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4887. [ i. 7.) In the Western Islands of Scotland, some wear a seal-skin for shoes; which they do not sew,

4890. [- - i. 44.] Go thy way, shew thyself to the but only tie thein about their feet with strings, and sometimes

priest, that he may examine whether thou be cured, and offer thongs of leather.

for thy cleansing those things which Moses commanded for Pinkerton's Coll. part xii. p. 692.

a testimony unto them that I command the fulfilling of the law; and that I am the true High-priest, invested with the

legal right of inspecting and curing the leprosy.
4888. [ 13.] Physical consonances heighlen moral
sensations, especially when there is a transition from one
kingdom of Nature to another.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,
vol. iv. p. 62,

4891. [ 30. Fever] It is well known, that the efflu via ·
constantly arising from the living human body, if long retained
in the saine place, without being diffused in the atmosphere,

acquire a singular virulence ; and in that state, being applied - 4889. - 17.] As the Moon, though destilute of to the bodies of men, become the cause of a fever which is

nalive light, yet by virtue of that borrowed one, which she | highly contagious. — The existence of such a cause is fully plentifully receives from the son, affords more to men than || proved by the observations on jail and hospital fevers. – any of those stars, which, on the score of their vast distance With respect to these contagions, it is proper to observe, from the sun, are, by modern naturalists, supposed to shine that they are never found to act but when they are near to the by their own light; 8u those illiterate Fishermen, whom the sources from whence they arise ; that is, either near to the Sun of Righteousness called, and made the light of the bodies of men, from which they immediately issue, or near world, did, by virtue of the copious irradiations He vouch to some substances which, as having been near to the bodies

of men, are imbued with their effluvia, and in which sub- l of the heathen deity Apollo : Pytho, signifies putrid : in stances these effluvia are sometimes retained in an active state | HOMER, epythonto means become rotten. for a very long time.

Dr. Cullen's Practice of Physic,

No. 8). See No. 1177.

4897. [Mark iv. 11.] The word mystery, is always used in the New Testament for a thing intelligible in itself, but which could not be known without special revelation.


4892. [Mark ii. 4.] The Eastern houses being built round a square court, it is customary to fix cords from the parapet walls, of the flat roofs across this court, and on them to ex. pand 'a veil or covering, as a shelter from the heat. In this area probably our Saviour was teaching. The paralytic might be brought on the roof by the stairs in the gateway, or the terraces of the adjoining houses. Then having rolled back the veil, they could easily let down the sick man over the parapet of the roof into the area or court of the house, before Jesus.

See Dr. SAAW, Trav. p. 277.

4898. [- 312.] Effects considered alone, unfold not any cause, But causes unfold effects. To know effects from causes, is wise. But to enquire into causes from effects, is unwise ; because, in that case, fallacies present themselves, which the investigator calls causes : and thus wisdom is misled; for causes are prior and effects posterior; and things prior.cannot be seen from things posterior. But things posterior may be seen from thinys prior : this is order.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, n. 119. That] Matthew translates because, xji. 13. 2 Cor. iv. 4.

See Univer. flist. col. iji. p. 463.

4893. [- - 8. Jesus perceived in his spirit that they sa reasoned within themselves] As the hearer who hath in his mind the same language as that used by the speaker, can understand the mind of the speaker; so he that is possessed of the spirit that is in another, can immediately perceive the things of the other's spirit.,

4899. - 19. Choke the word] Men do not alter the seed: they only make it more or less fruitful.

4894. - 16.7 In Greece, it was the custom at meals for the two sexes always to eat separately.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's llist. of IVomen,

vol. i. p. 129. See No. 1190.

4900. [--- 24.] It is justly ordaineid, that the evil which a man does to a. sellow-creature should recoil, with seven-fold vengeance, on himself; and that no one can find his own hiappiness in the misery of another.

St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature,

rol. iv. p. 130.

4901. - 30, 31, &c ] This shews that the kingdom of Gov is naturally calculated to become great or extensive.

See No. 4681.

4895. [Mark ii. 21. He is beside himself] He will be stified by the, croud.

See Le Scen. Ess. on a new Version. Matthew, giving an account of this affair, says it was the multitude who were besides themselves, or ravished with admiration, at the sight of our Saviour's miracles; and Luke makes the same remark, employing a word which always siynifies to bę ravished with admiration,


for a New Trans. part ii. p. 211.

