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of light, bright and transparent as pearl and sometimes as dia- || in a shower of stones one day when he was hunting; they mond (or the element carbon).

were like pomice stones in their appearance, and so light, Ibid. nn. 1110, 1116. that some which were as big as balf a bushel did vot weigh

half a pound, and might have fallen upon any persou’s head

without hurting it. This fact bas, I believe, escaped the 4277. [Dan. ii. 33.] Soda should, with propriety, be

notice of writers who have investigated this singular subject. treated as an elementary principle. The vapor of red hot

It is well authcuticated. The king sent some of them by his hydrate of soda, passed over iron turnings in a gon-barrel

physician to Joan de Mena, and the physician relates the heated to whiteness, is decomposed into water and soda, and

circumstance in his letters. It is, perhaps, the most importhe former again into oxygen, which unites to the iron, and

tant fact of the kind, as, from the levity of the stones, it is hydrogen which escapes, whilst the soda unites to the iron or

plain that they must have been formed in the atmosphere. its oxide, forming a white metallic compound. — Clay is a

Atheneum, No. 4. p. 360. mixture of two or more earths with iron

'These, in reference to the harder atmospheric stones that Dalton's Chem. Philos. purt ii. occasionally fall, are like flakes of snow compared with hail :: pp. 494, 503, 527.

both originate from the saine causes and materials, but they are differently inodified, probably, in the medium through

which they descend. 4278. - - It is probable, that the magnetic

Men of great chemical knowledge, are inclined to suppose sphere (the iron) arising from our earth, is the elater of the

that not only the substances analogous to the Alkalies are of a aqueous vapor, the abyss ju and above the clayey particles,

metallic nature, but that sulphur, phosphorus, and carbone, the dust of the earth floating on our atmospheric air.

are also metallic compounds not saturated with oxygen, and that even hydrogen and azote are metallic substances in a gaseous stale.

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 73. 4279. ( 35.) The vegetation of stones has been admitted by many, and some bave contended that minerals, as well as animals and vegetables, spring free seed, the greatest rock being nothing but the expansion of the parts of a minute 4283. (Dan. ii, 39, 40.] The idea of the four ages of the grain of saud.

world originated among the Indians. Originally, these four Watson's Chem. Ess. vol. v. p. 165.

ages were merely the four seasonis ; aud as each season was In stones and metals we may behold sundry shapes and under the supposed infinence of a planet, it bore the name of veios, such as the shoots, as it were of branches and roots, the inetal appropriated to that planet: thus spring was the spread far and wide, which they have in their mines and quar age of the sun, or of gold; summer the age of the moon, ries; from whence a friendly aliment gently filtrales, first il or ol silver; autumn the age of Venus, or of copper ; and through more lax, afterwards gradually through more barrow winter the age of Mars, or of iron. Afterwards, when astroones, to refine and make pure the nutriment; and finally, nomers invented the great year of 25 and 36 thousand coman exhalation passes through thin and hidden pores.

mon years, which had for its object the bringing back all the See I Peter ii. 4. TOLAND's Pantheisticon, p. 29. stars to one point of departure and general conjunction, the

ambiguity of the terms introduced a similar ambiguity of ideas ; and the myriads of celestial sigus and periods of dura

tion which were thus measured, were easily converted into 4280. As growing trees and trees hened down

so many revolutions of the sun. differ, so do stones in quarries, and stones hewed out of them :

The periods assigned for renewing the face of nature, were Those are alive, and these are dead; those in their native

at first the period of the year, and afterwards periods of 60, beds are full of sap, these torn asunder are destitute of mois

of 600, of 25,000, of 36,000, of 432,000 years. ture, and at length are reduced to dust.

See No. 1313,

VOLNEY. Ibid. p. 32.

4281. ( 38.) This prince (Nebuchadnezzar) was not only the first emperor at Babylon; but also the man in whom the Assyrian or Babylonian greatness arrived at its ulmost height.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv.p. 304.

