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or twenty feet, with a perfectly straight tapering stem, which 4092. [Jer. xiii. 23.] It is incontrovertible, that by the is smooth and polished, of a briglit ash color, resembling leaf | term Ethiopians, the Autients meant to represent a people of silver. Its top, formed of very large lobe-sinuate leaves, is | black complexion, thick lips, and woolly hair. Yet these, perfectly spherical. Its ripe and green fruit, of the size, and however degraded now in the idea of Europeans, were, if we in the form, of a pear, are beautifully arranged round about

may believe antient Authors, the first learned nation. “The the stem or trunk, from the lowermost leaves, where the Ethiopians conceive themselves,” says DioDORUS, Lib. iii., ripe fruit are, and upwards almost to the top. It is always “ to be of greater antiquity than any other nation : and it is green, ornamented at once with flowers and fruit, which probable that, born under the sun's path, its warmth may like figs come out singly from the trunk or stem. ' It is have ripened them earlier than other men. They suppose certainly the most beautiful of vegetable productious.

themselves also to be the inventors of divine worship, of BARTRAM's Trav. pp. 113, 127. festivals, of solemn assemblies, of sacrifices, and every other

religious practice. They affirm that the Egyptians are one of their colonies, and that the Delta, which was formerly

sea, becanie land by the conglomaration of the earth of the 4088. [Jer. x. 9.] Spain was the antient country of sil

higher country, which was washed down by the Nile. They ver; and thence it is probable that the Phenicians drew their

have, like the Egyptians, two species of letters, hieroglyphics silver at and before the time of Moses.

and the alphabet; but among the Egyptians the first was known Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iii. p. 480.

only to the priests, and by them transmitled from father to son, whereas both species are common among the Ethiopia aus.” Again : “ The Ethiopians," says LUCIAN, p. 985, “ were the first who invented the science of the stars, and gave names to the planets, not at randomn and without meaning,

but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to 4089. [Jer. xi. 12.] The Mexicans had their chief Priest, possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in whose habit was a crown of rich feathers on his head, pen an imperfect state, to the Egyptians.” VOLNEY professes to dants of gold, with green stones at his ears, and under his

entertain a similar opinion, founded upon the black complexion lip an azure stone: The priests' office was to burn incense of the Sphinx, and the antique images of Thebais, which, it before their idol every morning, noontide, evening, and at seems, have all the same characteristic. Aud Mr. BRUCE midnight, for then with trumpets and cornets they sounded

has,ufft red a multitude of analogous facts. a long time, which done, they burned the incense in censers

The blood of negroes is alınost as black as their skin. So with great reverence; and on festival days they preached to

that the blackness of negroes is likely to be inherent in them, the people. The revenues of the priests were great; the

and not caused by the scorching of the sun, especially seeing temples, in state, magnificence, and wealth, exceeded ours. that other creatures here (at Barbadoes), that live in the same The priests were all anointed, and wore their hair long, for clime and heat with them, have as florid blood as those that they never cut it.

are in a cold climate. See Exod. xxx. 7, 8. ALEXR. Ross' View of all

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. ii. p. 229. Religions, p. 72.

4090. [- 16.] Trees were the temples of deities; and, according to antient custom, the simple country-folk, even at this day, dedicate some prime tree, to God (also to Liberty).

Pliny, Nat. Hist. xji. 1. See also Diodo

Rus Siculus, xv. 50. Quintus Curtius,
iv. 7. and the 17th Book of STRABO's
Geography.

4093. - In the blood of man there have been Jately discovered ferrugineous or iron particles, which, by the evaporation of the phosphoric acidities, of which all Negroes smell so strong, being cast on the retiform membrane, occasion the blackness which appears through the cuticle.

Professor Kant of Konigsberg.

4191. [Jer. xii. 9.] My heritage is to me as the ravenous hyena. The ravenous beasts are round about it.

See Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 54.