4902. [Mark v. 3.) In Barbary, each family has a proper portion of ground walled in like a garden, where the bones of their ancestors have renained undisturbed for many generations. In these inclosures the graves are all distinct and -separate; each of them having a stond placed upright, both at the head and feet, inscribed with the name or utle (2 Kings xxiii. 17), of the deceased; whilst the intermediate space is either planted with flowers, bordered round with stone, or paved with tiles. The graves of the principal citizens are

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further distinguished, by having cupolas, or vauiled cham 4907. [Mark vi. 3.) Religion annong the Turks, imposes it bers, of three, four, or more yards square built over them; as a duty, even on their Sultans, tu learn a trade, aud to and as these very frequently lie open, and occasionally shelter practise it. -- A mechanical art is necessary to the demands us from the inclemency of the weather, the demoniac (Murk 1 of human life, aud calls only for the exercise of patience, the v. 3) might with 'propriety enough have had his dwelling inseparable companion of virtue. among the tombs ; as others are said (Isai. Ixv. 4) 10

St. Pierre's Works, vol. iv. p. 271. remain among the graves, and to lodge in the monuments. And as all these different sorts of toinbs and sepulchres, with the very walls likewise of their respective cupolas and inclosures, are constantly kept clean, white-washed, and beauti

4908. [- 7.] Thus water consists of oxygen and fied, they continue to illustrate those expressions of our Sa- ||

hydrogen combined together. Atmospheric air of oxygen and viour, where he mentions the garnishing of the sepulchres, &c.

mitrogen diffused together. Electricity probably consists of Matt. xxiii. 29, 27.

two fluids, which may be termed vitreous and resinous elecShaw's Trav. in Barbary, Pinkerion's

tricity. Magnetism also probably consists of two fluids, Coll. part Ixiji. p. 654.

which constitute northern and southern polarity. The power of attraction seems to consist of gravitation and of chemical affinity And lastly, the element of fire consists I suppose,

says Dr. Darwin, of light and heat. 4903. [Mark v. 6, 7, &c.] All demons endeavoured to

Phytologia, sect. xiii. 1. 1. injure Jesus Christ by making himo known before the time of his glorification. Acts viii. 7.

4909. [- 14. Herod] Herod Antipas, second son of Herod the Great, by Maltbaco.

Verse 17. Herodias] Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus 4904. [---9.] There were in a complete legion thirty whom Herod the Great, his Father put lo death; she first manipuli, or companies ; each company consisted of a hun married Heroil Philip her uncle, and afterwards eloped from dred and twenty men, and was divided into two band's, or, him to marry Herod Antipas his brother. By the former she as the Autients style them, orders : each order consisted o! basi Salome who danced off John Baptist's head. sixty men, and had its peculiar centurion ; so that there were

Verse 18. llerodd] That is, Herod Antipas, who was in a complete legiou sixty centurions, and each centurion had |

son of Herod the Great by his sixth wife Cleopatra. This sisty men under his command.

Herod had married Herodias the wife of his brother Herod Univer, Hist. vol. xiii, p. 419.

Philip, son of Herod the Great by Mariamue his secoud A legion of Romans contained 6000 foolmen and 732 wife. horsemen. Iu every legion were ten cohorts; in the first

Univer. Hist, vol. x. p. 197, note (N). whereof were 1105 footinen and 132 horses, and this cohort had the aquila, and the antigard (antiguard). The other consisted each, of 655 foolmen and 66 horsemen. Month. Mag. for Jan. 1815, p. 627. 4910. [ 20.] The latter part of the verse should be

read thus : kai kakosai (Acts xii. 1) auton polla epoici, kai ede osautos ekoue (Grk): and, to harrass him, did

many things, and in that way heard him frequently. — R. 4905. - 13. The unclean spirits went out, and

STEPHANU: aud Beza had some Greek Copies, in which, entered into the swine] The original doctrine of the trans

instead of he did many things, are words which signify he

was much vexed, or troubled. And Josephus the historian migration of souls from man to animals.

observes, that Herod had put John the Baptist to death because he thought the people were altogether led by him, which is an argument that he did neither respect bim, nor

hear him gladly, nor do many things for love of him. 4906. [- - 38 - 40.] When it was falsely reported