4284. [Dan. iii. 4, 5.) At the coronation of Solyman, king of Persia, says CHARDIN, p. 51, the general of the musqueteers, having whispered some few minutes in the king's ear, among several uther things of less importance, gave out, that both the loud and soft music should play in the two balcovies on the top of the great building, which stands at one comes on the top of the great building, which

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end of the palace royal. No nation was dispensed with, whether Persians, Indians, Turks, Muscovites, Euro. peans, or others. And this same confusion of instruments, which sounded more like the noise of war thian music, lasted twenty days together, without intermission or the interruption of night: which number of days was observed to answer the number of the young monarch's years, who was tbea twenty years of age.

lay, is still adhering to it, and found to be what the Greeks called asphaltos, and the Latins bitumen; brought, says HERODOTUS (Lib. i. p. 84. Edit. L. C. Valek) by the river Is into the Euvhrates, and thence conveyed in lumps to the walls of Babylon. — These things considered, we cannot but conclude, that the Babylonians could, in a very short time and at a moderate expense, erect such immense structures, as the walls which surrounded their city, the vast edifice of the temple of Belus, the palace, the hang. ing gardens, and other magnificent works; which, adorired or built by Nebuchadnezzar, so filled his heart with pride.

Archæologia, vol. xiv. pp. 55-60.

4285. [Dan, iii. 12.) Daniel was not accused as well as his friends ; because, probably, his enemies might think it dangerous to begin with so great a favourite, choosing to pave the way to his destructiou by that of his three friends. These however being miraculously delivered, Daniel escaped of course.

See Univer. Hist. dol. iv. p. 316.

4290. [Dan. iv. 30, 31.]

Vain glory, like a circle in the water,
Never ceases to enlarge within 48,
Till by broad spreading it disperse to nought.

SHAKESPEARE. Here was one of the awful reactions of a righteous Providence.

H. HUNTER, D. D.

4286. ( 21. Hosen] The Eastern people, in geueral, appear not to have used stockings.

See Frag. to Calmet, Third Hundred,

p. 99. - HARMER.

4287. - 26.] To consume a body by fire, passing air is necessary to receive and carry off the separated particles of such body : Hence, charcoal in a well luted crucible, though long kept in a strong fire, comes out un. consumed. See No. 1009. Dr. FRANKLIN's Philosophical and

Miscellaneous Papers, p. 74.

4291. (- 33.] In the icicles of wive, collateral shoots stand at equal height, and at acute angles with their main and longer shoots, like feathers. - Hence, as fowls have no organs for evacuation of urine, the urinous parts of their blood are evacuated by the habit of skin, where they produce and nourish feathers.

Phil Trans. of R. S. vol. ii. p. 56. The upper part of the Ostrichi's head and neck are covered with a very fine clear white hair, that shines like the bristles of a hog ; and in some places there are small tufts of it, consisting of about twelve hairs, which grow from a single shaft about the thickness of a pin.

GOLDSMITH's Hist, of the Earth,

vol. v. p. 51.

4268. 27.] It is singular that direct experiment has already brought animalcula into view which resist the heat of ebullition. — It may remain to expose the germs of these animalcula, or rather the substances where they lodge, to fire. -- M. Robinet thinks that fire is only an aggregale of animalcula! Others have supposed it the natural element of a race of animalcula.

DALYELL's Spallanzani, vol. i. p. 210.

4292.

The received opinion is, that Nebuchadnezzar fell into a black melancholy, and, under this impression of mind, fancied himself an ox: as in a lycanthropy a man persuades himself he is a wolt, a dog, a cat; a change which exists no where but in the distempered brain, nor to be discovered but by his motion, and behaviour.

CALMET, Dict. Art. Nebuchad. ii.

