii. p. 169.

3799.

Dr. Cullen, in his “ Materia Medica,” observes that vegetable aliment, as neither distending the vessels, por loading the system, never interrupts the stronger action of the mind; while the heat, fulness, and weight of animal food, is adverse to its vigorous efforts. — The great Sir Isaac Newton was so sensible of this effect of animal food, that, during the time of his writing his treatise on Optics, which is generally thought to be the work wherein his genius displayed itself in its fullest force, he lived on a vegetable diet only, and that extremely simple and rigid.

CHEyne, on Diseases of the Body and

Mind.

3804.

In Spain, fine orange trees are about tweuty feet high, with large stems, and thick round umbra. geous heads.

Young. — Pinkerton's Coll. part xvii.

p. 659.

3805. [ 13.] The custom of cooling wines with snow was usual among the Eastern nations, particularly among the Jews. They could procure it in the hottest season from mount Hebron ; whence they often sent it as an article of traffic to Tyre.

See BARRY, on the Wines of the

Antients; p. 169.

3800.

Those animals alone, which live upon the fruits of the earth, join in society. Nature entertains them with a perpetual banquet, and abundance begets those gentle peaceful dispositions which are fitted for social intercourse. Other animals are constantly engaged in the pursuit of prey; urged by want, restrained by apprehensions of dauger, they depend for subsistence on the vigour of their owo exertions': they have scarce tine to satisfy their immediate desires, and no leisure to cherish the

3806. - 20.) Alkaline salt “is entitled also to the name of the mineral fixed, alkali, from its being met with in some mineral waters, and from its being fouud either ready

formed upon the surface of the earth or dug out of certain reached one hundred years, 'bow he had contrived to live so lakes, which are dried up in the summer, in Egypt, and | long ? answered, By the application of oil without, and honey other parts of the east. It is there called natron, and is within. Pythagoras also, noted for his great age, and the supposed to be the pitre here spoken of: for vinegar has no enjoyment of health with it, lived much, we are told, on effect upon what we call nitre; but upon the Alkali in question

honey. it has a great effect, making it rise up in bubbles with much

See Sir John Sinclair's Code of effervescence.

Health, vol. i. p. 415.
Watson's Chem. Ess. vol. i.

pp. 129, 130.

3807. [Prod. xxv. 22.] In America, there is a species of glow-worm or shining beetle, that wears a sort of lantern on its head. See Reo. ix. 7. Nature Displayed, vol. iv. p. 23, |

note.

3812. [Prov. xxvi. 8. As he that casts a stone to Margemah] Or Mercury, which cannot profit the idol ; so is he That gives honor to a fool, of which he is wholly insensible.

See Selden, de Mercurii Acervo.

- 3808. [ 23.] The north wind brings forth rain, and an angry countenance private obloquy. — In Arabia, the north wind blew over a long tract of dry land, and therefore usually brought dry weather; Job xxxvii. 21. But in Judea, the north wind, including all the winds between the north and the north-west, blew from the Mediterranean sea, and therefore commonly brought rain, as the frowns of an angry man will naturally bring on him the obloquy of vengeful tongues : and this is the literal rendering of the Hebrew, as well as the true meaning of the proverb.

Peters. — See Bih. Research. vol. ii.

p. 200.

3813. [- 14.] The doors of the Antients did not turn on hinges, but on pivots thus constructed: The upright of the inoveable door next the wall had, at each extremity, a copper case sunk into it, with a projecting point on the inside, to take the better hold of the wood-work. This case was generally of a cylindric form; but there have been found some square ones, from which there sprang on each side iron straps, serving to bind together and strengthen the boards with which the door was constructed hollow.

WINCKELMAN's Herculaneum, p. 67.

See Canticles viii. 9.

3809. [Prov. xxv. 24.] The house assigned us for a lodging was built in the Eastern fashion, with a square court in the middle. There was not one well furnished room in it: yet it consisted of several distinct apartments, into which the entrance was through an open gallery, which extended all around it. This lodging was far from being elegant, in comparison with the splendid inns in Europe ; but in Arabia, it was both elegant and commodious.

NIEBUHR’s Trao. pol. i. p. 251.

3814. [Prod. xxvii. 9.] Towards the conclusion of a visit amongst persons of distinction in Egypt, a slave, holding iu his hand a silver plate, on which are burning precious essences, approaches the faces of the visitors, each of whom in his turn perfumes bis beard. They then pour rose water on the head and hands. This is the last ceremony after which it is usual to withdraw.

M. SAVARY.

3810.
1 2 7.] The English who attended Edward

3815. - 22.] Though you should punish a fool the First into the Holy Land died in great numbers, as they || in the grinding-house, amidst the workers at the grist, marched in June, to demolish a place; which destruction

yet he will not depart from his folly. SANUTUS ascribes to excessive heat, and their intemperate

See Dr. Hodgson's Tran. eating of fruits and honey. See Gesta Dei per Francos, vol. ii.