4094. - As the scales of our body lying over each other, so as to be three deep, are the cause of the skin appeariug white; for diaphanous particles laid upon each other, and not too close, make a white; for wbich reason we see that paper, spittle, beaten glass, and snow, are white : so the scales of our mouth, larger than those on the body, but thinner, and lying but a little over the sides of each viher, suffer the redness (or blackness) of the flesh and blood to appear through them, and for this cause the lips and mouth are red (in whites, hut black in negroes).

Phil. Trans. R. S. vol. iii. p. 43. These scales on the body I judged (says LEUWENHOEK) so minute, that a sand might cover 200 or more of them. They lay one over another as those of fish : they were fivesided, and I could plainly perceive a border or line about them. I guessed they were about 25 times broader than thick; they lay three double, for there was not above one-third ) of each visible. The scales of fish lie after the same manner, only they never shed their scales, and our skin peels often, sometimes 1000 scales and more, together in a flake.

Phil. Trans. R. S. vol. jii. p. 504.

absorbs the rays of light, is thought to be the cause of their blackness.

Telliamed, p. 255. The brute (or untilled) soil of the earth, in general, is white to the North, and dark-coloured to the South, in order to reflect the heat in the first case, and to absorb it in the second.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. ii. p. 194.

SC

4099. [Jer. xiii. 23.] The descendants of Europeans set4095. [Jer. xii. 23.] The black complexions of the natives

tled in India assume the black tiut after the lapse of some of Guinea and other parts of Africa, is not owing to any

generations. This is evidently perceptible in the posterity of specific difference in the quality of their blood, but to the

the Moguls ; tribes derived from the extremity of Asia, color of the rete mucosum, which lies immediately under the

whose name signifies Whites, and who are at this day as cuticle.

black as the nations which they have conquered. (St. Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. v. p. 675.

PIERRE's Studies of Nature, vol. i. p. 288.) — When first vol. ix. p. 50.

born, their color differs but little from ours.

They acquire their jelty hue gradually, on being exposed to the air and sun; as in the vegetable creation the tender

blade, on first peeping above ground, turns from white to a 4096.

The rete mucosum gives the color to the pale greenish color, and afterwards to a deeper green. skin ; is black in the Negro ; white, brown, or yellowish, in

WELD's Travels in N. America, vol. ji. the European.

CRUIKSHANK.

pp. 225, 226. Mons. Buzzi thinks that Albinoes want the uvea both behind the iris and under the retina, and the rete mucosum in every part of the body.

4100. - The child of a negro or Maur (not of See No. 58.

See White's Regular Grudation in the long-, straight-haired American Indian), hy a white woman
Man, p. 119.

or European, is born black, and vice versa.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence, n. 277. The American Indians look on a Negro as an animal in

ferior to the human species. It would not be possible to 4097. — The blackness of Negroes cannot be ow affront an Indian more, than by telling him that he resembles ing, as some have imagined, to the continual action of the

a pegro ; or that he bas negro blood in his veins. perpendicular rays of the sun, even in the hottest latitudes;

WELD's Travels in N. America, for, says Captain GOLBERRY, “ the more we approach to

vol. ii. p. 274. wards the Live, the less deep and pure do we find the color of the Negro inhabitants.” Blay don's Edit. vol. i. p. 68.

4101. - - In the year 1814, was living in the neighThe antient Ethiopians are described by Herodotus as bourhood of Higfigate a married woman, aged 35, the whole surpassing all mankind in the symmetry and elegance of of whose body, except the face, was exactly divided by a their corporeal parts; and their moral character was so | straight line inlo white and black. The right side, arm, and exemplary, that Homer is induced to call them irre leg were black, and subject to eruptions; and the left side, proachable.

arm, and leg, altogether white: this distinction luckily

GOLBERRY. terminated at the neck, wbich, with her face, was white. To the light all bodies are indebled for their color. If an She had then two children, who possessed none of her object reflect none of its rays, or scarcely any, the object W peculiarities. appears black or blackish ; but if it reflect all the seven

Month. Mag. for July 1814, p. 495. prismatic rays, it will then be white. Nat. Delin, vol. iii. pp. 203, 204.