4289. [Dan. iv. 30.] A brick sent from the ruins of Babylon to the Antiquarian Society, in the year 1800, is of a square figure, each side measuring about 132 inches, is three inches thick, and weighs thirty-eight pounds and eleven ounces avoirdupoise. It is of a stone color, has not been burnt, but only hardened by the heat of the sun. It is in high preservation, and part of the cement, against whicb it

4293. [Dan. v. 1. Belshazzar] Nabonadius, a descendant from Nebuchadnezzar and the last king of Babylon, was

unquestiouably the prince here called Belshazzar; 2 Chron. 4299. [Dan. vi. -8.] According to the law of the Medes Xxxvi. 20.

and Prsiaus, which altereth not; -- because it was written. See Univer, Hist. vol. iv. p. 401. - See Esih. 8. 2. See also HERODOTUS, Clio, cxci. Olber nations, besides the Jews, had not at that period any

written laws. Even the polished Athenians were regulated by nothing more stable than antient customs, until the year

B. C. 623 ; when Draco, the Archon, undertook to compose 4294. [Dan. v. 6. The joints] The beaded lacings; See

for them a code of laws, so sanguinary, that every offence 2 Kings i. 8.

was indiscriminately punished with death. This induced Dennades, an Athenian orator, to say, They were written not

with ink, but with blood. — Eveu at this, day, among the • 4295. - 25.] It is supposed the writing was in ll natives of Sierra Leone, the laws are traditional, and are what we now call the Samaritan character, which being un

| merely the local customs of the country. known to the Chaldeans, they could not read it.

Lieut. MATTHEWS. Prid. Connex. vol. i. part i. p. 122.

4300. [ 8.] In absolute Monarchies there are no 4296. [- 30, 31.]

remedies against the worst disorders of human nature. The Wine urg'd to lawless lust the Centaurs' train :

rule of men's actions is inconstant, dubious and altogether Thro' wine they quarrel'd, and thro' wine were slain.

unknown, since the Prince, without being accountable to any, Dryden's Virg. Georg. ii. 1. 637.

can abolish to-morrow what he has established to-day; In the Jewish greater chronicle Seder Olam Rabbah, the he may not only change his own decrees, but also dispense Medo-Persian empire, froin the building of the temple in the with the very laws of God and oppose the clearest dictates of second year of Darius Hystaspes, - flourished only 34 | nature. years.

Toland's Anglia Libera, p. 6. Univer. Ilisi. vol. v. p. 88.

4301. [4297.

10.] The people of Bagdad pray with N Nabonadius, Nebuchadnezzar's son's son

ll their faces towards the west; and in Damascus the south is (Jer. sxvii. 7), is believed to have been the Belshazzar of

their Keblalı, or point of direction. Scripture ; and Cyaxares, the Darius 'the Mede.

K110Jeu ABDULKURREEM, p. 148. Thus the Assyrian monarchy, whether the first at Nineveh, or the second at Babylou, never obtained dominion over the nations for any considerable time : it conteuded for, rather than enjoyed empire in any settled form. — Darius cannot 4302. [ 12.] The writing which is written in the properly be said to have stormed the city or won it by con king's name, and sealed with the king's ring, may no man quest, as that was done by Cyrus in the absence of Darius. reverse. Esther viii. 8. Yet, as Cyrus was Darius's general conquering with his The Persian is now the general language of Western Asia, master's joint forces of Medes and Persians, in that sense

particularly among the higher classes ; and is understood from Darius the Median took the kingdom.

Calcutta to Damascus.
Ibid. vol. iv. pp. 350, 405, 351, 403.

Christian Researches in Asia,

p. 203..

4298. - Darius took the kingdom in consequence of Cyrus's cutting off that branch of the Euphrates, which passed through the midst of the city. - He could then march his army by the channel of the river, to an easy victory in the night over the drunken and slumbering Babylonians. — In Ptolemy's map Babylon is seated ou the Naharmalcha ; au artificial stream brought out of the Euphrates. This cut was probably filled up at the head by the Median conqueror. The water would necessarily resume its former course, and not drown the adjacent country. (See Univer. Hist. dol. iv. p. 323.) – In this view of the operation, the whole affair becornes intelligible and consistent.

4303.

1 2 2.] The lion has been often seen to despise contemptible enemies, and to pardon their insults when it was in his power to punish them. He has been seen to spare the lives of such as were thrown to be devoured by him, to live peaceably with them, to afford them a part of his subsistence, and sometimes to want food himself rather than deprive them of that life which his generosity had spared.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, 8c.

vol. iii. p. 218,

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4304. [Dan. vii. 7.) Some sheep in Persia, have six or seven horns standing straight out of their forehead; so that when their rams engage, there is usually much blood spilled in the battle.

