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4196. [Ezek. xvii. 8.) In hot countries, the Vine is said to grow the most luxuriant in a situation which is near the water ; but it is generally allowed, that the flavor of the grapes, from vines in such a situation, is much inferior to that of grapes growing in a dry soil.

SPEECHLY, on the Vine, p. 210.

and preserves mankind; and, as he often repeats, it never came into his mind to destroy them by sacrifices, &c.

HUTCHINSON's Nat. Hist. of the Bible,

*p. 124.

4201. [Ezek. xxi. 21. He made his arrows bright] He 4197. [Ezek. xviii. 8.] Men were used, says JEROME

mixed together, or shook the arrows.

VULGATE, (in loco), tu exact usury for the loan of corn, wine, oil, millet, and other fruits of the ground; lending ten bushels in winter, on, condition to receive fifteen in harvest, that is, the whole aud half as much more. - This was expressly forbidden by Jesus Christ, in Luke vi. 35. See Bingham's Antiq. vol. i. p. 202.

4202. [Ezek. xxji. 18.] When a mass of metal, consisting of lead and silver, is inelted in the open air, the lead will be burnt to ashes, and the silver reinain unaltered at the bottom of the vessel in which the mass is melted. fron, tin, and copper, resemble lead, in being convertible into a kind of ashes, when

exposed to the action of air and fire ; and gold resembles 4198. [Ezek. xix. 10.] The bleeding of the dine affords silver in not undergoing any change from such action : Hence cogent evidence, that the power secretly governing the mo either gold or silver, or a mass consisting of both, may be tions of sap, does not reside in the leaves alone, but depends purified from any or all of these metals by the mere operation on some secret motion of the vessels, which is destroyed of fusion; for these inetals will rise to the top of the vessel,, when they are dried. For vine branches, which had been in which the fusion is inade, in the form of an earth or dross, intentionally dried, would no longer bleed by RAISING THE | leaving the gold or silver pure at the bottom. COLOURED LIQUORS THEY WERE DIPPED in, as other See Jer. vi. 29.

Watson's Chem. vol. iii. branches did, which were green, and without leaves.

pp. 317, 318. See No. 326. DALYELL's Spallanzani, vol. i.

DIODORUS Siculus (Lib. iii. pp. 183 - 189), in describp. 233.

ing the manner of working gold mines in the confines of Egypt and Arabia, mentions the melting of the mineral in

conjunction with a little tin, some small portion of salt, and 4199. ( 11.] The sceptres of the Antients were

a lump of lead. simply walking-sticks, cut from the stems or branches of trees, generally headed and often knotted with gold.

See Burder's Oriental Customs,

dok. ii. p. 267.

4200. [Ezek. xx. 25, 26.] Did I therefore give them statutes not good ? and judgments whereby they could not lice? Or thus —

For, have I giden them statutes that were not good, or laws whereby they should not live? Or have I made them impure by their gifis ? When I consecrated to myself their first-born, 10 ravish them with admiration, that they might know l-am, the LORD.

See Bib. Research. pol. i. p. 322. God's law, by the natural usage in marriage, propagates

4203. (Ezek. xxiii. 20.] Whose flesh of grapes, in their offerings, is the flesh of asses — i. e. carried by young Princes on white-asses; and whose issue or drink-offerings, to be poured out in libations of wine, is the issue of horses — i. e. carried forth by the worshippers of the Sun, on white Horses, in their morning processions to meet that luminary. - Such flesh and blood of grapes, - because . kept together till they had fermented an intoxicating wine or blood with life or spirit in it, — were prohibited by Jehovah on two accounts, - as offered to pain objects, and as intoxicating the deluded worshippers.

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was given to the Roman people for their Consul, by their beloved Sovereign and his Pretorian Guards ?

See No. 202.

4205. [Ezek. xxiij. 25.] Nadir Shaw, on his return to Persia, gave positive orders at Dehly, if any of his soldiers were found in the city after his march, to cut off their ears and noses, and then send them to him. — Some of whom incurred the punishment.