See Essay for a New Translatin, that Josephus was slain, the general lamentation did not cease

parį ii. p. 124. in Jerusalem belore the thirtieth day, and a great many had hired mourners, with their pipes, to begin the melancholy ditties for them. (Joseph. Wars, b. iii. ch. ix. § 5.) — Such public mourners, hired ou this occasion, doubtless were

4911. [- - 25. Give me hy and by Instantly ; . the wretches that laughed our Saviour lo scorn.

before sober reflection, or the remonstrances of the humane, could operate against the fulfilment of her barbarous request. - Shah Abbas, being one day drunk in his palace, promised a female who danced much to his satisfaction, the fairest


Hhan in all Ispahan. This Hhau yielded the king a great the market, except they wash, they eat not] Horrible! as revenue in chamber-rents. Next morning the Nazer, re- | if all men were unclean but themselves. minding him of what he had done, took the freedom to tell bim “ The neglect, in Catholic countries, of fasts, confessions, that it was unjustifiable prodigality. On this the king ordered penances, and pater-nosters, is a crime of the first magni. her a hundred tomans, which at £3. 9 each, were in value tude. And there is, perhaps, no country where the people three hundred and forty-five pounds; with which she was have not a greater abhorrence of some of these crimes of forced to be content.

I prejudice, than for villanies the most atrocious, and the most Thevenot's Trav. in Persia, p. 100. | injurious to society." In a charger] The kind of vessel, it seems, still used in

HELVETIUS. the honorary presentment of such heads to the sanguinary tyrauts of the East. — Thus the Grand Seignior, we are told lately, having according to custom, received in large silder

4915. [Mark vii. 4, 6.] The Kenmont, a sect of Chrisdishes, the heads of such officers as had been decapitated by

tians, are bewers of wood and carriers of water to Gondar, his orders, gave further command that they should be ex

aud are held in greai detestation by the Abyssinians. They posed in those dishes at the entrance of bis Porte. They

hold that, having been once baptized and having once commuwere accordingly so exposed, with labels denoting their

vicaled, no sort of prayer or other attention to divine worerimes.

ship is necessary. They wash themselves from head to foot Public Prints.

after coming from market or any public place, where they may have touched any one of a sect different from their

own, esteeming all such unclean. 4912. [Mark vi. 29.] The shrine of John the Baptist is

Bruce, dol. iv. p. 275. near the great mosque in the city Aleppo. — “ The people of Aleppo are splendid; those of Syria aié sordid; the E.yptians are thieves; and the Hindostances are the favourites of

4916. [- 5.) Bread might not be eated by the Jews, God.” – So say all Eastern Nations.

unless they had first washed their hands; but they were KHOJEH ABDULKURREEM, p. 143.

allowed to eat dried fruits, with unwashed hands. — This circumstance should be particularly noticed, as bread is emphatically mentioned by the Evangelist.

See WOOTTEN's Miscell. vol. i. p. 166.

4917. [- 11. Ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free] As the word Corban signifies a present made to God, the Pharisees taught, that a man having once said as above to his parents, had thereby cousecrated all he possessed to God, and could not even retain enough for that honorary support of his father and mother, which was, as our Lord intimates, indispensibly required by the law.

See Dr. A. CLARKE's Additions 10

Fleury, p. 318.

4913. [Mark vii. 3.] lu the time of Eleazar the high-priest, arose those elders among the Jews, who taught that Traditions are equally to be observed with the Scriptures them. selves. Antigonus of Socho, who succeeded Simon the Just in the presidency of the Great Sanhedrim, was the first of these Mishnical, or traditionary doctors.

We read in / Macc. ij. 42, that Mattathias was joined by a company of Asideans who were mighty men of Israel, and voluntarily devoted to the law. These, not content with the written law, added by way of supererogation the rigorous observance of all the traditions and constitutions of the elders. They were consequently denominated in Hebrew Chasidim, the pious; which, according to the Greek idiom and pronunciation, may be rendered Chasideans, Hasideans, or Asideans

The Pharisees, going still further, enjoined the traditions of the elders, and other rigorous observances, as precepis necessarily to be obeyed. Thus, being righteous over much, they separated themselves from all others, even from the Aside ans, as not sufficiently boly; and were thence called in Hebrew Pharisces, that is Separatists. See No. 1184. WELLS' Continuation of the Jewish Hist.

vol. ij. pp. 85, 88, 92.


Corban] In the fourth Court of the Temple, called the Court of the Gentiles, was the Corban, or Treasury, into which the widow (Mark xii. 42. Luke xxi. 2) cast her mite.