Horns being considered by the Antients as emblems and symbols of power and majesty, Alexander is always described by the Grecian historians, as having a horn on his forehead, or rather a particular lock of hair, reserobling one ; and it is also observed ou the coins and medals of that prince, which are still to be seen in the cabinets of the curious.

PINKERTON, part. ix. pp. 184, 272.

produced by them appear to approach 10, or recede from, each other, being at the greatest distance, when the wedges are close to the object-glass, but united, when the prisms are removed, io a parallel position, to the focus of the eyeglass.

Phil. Trans. vol. xiv. p. 257.

4309. (Dan. viii. 2.) Shushan is doubtless the city Susa

in Susiana, situated on the river Eulæus stiled by the prophet 4305. - Alexauder The Great is represented on his Ulai. medals with a crest of goats' horns. The goat, indeed was the It now lies in ruins and is known, as TAVERNIER informs symbol of the kingdom of Macedon. The original of that l us, by the name of Scheuster or Suster. symbol may be found in Justin.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 471, 474. Langhorne's PLUTARCH, note on vol. iii.

p. 12.

4310. - 5.] An antient bronze figure of a goat

with one horn, which was the old symbol of Macedon, was 4306. [- 9. The thrones were cast down] Remiv (IIebr.), were exalted, raised, or set up.

dug up in Asia Minor, and was brought, together with other Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 162.

antiquities, into this country by a poor Turk. As it has a

square hole underneath its body, it is very probable that it These thrones were three spiritual spheres above and around |

Inight have been affixed to the top of a nilitary standard, in our earth ; on each of which the Image of God was distinctly the same manner as the Roman eagle. This supposition is exbibited, as Adam on the highest ; as the Antient of days, somewhat supported by what is related of Caranus (JUSTIN, on the middlemost ; and as Jehovah, on the lowest. — The Lib. vii. cap. i) that he ordered goats to be carried before (as fourth sphere, expanded under the other three, -- the new

the standards of) his army. (Archeologia, vol. xiv. pp. heaven which John saw, - the place prepared in the ur, 14 - 19.) – Accordingly the king of Persia, when at the where we nust all stand before the judgment seat of Christ, head of his army, wore a ram's head made of gold and set - was not yet formed : it could not exist, bill during the with precious stones, instead of a diadem. incarnation, the Glory which came forth from the Father into

AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS, lib. xix. cap. i. the Person of Jesus Christ, was raised or returned through

The type of Persia being a rain, AMNIANUS MARCELLINUS the medium of bis boiy, 10 cover the earth as the waters

informs us, that the king of Persia, when at the head of his cover the sea.

army, wore a ram's head made of gold, and set with precious stones, instead of a diadein.

lib. xix. cap. I. 4307. [- 12.] In the antient dialect of Astronomy the earth was said to enter successively into the ram, the bull, the goat, and thus to pass from one avional into another

4311.

The Persian goats are highly valuable till she had gone through all the signs of the zodiac. Now

for the fine wool they remain for some time on the spiritual

yield, of which great quantities are as deceased souls spheres of the earth thus traversing the constellatious, they

annually exported.

PINKERTON, vol. ix. p. 184. were said in a language that has been completely misunderstood, to transmigrale into animals, particularly into such as predominated respectively at the times of their decease. See No. 1755, 1756. See Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the

Heav. vol. i. p. 242.

4308. [- 13.] When two achromatic prisms or wedges are applied between the object-glass and eye-glass of an achromatic telescope, by moving the prisms nearer to, or farther from, the object.glass, the two images of an object

4312. [Dan. ix. 24, 25.] These weeks are to be poderstood not of days, but years ; so that 70 by 7 are 490 years, which are to end with the destruction of the Holy City, that is, in the seventieth year of the Incaruation. Now the first commandment for rebuilding Jerusalem was given by Cyrus, the third by Artaxerxes; but the second and most express was issued by Darius Nothus in the second year of Verse 5. And the king of the south] Ptolemy the son of his reign, proved by Scaliger to be in the four hundred and Lagus, the first who reigned in Egypt after Alexander. twentieth year before Christ. Consequently this whole inter 1 - Shall be strong] He had dominion over Egypt, Libya, val of 420 B. C. added to A. D. 70, when Jerusalem was

Cyrene, Arabia, Palestine, and Cælo-Syria; over most of the utterly destroyed, constitutes expressly 490 years.

maritime provinces of Asia Minor; over Cyprus, and other See Dr. GREGORY, de Æris et ||

isles in the Ægean Sea; and over the cities Cyciou and Co. Epochis, p. 156.

rinth in Greece.