GLADWIN's Khojeh Abdulkurreem, p. 1.

truth of this prophecy, that Tyre, the queen of nations, should be a rock for fishers to dry their nels on. Two wrelched fishermen, with miserable nets, having just given over their occupation with very little success, I engaged them, at the expense of their nets, to drag in those places where they said shell-fish might be caught, in hopes to have brought out one of the famous purple-fish. I did not succeed; but in this I was, I believe, as lucky as any of the old fishers had ever been. The purple-fish at Tyre seems to have been only a concealment of their knowledge of cochineal; as, kad they depended on the fish for their dye, if the whole city of Tyre applied to nothing else but fishing, they would not have coloured twenty yards of cloth in a year.

See Bib. Research. vol. ii. p. 262.

4206. [- 37.] Israelitish false worship in imitation of the Egyptian idolatry, is in many places of Scripture emnphatically represented ; first, by fornication, while the people of Israel were in Egypt, before God had in an especial manner espoused them; and afterwards, by adultery, whereby ihe unreasonableness thereof is brought home to man, and, by comparisons, the one illustrated by the other.

See Hutchinson's Nat. Hist. of the

Bible, p. 95.

4207. [- 45.] Virgil represents the wine in Dido's cup, at the time of sacrificing, as unluckily turned by fermentation to blood, the blood of grapes — intoxicating wine :

- Latices nigressere sacros,
Fusaque in obscenum se vertere vina cruorem.

Æneid. L. iv. 0. 455. Also VALERIUS MAXIMUS tells us that Xerxes, on the eve before he attacked the city of Sparta, saw the wine which was poured out for him to drink, three times changed into blood : Infusum nempe pateræ ejus vinum, in sanguinem, nec semel, sed iterem ac tertio conversum.

4210. [Ezek. xxvii. 3.] The power of the city of Tyre on the Mediterranean, and in the West, is well known : of this, Carthage, Utica, and Cadiz are celebrated monuments. We know that she extended her navigation even into the ocean, and carried her commerce beyond England to the north, and the Canaries to the south. Her connexions with the East, though less known, were not less considerable ; the islands of Tyrus and Aradus (the modern Barhain), in the Persian Gulf. The cities of Faran and Phæuicum Oppidum, on the Red Sea, in ruins even in the time of the Greeks, prove that the Tyrians had long frequented the coast of Arabia and the Indian Sea. But through the vicissitudes of time, the barbarism of the Greeks, and the indolence of the Mahometans; instead of that antient commerce, so active and so extensive, Tsour (Tyre) reduced to a miserable village, has no other trade than the exportation of a few sacks of corn and raw cotton, nor any merchant, says VOLNEY, but a single Greek factor in the service of the French of Saide (Sidou) who scarcely makes sufficient profil to maintain his family.

Trav. vol. ji. p. 225. This chapter exhibits a true picture of oriental commerce in antient tiines ; and a very exact description of the port of Surat, at the present day, where we behold at once, the bazars filled with costly inerchandise; picturesque and interesting groups of natives ou elephants, camels, horses, and mules ; strangers from all parts of the globe, in their respective costume ; vessels building on the stocks, others navigating the river; Turks, Persians, and Armenians, on Arabian chargers; European ladies in splendid carriages ; Asiatic females in hackeries, drawn by oxen; and on the fortifications, the motley appearance of the English and nabob's truops.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, dol. i.

p. 247.

4208. [Ezek. xxiv. 17. The fire of thy head] Peer (Hebr.) is supposed to have been a kind of ribbon or fillet, which went round the head, and was worn not only by Jews, but by other Eastern nations. Those of princes, though called by other names, are thought to have differed only in the richness of the materials, and of the precious stones that adorned them. See Ps. xxi. 3. 2 Sam. xii. 30. 1 Chron. xx. 2.

4209. (Ezek. xxvi. 14.] Passing by Tyre, says Bruce, from curiosity only, I came to be a mournful witness of the

4211. [ 4.] This city, standing in the sea, on a peninsula, promises at a distance something very magnificent.

But when you come to it, you find no siinilitude of that glory, 4215. [Ezek. xxvii. 14.] In antient times, Armenia was, for wbich it was so renowned in antient times. On the north like Egypt in the south, an aboriginal country of horses in side it has an old Turkish ungarrisoned castle; hesides which the north, while yet many intermediate nations had no breed you see nothing here but a mere Babel of broken walls, pillars, of their own, but received their horses either from Egypt or vaults, &c.; there being not so much as one entire bouse Armenia. left. Its present inhabitants, says MAUNDRELL, are only "a

Smith's Michaelis, vol. ïi. p. 473. few wretches, barbouring theinselves in the vaults, and subsisting themselves chiefly by fishing.