4919. - 26. A Greek] That is, one who spoke Greek ; and used the Septuagint Version, says Dr. A. CLARKE. (See Rom. i. 16. Gal. ij. 28. Acts yi. 1. 1X. 29.) - We might translate the Jews that spoke Greek.

See Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 194.

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4920. (Mark vii. 34. Ephphatha] Syriac, our Lord's vernacular language, as appears from other Syriac expressions; particularly in Ch. v.41, ve read as his own words Talitha Cumi : and in Mati. xxvii. 46. we have Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani -- more properly Ail, Ail, lamono sabachthani; for Ail, pronounced II, or Eel, was mistaken for Hil, or Hila, which is the Syriac word for vinegar, Nark xv. 36 (See Christion Researches in Asia, p. 114.) The above instances are no proof whatever that Jesus Christ usually spoke Syriac as his veruacular or mother tongue. It only proves, that the spirit in him when working miracles, as on the day of Pentecost, spoke to every man in his own language. The spirit of a Syrian could be properly worked upon in his own tongue 'Ephphatha'; ' Talitha Cumi'.

weakness of his reason. The next day the Abbe learned froin the man himself, that the fear of thunder was not the cause of his disease; but that however be found a fatal connexion between the phenomenon and that distemper. He added, that when the fit seized him, he perceived a vapor rising in his breast, with so much rapidity, that he lost all his senses before he could call for help.

Phil. Trans. vol. xlviii. p. 436.. See No. 1124.

4924. [Mark x. 2.] From the foundation of the Roman republic to the first divorce, there intervened a period of five hundred and lwenty years, though the nien had a power of divorcing their wives almost at pleasure.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women,

vol. i. p. 246.

4921. [Mark viii. 24. And he looked up, and said, I see men as trees, walking] The Lord thus obscurely seen, was probably the tree of life mentioned in Genesis, Revelations, &c.

See No. 1158, 1157.

4925. ( 9.] A union of minds, effected by the good, sphere united to the true one as proceeding from the Lord, is real conjugial love. As marriages are the seminaries of the human race, and consequently the seminaries also of the beavenly kingdom, they are therefore in no wise to be violated, but to be held sacred. See No. 219, 4739, &c.


nn. 2728, 2733.

4922. [Mark ix. 12.] Elias, in coming first, anticipates · all things : wherefore he must suffer many things and be set at nought, as it is written of the Son of man.

Verse 13.7 But I say to you that Elias is come already, as it is wrillen of him ; and that they have done to him whatsoever they listed.


4926. [- 12.) According to the Mosaic law no wife was permitted to divorce her husband; yet Salome, assuming that prerogative which no Jewish woman that we know of had ever done before, sent her husband Castobares a bill of divorce.

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 173. this probably, was here alluded to by our Lord, in his usual manner of applying his laws immediately to exisling circumstances.

See Frag. to CALMET, Third Hundred,

p. 119.

4923. ( 17— 27.] The Abbe Mazeas, at the castle of Maintenon, drew electric sparks from an epileptic person, 35 years old, during a thunder storm. At first the young man bore them ; but in two or three minutes perceiving his countenance change, and fearing that an accident mighi happen to him, M. Mazeas begged he wouid retire. He was no soover jetorned home ihan his senses failed him, and he was seized with a most violent fit. His convulsions were taken off with spirit of hartshorn ; but his reason did not return in an hour and a half. He went up and down stairs like one who walks in his sleep, without speaking or knowing any person, settling his papers, taking snuff, and offering chair's to all that came in. When he was spoken to, be pronounced inartieulate and unconnected words. When he recovered his reason, he fell into another fit His friends said, that lie was more affected with the distimuer when it thanda han at any other time; and that it it happened thai se inti) escaped, which it rarely did, his eyes, his countance, and the consusion of his expressions, sufficiently demonstrated the

4927. [ 14.] “We are perpetually told that human nature is essentially perverse; that man is born a child of the devil - Bring together all the children of the universe, you will see niet bing but innocence, gentleness, and fear. Were they tuin wicked, spiteful, and cruel, some signs of I would come into them, as lite snakes strive to bite, and ittle tygers to tear. But Nature having been as sparing of Itensive weapons to man as to pigeous and robbits, it cannot have given thean an instinct to mischief and destruction.”


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