- And he shall be strong above him] That is, Seleucus Nicator, the king of the north (verse 6), should be more powerful than Ptolemy, the king of the south. Accordingly, this Seleucus Nicator had under him all the countries of the East, from mount Taurus to the river Indus; several pro

vinces in Asia Minor, lying between Taurus and the Ægean 4313. [Dan. x. 1, 2, &c.] This fasting and prayer seem to

Sea ; and, before his death, the kingdoms of Thrace and have been caused by Cyrus's order to suppress the rebuilding

Macedon, of the Temple, issued in the 3d year of his reign, on the 3d day of the first month.

Verse 6.] They the two kings — shall join themselves See Usner, sub. A. A1. 3470. || together - by a treaty of peace, effected when

- The king's daughter of the south] Bernice

- Shall come to the king of the north) Antiochus Theus,

king of Syria; and make an agreement — be married to 4314. 1

1 3.) Michael signifies one like to God, I himn. as she actually was. the express Image of the Father's person ; the Similitude of

– N. B. With respect to Judea, Syria lies to the north, Jehovah, Num. xi. 8.

and Egypt to the south.

But neither shall be — Antiochus Theus - nor she

- Bernice - stand, or continue in power; on the coutrary, 4315. In the Talmud, this Michael the Arch

they both, with him that begal and strengthened her angel is said to be “so near the King of heaven as to be

Ptolemy her father, shall be giden up or destroyed, together admitted to sit down by him." See Ezek. i. 26 — 28.

with those that brought her out of Egypt.

4316. [ 20.] Javan, the fourth son of Japheth, is

4318. [Dan. xi. 10.) But his - the king of Syria's here used for Greece : he is said to have come into Greece | sons -Seleucus Ceraupus and Antiochus, afterwards surnamed after the confusion of Babel, and to have settled in Attica, the Great -- shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a mulwhence the Attics were named Jaones and Jones.

titude of great forces : and one Antiochus the Great — Univer. Hist. dol. vii. p. 56.

shall certuinly come — against Ptolemy Philopater king of Egypt — and overflow — dispossessing him of Colo-Syria - and pass through - defeating Ptolemy's generals in the passes near Berytus then shall he return - having conquered part of Phenice - and be stirred up — advancing - even to his fortresses — on the frontiers of Egypt.

4317. [Dan. xi. 2. Greece] The original is Javan, the fourth son of Japheth. See Ch. x. 20.

See, on these predictions (or rather, historic facts), Unider. Hist. vol. viii. pp. 466, &c. and pp. 546, &c. pp. 679, &c.

- Three kings in Persia] Cyrus, then on the throne; Cambyses bis son; and Darius the son of Hytaspes.

And the fourth] Xerxes, who invaded Greece with a formidable army.

Verses 3, 4. And a mighty king, &c.] Alexander the Great, whose vast empire at his death was separated into four great kingdoins, and into many petty states, such as Cappadocia, Armenia, Bithynia, &c.

4319.
i

l l. And the king of the south, 8c.) Ptolemy Philopater, an indolent effeminate prince, whose generals however, at Raphia, gained a signal victory over Antiochus the king of the north, who lost a great multitude -- upwards of ten thousand foot, and three hundred horse, besides four thousand taken prisoners.

Verse 13, The king of the north shall return] Antiochus, fourteen years after this defeat, raised a mighty army in the provinces he had conquered beyond the Euphrates, and returned against Egypt during the minority of Ptolemy Epiphanes, defeated Scopas near Paneas, and regained the whole

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