Sampson, bound in fetters of brass, did grind in the prisonhouse. Jud. xvi. 21.

In the Audria of Terence, Act. i. Scen. 2, and Act. ii. Scen. 4, Davus, having committed an offence, is threatened

with the same kind of punishment. - 3811.

Democritus, being asked, when he had Among the Romans, to threaten one that he should grind

p. 224.

corn, was tantamount to one Englishmau's threatening | poverty. Let the benevolent rich visit the work houses, and another that be should beat hemp.

improve the wretched alternatives of poverty, and we shall Bib. Researches, vol. i. p. 61. then hear less of crimes. At Siam royal criminals, or princes of the blood con

Month. Mag. for March, 1815, p. 161. victed of capital crimes, are put into a large iron caldron, In the year 1806, there were committed for trial at the and pounded to pieces with wooden pestles, because none of Old Bailey, London, 899 persons; in the year 1807, 1017 their royal blood must be spilt on the ground, it being, by persons; in 1808, 1110 persons; in 1809, 1242 ; in 1812, their religion, thought great impiety to contaminate the divine 1397 ; and in 1813, 1478: so that, in the course of seven blood, by mixing it with earth.

years, there had been a gradual increase of nearly two-thirds; Captain Hamilton, in Pinkerton's Coll. part xxxiii. yet, since 1808' the executions have been trebled. p. 469.

See No. 840.

Ibid. Aug. 1815, p. 80. The person of a Pacha, who acquits himself well in his office, becomes in violable, even by the Sultan; it is no longer permitted to shed his blood.

3819. [Prov. xxx. 15.) Destiny has two daughters (ParaBut the Divan has invented a method of satisfying its dise and Gehenna) which always cry, Give, give. vengeance ou those who are protected by this privilege, with

Essay for a New Translation, out departing from the literal expression of the law, by order

part ii. p. 55. ing them to be pounded in a mortar, or smothered in a sack, of which there have been various instances. . Volney's Trav, vol. ii. p. 250.

3820. [ - 17.] In Aristophanes, old Mnesilochus enAs for the guards of the towers, who had let the prisoner

treats for a mitigation of his sentence, and that he may not prince Coreskie escape, some of them were empaled, and

be hauged to serve as food for ravens. — In allusion to this some were pounded or beaten to pieces in great mortars of barbarous custom, Horace says: iron, in which they usually pound their rice to reduce it to meal.

- non pasces in cruce corvos : Knolles's Hist. of the Turks, p. 1374. Thou shalt not hang on a cross and feed ravens.

3821. [Prov. xxx. 19.) And the way of gebher (Hebr.), man's formation, behalmah, in the pregnant womb.

See Jer. xxxi. 22. Univer. Hist. vol. iji. p. 325.

3816. [Prov. xxix. 21.] Phonek, delicale nutriens, gave the characteristic vame Phenix, to the palm-tree, on account of its delicious and abundant fruit.

See Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Heav.

vol. i. p. 184.

3822. [- 25.] There is found, on the banks of the Amazon, a species of reed from twenty-five to thirty feet high, the summit of which is terinivated by a large ball of earth. This ball is the workmanship of the ants, which retire thither at the time of the rains, and of the periodical inundations of that river : they go up, and descend along the cavity of this reed, and live on the refuse which is then swimming around them ou the surface of the water.

See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, dol. ii. p. 414.
Ah! spare yon emmet, rich in hoarded grain :
He lives with pleasure, and he dies with pain.

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i.

p. 153.

3817. [Prod. XXX. 8.] In the material world, the middle climates, farthest removed from the extremes of heat and cold, are the most salubrious and most pleasant: so in life, the middle ranks are ever most favourable to virtue, and to happiness; which dwell not in the extremes of poverty or riches.

Works of Soame Jenens, vol. iii.

p. 336.

3823.

1 3 2.] To shew a sacred reverence and veneration, the Indians rise up, uncover their heads, and lay the right hand on their mouth.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 373.

3818. — 9.] Crime may often be the effect of natural depravity, but nine times in ten it is the consequence of want, and of terror, caused by the hard consequences of

3824.

- 33.] The method of making butter in

Barbary, is by putting the milk or cream into a goat's skin mon than profilable: its fruit is contained in a rind, which, turned inside out, which they suspend from one side of the when ripe, opens in the middle like our chesnut, and yields tent to the other, and then pressing it to and fro in one uniform two or tbree kernels of the biggess of a common hazel-put, direction, they quickly occasion the separation of the unctuous and the pulp of which has the properties of tallow; and, and wheyey parts. (Shaw's Trav. p. 168.) — Also the being melted with a small quantity of common oil and butter of the Moors in the empire of Morocco, which is bad, wax, it is made into candles, and used all over the is made of all the milk as it comes from the cow, by putting empire. it into a skin and shaking it till the butter separates.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. viii. p. 224. (STEWART's Journey to Mequinez.) – And not far from Tiberias, at the foot of the bill where Christ preached his sermon, HASSELQUIST saw them inake butter in a leathern bag hung on three poles, erected for the purpose, in the form 3830. [Prod. xxxi. 18.} The myrica cerifera of Linneus, of a coue, and drawn to and fro by two women.