4102. [Jer. xiii. 23.] A man's peculiarity of character and constitution is never destroyed. His hereditary propen

silies are, however, softened and shaded by what is good and 4098. - In Blacks, there is, immediately below | true from the Lord, as black with white. These opposite the epidermis, a fine membrane, which, as it blunts and colors are indeed variously attempered by the rays of light, and changed as it were into the beautiful variegations of blue, 4109. [Jer. xix. 9. And I will cause them to eat the yellow, purple, and the like; by which, according to their I flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters, and arrangement, as in flowers, diverse forms of beauty and they shall eat every one the flesh of his friend in the agreeableness are exhibited, whilst the black and white in siege &c.] That is, they shall feed on that milk, forced from their root and ground still remain.

the breasts of inales and females, which, if left in the breasts, SwedenBORG, Arcana, n. 731. would turn into the real flesh of its producers.

See No. 2255, 2413.

• 4103. — Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse, when stripped of his sovereiguty, assumed the einployment of school-master at Corinth ; thus, having lost his empire over men, he contrived to acquire one over children.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iv. p. 445.

4104. - It is easier to make a raven white, than to effect belief in those, who have in heart once rejected it.

SwedenBORG, Arcana, n. 9439.

4110. [Jer. xx. 2.] A stocks with five holes, through two of which the feet, through other two the hands, and through the fifth the head, of the prisoner was put, and kept in this unnatural position, which must have proved a torture truly insupportable.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, dol. iii. p. 443. In China, the Kan-ghe, or wooden ruff, used in punishing theft, is a kind of portable pillory, consisting of two pieces of wood, hollowed in the middle, so as to fit the neck of the offender, and of such a breadth, that the wearer can neither see his own feet, nor put his hand to his mouth; so that he must be beholden to some other person for his food. It is made heavier or lighter, according to the nature of the crime, or the favor of the mandarin : the lightest are about 40 or 50, and some of them even 200, pounds weight, and so troublesoine and grievous to the person, that many of them, through pain, hunger, want of sleep, &c. die under it. — The place where the offender is condemned to wear it, is commonly at the gate of some temple, some public square, or such parts of the city as are inost frequented. See Gen. al. 19. Modern Univer. Flist. vol. viji.

p. 174.

4105. [Jer. xiv. 4.] The lands of the East, a little before the rains fall, frequently crack into chinks too deep for a person to see to the bottom of,

CHARDIN.

4106. [ 14.] When the owl, which is an enemy to light, happens to shriek as she passes by the window of a sick person, where she perceives it, this shrieking, which has no manner of relation to the condition of the dying man, is still by the superstitious vulgar considered as a sure foreboding of his end.

See Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Heav.

vol. ii. p. 14.

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4107. [Jer. xv. 12.] Malabar iron sells at seven and eight shillings the hundred weight, but is in all respects very in 4112. [Jer. xxii. 3.) Prisoners taken in war, and slaves ferior to that imported from Europe. This comparison seems purchased with money, are considered, in Africa, as strangers to give force and beauty to the passage before us, denouncing | and foreigners, who have no right to the protection of the judgment on the Jews.

law, and may be treated with severity, or sold to a stranger, Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. | according to the pleasure of their owners. p. 366.

Mungo Park's Trav. p. 283.

4108. [Jer. xviii, 3.] This is the first account we have of the polter's wheel : about 580 years before Christ.

Emerson.

4113. [- 13.] These upper rooms were in that part of the house which was highest from the ground, set apart by the Jews for their private devotions, addressed always towards Solomon's temple.

See Dr. GREGORY's Notes, fc. p. 17.