Trav. p. 48.
4216.

The mule here alladed to, is a species of wild horse (See Gen. xxxvi. 24): it resembles an ass

in the mane, ears, feet, and tail, and principally in the black 4212. [Ezek. xxvii. 7. Blue and purple] When Alex streak down the back ; in other parts it is like a horse. It ander was revelling in Persia, he sent for materials to clothe is the same which was called by Aristotle the Hemionos, himself and his attendants with purple robes. These mate found in his days in Syria, and which he celebrates for its rials, it is said, were produced from the purpura, called in amazing swiftness and fecundity. It abounds in the deserts Maccabees the purple of the sea : " Then Judas returned of Tartary, to the south of the Russian dominions. In to spoil the tents, where they got much gold and silver, and swiftness, it is said to outstrip the antelope. It is described blue silk, and purple of the sea, and great riches ;" ch. iv. by the Tarlars as exceeding fierce and so untractable as not 23. — It appears from Pliny, l. ix. c. 33, that there were to be tamed. — Pallas has favoured the world with an accuseveral species of the purpura, but that the Pelagium and the rate description and engraving of this singular animal, in the Buccina were the most valued. From these two separately, New Coinmentaries of the Academy; to which we refer the or combined, were produced the three kinds of purple most Reader, as well as to Pennant's account of the Equus esteemed by the Antients. One was called porphuris (Grk.), | Hemiunus in his History of Quadrupeds. of a strong violet color inclining to black ; a second was called See No. 1813. Coxe's Trav. in Pinkerton's Coll. phoinikis, inclining to scarlet ; a third alourgis, azure or sky

part xxvi. p. 824. blue. Atheneus says, l. iii. c. 12, that the best and largest were found near Lesbos and the promontory of Lectus. Now Lesbos, Tenedos, and the small islands adjacent, were the isles of Elisha, whence Tyre had the articles of merchandise

4217. [- 16.] On the shores of Bombay there is a here enumerated.

small fish, somewhat like a muscle, about four iuches long, See Beloe's Herodot. Urania, ch. cv.

that has on the top of its back, and near the head, a small note 94.

valve, on the opening of which you discover a liquor of a strong purple color, which being dropped on a piece of cloth, it retains the hue. It is sound chiefly in the months of Septem

ber and October; and it is observed the female fish has not 4213. Muslin, as fine as any now procurable,

this valve, which distinguishes the sexes. It is not improhas always been an article of exportation from India to

bable to suppose that this fish is of the same nature as the. Egypt, and thence to foreign countries.

Editor of Calmet.

antient Murex or shell fish, by which the Romans attained the art of dyeing to such perfection; and is similar to that found formerly on the coasts of Tyre.

PINKERTON, col. ix. p. 236. 4214. It is probable, that the art of dyeing

Quere — whether the real Mures were aot a species of

coral. purple was discovered at Tyre, and contributed much to the opulence of that celebrated city. — The Tyrian purple, according to Pliny, was of the color of coagulated blood.

BerthoLLET's Art of Dyeing, by Hamilton,

pp. ix, xi. Though the Phenicians spared no cost in adorăing their women, they did not allow thein to wear the Tyrian purple, so famous iu those days as a badge of distinction appropriated 4218. [Ezek. xxviii. 12, 14.] The king of Tyre, the solely to men; and to such of them only as were of the first anointed cherub, was the colossal Idol erected on the rocky rank and dignity, though not then, as it was afterwards, summit of the isle of Tyre, covered with gold, carbuncles, altogether confined to royalty.

and 'stones of fire.' Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, Ezek. xxx. 13. vol. i. p. 119.

4 L

4219. fEzek. xxviii. 12, 14.) Hercules was protector of 4222. (Ezek. xxviii. 13.] In Hindostau the royal gardens the commercial city of Tyre.

|| are often called the Garden of God. BUISGELIN's Malta, p. 6.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.

4220.