called by the Swedes the tallow shrub, by the English the See his Trav. p. 159. candleberry-tree or bayberry-bush; grows abundantly, says

KALM, on a wet soil, and seems to thrive particularly well in the neighbourhood of the sea. Its berries, ripe late in autumn, are thrown as soon as gathered into a vessel full of boiling water; where the fat rising, floats, and may be skimmed off

entirely. This tallow, refined by a second melting, acquires 3825. [Prod. xxxi. 10.] The unthinking wise, as soon as |

a transparent green color ; and is sold in Philadelphia, at she bas stepped over the threshold of matrimony, leaves

half the price .of wax, though twice that of tallow. Mixed behind her every delicacy, and every soft and engaging art,

with a little tallow, it produces candles that neither bend as by which she attracted the lover.

those of wax, nor melt like common ones ; but burning Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women,

clearly and slowly, without any sinoke, they are such as vol. i. p. 214.

yield, when extinguished, an agreeable smell. From this wax also, the Americans compound a well-scented soap, esteemed highly for shaving; chirurgical plasters, firm and

adhesive ; and even sealing-wax, of vo mean quality. 3826. Female virtue was held in such respect

See his Trav. in Pinkerton's Coll. among the Romans, that their Pretors' maces were borne

puri liii. p. 439. before their Vestal Virgins.

See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,
vol. i. p. 375.

3831. — The fruit of the cinnamon-tree, when

strained, yields a greenish sort of tallow, which is 3827. [Prod. xxxi. 10.] Among the Hindoos of Asiatic

whitened and converted into candles. The seed also of a India, the Brahmins and their wives, married in their infancy,

tree in Mississippi, called cirier (candleberry myrtle) when have the greatest veneration for the muptial tie : their mutual

thrown into boiling water, gives up a sort of oil equally fondness increases with their strength; and in riper years, all

convertible into candles. the glory of the women consists in pleasing their busbands;

Nature Displayed, vol. iv.p. 16. a duty which they consider as one of the most sacred of their In the uncleared woods of Nova Scotia there grows an holy religion. These wives voluntarily seclude theinselves, abundance of the Myrica Cerifera, wax-bearing myrica, at least from the company and conversation of all strangers, or, vulgarly, the candleberry myrtle. This Myrica Gale and in every respect copy the simplicity of life and inanners, grows also abundantly near the Lakes of Westmoreland and for which their husbands are so remarkable.

in North Britain, and 'has been occasionally applied to the Dr. W. ALEXANDER's. Hist. of Women, purposes of candle-making. A gentleman in Devonshire, vol. i. p. 280.

who has made from this Gale vegetable wax-candles, assures us their fragrance is delightful, their light brilliant, and their

economy great. 3828. [- 18.] The triumph of man's ingenuity in

See Month. Mag. for Octr. 1811, prolonging bis enjoyments, and active pursuits, after the set

p. 222. ting of the sun, when other animals retire to sleep, may be laudably increased by continued exertions to discover fresh means of produciug artificial and innoxious light.

3832. — The Negroes of Guinea make soap with palm-oil, banana leaves and the ashes of a sort of wood.

Bosman's Guinea. - Pinkerton's Coll. 3829. In China, the tallow-tree is no less com

part Ixvi. p. 633.

3833. [Prov. xxxi. 18 ] The rasped root of the polyanthus is used by the Indians in lieu of soap.

See De Menonville's Trav. to Guaxaca

in Pinkerton's Coll. part lv. p. 795.

3836. [Prov. xxxi. 19.) KALM, while travelling among the Iroquese Indians, observed that the industrious females, in manufacturing their hemp, made use neither of spinning wheels nor distaffs, but rolled the filaments on their bare thighs. The threads or strings thus formed, they died red, yellow, black, &c. ; and afterwards worked them into stuffs, with a great deal of ingenuity.

See Pinkerton's Coll. part liv.

p. 544.

3834.

The tallow of which the Chinese make their candles, is not derived from the animal kingdom, but from the tallow-tree.

Breton's China, vol. iv. p. 136.

3837. [ 22.] In Barbary, the women alone are still employed in manufacturing their hykes, or blankets as we should call them : who use not the shuttle, but conduet every thread of the woof with their fingers.

Shaw's Travels, p. 224:

3835. — - Embroidery, says Monsieur De Guys, is the constant employment of the Greek women. Those who follow it for a living are employed in it from morning to night, as are also their daughters and slaves. This is a picture of the industrious wife, painted after nature by VIRGIL in the eighth book of his Æneid, lin. 407.

Night was now sliding in her middle course :
The first repose was finished : when the damne,
Who by her distaff's slender art subsists,
Wakes the spread embers and the sleeping fire,
Night adding to her work : and calls her maids
To their long tasks, by lighted tapers urged.

TRAPP.

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