4114.- [Jer. xxiii. 23, 24.) All the fallacies, which prevail || vence were called Blabesh, a number of district nations meetwith the wicked and with the simple, arise from appear ing in one place. Scripture has given them a naine which, ances confirmed. The heavens appear distinct from each though it has been ill translated, is precisely Convenæ, both other : the highest or third, above the second; and this, above in the Ethiopic and Hebrew. They were convened, yet the first. They are not really distant one from another ; yet separate nations, who, though met and settled together, did they appear so. The Lord being equally present with those not mingle. The inhabitants then who possessed Abyssinia, of the lowest heaven, as with those in the third or highest; froin its southern boundary to the tropic of Cancer, or frouthat which causes the appearance of distance is in the sub tiers of Egypt, wert the Cushites, or polished people living jects, the angels : pot in the Lord.

in towns, first Troglodytes, having their habitations in SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, caves. The next were the shepherds ; after these were nn. 108, 110.

the nations who, as we apprehend, caine from Palestine

- Amhara, Agow of Dainot, Agow of Tehera, and Gafat.

Bruce's Trav, vol. ii. p. 404.

-4115. (Jer. xxv. 1.] Though the fourth year of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar was by his father taken into partnership of the empire, is here accounted the first year of his reign ; yet according to the Babylonian computation his reign is 4118. [Jer. xxix. 18.] The Jews, from the peculiarity of not reckoned to begin till his father's death, which happened their laws and civil polity, could in their own country be kept two years after. As both these computations are found in in subordination by 10 foreign power; they were therefore, Scripture, we should observe further, that the Chaldean every time they were conquered, necessarily reinoved or astronomers counted the reigns of their kings by the years transplanted by their enemies. - For a similar reason, in the of Nabonassar, beginning with the month Thoth ; while the

year 796, Charlemagne transplanted the Saxons from their Jews counted the reigos of their kings hy the years of Moses, Owll country, to oblige them to remain faithful lo him, beginning with the inonth Nisan ; so that if any king begani

into different parts of his kingdoin, either Flanders or the his reign but a few days before the first of the month Nisan, country of the Helvetians. Their own country was repeopled those few days were reckoned a whole year, and the beginning

by the Adriles, a Sclavonian nation. (See KENAULT abrege of this month was accouuted the beginning of his second

Chronol, de l'Histoire de France, tom. i. p. 65.) — Aud year.

it was the policy of Abbas the first, who ascended the See Sir Isaac Newton's Chron. throne of Persia in 1585, tu transplant the inhabitants of p. 296.

conquered places from one country to another, with a view not only to prevent any danger from their disaffection, but likewise of depopulating the countries exposed to an enemy.

HANWAY's Revolutions of Persia, 4116.1 10.] When the fruit of the cinnamon-tree

vol. iii. p. 164. is boiled in water, it diffuses an oil, which coagulates, and grows hard like tallow, by slow degrees as the water cools. The candles which are made of this oil are so exceedingly white and beautiful, that the watives of Ceylon reserve them for the king's use. Nat. Delin. vol. i. p. 284.

4119. (Jer. xxxi. 16.] It bence appears, that, as Jacob's The natives of Guzerat never barn candles, and in the in- ll Church where he officiated has been called after the name land districts, where the cocoa-nut does not thrive, large of his wife Rachel in her life time, its name continued after tracts are set apart for the seeds from which they extract oil :

her decease when this lamentation and weeping took place in those in the greatest esteem are the gingeli or sesamum ;

the congregation for the imagined loss of Rachel's chiland the erinda ricinus Palma-christi. — The consumption of

|| dren, Joseph and Benjainin; see Gen. xlii. 36. — In the vegetable oils for many millions of lamps which are lighted

same way as certain Churches in our dav, dedicated to St. every night, for anointing the body, for culinary purposes, Anne or St. Mary, retain the name under every successive and religious ceremonies, is very great throughout the whole

change of Minister aud congregation. of India, where, says Forbes, I believe animal oil is never used. Oriental Memoirs, vol. ji. p. 407.

4120. [- 22.] A woman (Judith) shall compass (allure and deceive) a man, gebher (Hebr.) the mighty man

(Holofernes). 4117. [- 20. All the mingled people] These Con

See Judith-xvi. 7, 8.

great and the learned do so. Their letters folded, are an inch in breadth, and the leaves are pasted together at one end. They cannot scal them, for wax is so soft in hot countries, that it cannot retain an impression,

NIEBUAR, vol. ii. p. 261.