The Old Church at Liverpool was 4223. [ 18.] We are taught by experience that the dedicated to “Our Lady and St. Nicholas,” — and there was inhabitants of a country are no where so worthless and deformerly a Statue of St. Nicholas in the church-yard, to bauched as in places lying near the sea. In Malabar it which the sailors presented offerings on their going to sea, to is much easier to keep in order fifty congregations in the induce the saints to grant them a prosperous voyage. - It is interior part of the country, than two on the sea-coast, worthy of remark that the oldest church, in each of the most where the inhabitants have intercourse with the Europeans. ántient sea-ports in England, is dedicated to St. Nicholas,

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 199. the tutelary Saint of mariners.

HARROP's Mercury, March 6th, 1810. By the Phenicians, Mercury was particularly revered as the protector of commerce.

Boisgelin's Malta, p. 2.

4224. [Ezek. xxix. 3.] What an absurdity! the waters of

his river, like the influences on liis mind, could not possibly 4221. [ 12, 13.) The greatest diamond that ever was

be the same, or stationary, for two instants together. known in the world is one belonging to the king of Portugal, which was found in Brazil; it is still uncut: it was of a large size, but a piece was cleaved or broken off by the ignorant 4225.

As the word Pharaoh signifies a crococountryman who chanced to find this great gem, and tried its dile, Bochart thinks that the prophet keenly alludes here hardness by the stroke of a large hammer on an anvil. - || to that striking import of the name. This prodigious diamond weighs 1680 carats, and is valued at

See Hieroz. p. 2. l. 5. c. 17. 5,644,800 pounds sterling.

The uncut diamond which adorns the imperial sceptre of Russia, under the eagle at the top of it, weighs 779 carats, and is worth at least 4,854,728 pounds sterling, although it

4226. ( 4.) Atheneus, in his Deipnosophisi, quotes hardly cost 135,417 guineas. This diamond was one of ihe

a description of the Lybian lotos, from Polybius, which was eyes of a Malabarian idol, named Scheringham. Being taken

used as food by the vatives ; but that differs very inuch from thence by a French greuadier, it was sold to a ship captain

the lily of the Nile, or the nymphea of Hindostan. Did any for 20,000 rupees; afterward a Jew gave 18,000 pounds

of the harmless Hindoos eat the seed or fruit of this plant, sterling for it: at last a Greek merchant, named Gregory

as they convert its leaves into dishes and plates at their Suffras, offered it to sale at Amsterdam, and the late prince

own vegetable meals, they would exactly answer HOMER'S Orloff bought it of him for the empress of Russia.

description of the innocent lotophagi : The diamond of the great mogul is cut in rose, weighs At length we touch'd, by storms and tempests tost, 279, carats, and is worth 380,000 guineas.

The land of Lotos, and the flow'ry coast; Auother of the king of Portugal, which is cut, weighs We clinb'd the heach, and springs of water found, 215 carats, is extremely fine, and worth at least 369,800 Then spread our frugal banquet on the ground : guineas..

The people there are kind to foreign guest,
The cut diamond of the grand duke of Tuscany, now of They eat, they drink, and nature gives the feast;
the emperor of Germany, weighs 1394 carals, and is valued The trees around them all their food produce,
at 109,520 guineas.

Lotos the name; divine nectareous juice !
The dianiond of the late king of France, called the Pitt or (Thence called lotophagi) which whoso tastes,
Regent, weighs 1364 carats : this gem, being cut, is worth Insatiate riots in the sweet repasts.
208,3:33 guineas. It was sold by governor Pitt to the duke See No. 980.

Odyssey. of Orleans for 135,000 pounds.

The other diamoud of the same monarch called the Grand Sancis, weighs 35 (Chaptal says 106) carats, and cost, cut,

4227. - I will cause the fish [lotos] of thy 25,000 guineas. The diamond called the Pigot, weighs, cut, 47, carats,

rivers to stick to thy scales. — The Lotos which grows valued at 20,000 guineas : parted with by the Pigot family by

plentifully in the Lower Egypt, especially near Rosetto, is lottery in 1800.

a species of water-lily. Its leaves float on the water, and

cover the surface of it, producing many flowers, which W. H. l'EPYS. I were formerly woven into the crowns of conquerors. The

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aptient Egyptians made Bread of the middle or pulp of this | Ochus in the 107th Olympiad, a few years before the conplant dried, which resembled that of a poppy; and they also ll quest of Persia by Alexander. used to eat the root of it, which is round and as big as an