: 4121. [Jer. xxxi. 27.] The natural mind, or animal nature within us, is by Heathen philosophers branded with such names as — the horse, because it is headstrong and runs away with the man, or rather with the spirit which ought to have the governing of the reins; - the beast in us, because the aninial or sensitive soul is supposed common to us with brutes ; — the woman or child in us, because the passions and affections of women and children are commonly stronger, and their reason weaker than in men.

Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Understanding, p. 375.

4124. [Jer. xxxii. 15.] The identical vineyards shall be possessed again; that is, after the 70 years' captivity. Mr. Miller, in his Gardener's Dictionary, tell us that the vineyards in some parts of Italy will hold good above 300 years, accounting those of 100 years as young vines. — Pliny mentions a Vine-tree, that was 600 years old in his time. (See SPEECHLY, on the Vine, p. 248.) -- In France, | at Cahors, many vineyards are more than two hundred years old.

Young's Travels in France, Pinker

ton's Coll. part xvi. p. 442.

4122. [- 33, 34.] All the great duties of piety and justice are written upon our hearts, and every man feels a secret obligation to them in his own conscience, which checks aud restrains lim from doing contrary to them, and gives him peace and satisfaction in the discharge of his duty. The general consent of mankind in this apprehension that there is a God, must in all reason be ascribed to some more certain and universal cause than fear or tradition or statepolicy; viz. to this, that God himself hath wrought this image of hiinself upon the mind of mail, and so woven it into the very frame of his being, that (like Phidias's picture in Minerva's shield) it can never totally be defaced, without the ruin of human nature.

Tillotson. See No. 1116.

4125. [Jer. xxxiii. 13.] Sir John CHARDIN supposes the telling of the flocks was for the purpose of paying tribute, it being the custom in the East to count the flocks, in order to take the third of the increase of young ones for the king.

See llarmer, vol. ii. p. 284.

4126. [Jer. xxxiv. 19. All the people of the land passed bel weeen the parts of the calf] On these occasions the sacrificial vine branch, value a calf or bull, a lamb or ram, a kid or goat, was split up the middle from the bottom to the top. When those sides had bled or discharged their juice, they were placed parallel ; and the covenanting parties, entering at opposite ends, and meeting in the centre, ate and drank together of the sacramental flesh and blood, and thus ratified their mutual engagements.

See No. 1656.

4123. [Jer. xxxii. 14.] Dust, bones, bran, cinders, scraps of earthenware, the hairs of a cow's tail, the seed of the cotton plant; all these things being put into an earthen pot filled to the brim, a man must pritstely bury on the confines of his own boundary ; and there preserve stones also, or bricks, or sea sand : any of these three things may be buried by way of landmark of the limits ; for all these things, on remaining a long time in the ground, are not liable to rot, or become putrid : any other thing also, which will remain a long time in the ground, without becoming rotten, or putrid, may be buried for the same purpose. Those persons who by any of these methods can shew the line of their houndaries, shall acquaint their sons with the respective landmarks of those boundaries; and in the same manner, those sons also shall explain the signs of the limits to their children.

Gentoo Law of boundaries. After a contract is made, it is kept by the party himself, not the votary ; and they cause a copy to be made, sigued by the notary alone, which is shewn op proper occasions, and never exhibit the other.

Sir John Chardin. They sign their letters with a sort of cypher, to prevent the possibility of counterfeiting their signature; at least, the

4127. [Jer. xxxv. 5, 6.] These Rechabites were an Arabian family, that had come into Palestine with the Israelites, at least eight hundred years before the time of Jeremiah; and still, it seems, sacredly adhered to the injunction of their ancestor Jonadab, not 10 drink wine. Nou, as Jeremiah lived twelve hundred years before Mahomet gave himself out for a prophet, it is an undeniable consequence, that the custom or precept, that prohibited wine in Arabia, is at least

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