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 69. apple. The Aruts make a drink of this Lotos, which is good for inward beat; and they eat the stalk and heads of them raw, which are very moist and cooling · Thompson's Travels through Egypt and

1232. [Ezek. xxx. 16. Sin shall have great pain] The Arabia, vol. ij. p. 172 (London 1767). ||

Septuagint reads tarache tarachthesetai e Suene. If we See Num. xi. 6. See this verbatim in | suppose this to have been the original reading, it alludes Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 401.

manifestly to the cataracts; and the meaning is, that Syene, however habituated to noise, shall be deafened by a superior noise — with the clamors and tumults of war, which will

overpower the sound of the great waterfall. The cataracts 4228. [Ezek. xxix. 4.] The Lotos, peculiar to Egypt, is are immediately above the city of Syene, at the extremity of of two kinds: the more coinion has, on a long stem stretch Upper Egypt. ing above the surface of the water, a white flower that opens

BRYANT. -- Bib. Research. vol. ii. at sunrising and shuts in the evening ; its root is eatable, and

p. 265. its head or pod contains a seed resembling millet, which the natives use in making bread. The superior sort, distinguished by its lofty stalks and rose-coloured fowers, has a bulbous root and a pod Glled with large grains resembling

4233. [ 17. The young men of Aven) Towards small beans, which are equally most excellent food. — The

the top of Delta in Egypt was the city On or Heliopolis Nelumbo plant found in the island of Ceylon, and the Colo

(city of the sun) so famous for its temple and religious rites, casia of Arabia with an edible root like an onion, are un

whose inhabitants are reported to bave been “the wiscst of doubtedly the second kind of Lotos characterized by its carna

the Egyptians." The temple is said to have been very magtion flower.

nificent; and its original name Ain Shems or Shemesh, the See No. 977. Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Heav.

fountain of the sun : from whence the whole province vol.ii. p. 308.

received its name, being called at different periods Ain, Aven, and On.

- And Phibeseth shall fall] As the mouth or opening of a river or canal was called by the Hebrews Pi or Phi;

hence Phi-Haaroth is, by the Septuagint, translated, oder 4229. [- 14, 15.] Such is the case with Egypt :

against the opening of Haaroth ; as Pithom was properly deprived three and twenty centuries ago of her natural pro

the canal of Thom ; Phi-Nepthim the canal of Nepthim ; prielors, she has seen her fertile fields successively a prey to

and Phi-beseth the river of Beseta — the ARTEMIS AGRIA, the Persians, Macedonians, the Romans, the Greeks, the

or Diana Agrestis, as interpreted by the Greeks and Romans. Arabs, the Georgians, and at length, to the race of 'Tartars

This city, renowned for its temple and worship of the Moon, distinguished by the name of Ottoman Turks.

with its district (separated from Heliopolis and its proviuce VOLNEY, Trad. vol. i. p. 74.

by the Sebenvetic branch and from Arabia by the Pelusiac branch of the Nile) was by the Greeks called, according to their mode of turning pinto b&c., Bibesilus and contractedly Bubastus. — These chief cities, thus contiguous in situation and allied by idolatry, are denounced by the propliet as inevitably to become partners in the impending cala

mity falling on Egypt. 4230. [Ezek. xxx. 5.] Lydia was bounded by Mysia

llerop. ii. p. 1158. — See Bib. Research. Major on the north ; by Caria on the south ; by Phrygia

vol. ii. p. 124, Major on the east, and lonia on the west: it lay between the 37th and 3911 degrees of north latitude. - What the Antients style the kingdom of Lydia, extended from the river Halys to the Ægean Sea.

4234. [ 18.) After the Medes had conquered all the Univer. Hist. do .y. p. 401. || upper or northern part of Asia, it was not long before a war

took place between them and the Lydians, which continued for five years together, with various success. In the 6th year

they engaged each other, with the utruost of their strength; 4231, [ 13.] Since Egypt was conquered by the intending to make that battle decisive, but while the fortune Persians, this prediction has been literally fulfilled ; there of the day seemed to hang in an equal balance, there haphas been bitherto no prince of the land of Egypt.

pened a total eclipse of the sun, which overspread both amenies Nectanebus, the last king of Egypt, was driven out by wilh a horrible darkuess; so that being affrighted at such a

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