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4928. [Mark x. 25.] There was in the Temple at Jerusalem a small window called the Needle's-eye, which is probably here alluded to. See No. 4751.

See Month. Mag. for March

1810, p. 137.

educated them in the genuine bonds of fraternity - fraternity consisting not in name, but in reality.”

There should be no slavery at one end of the chain of society, and no despotisin at the other.

Darwin's Zoonomia, vol. ji. p. 670. The equal lot of the Scotch clergy binds them to their people, and invigorates every duty towards those to whom they consider themselves connected for life. This equal lot may perhaps blunt the ambition after some of the more spe. cious accomplishments ; but makes more than amends by sharpening the attention to those concerns which end not with this being

Pinkerton's Coll. part X. p. 271.

4929. [ 42 — 45.] In tracing the different kinds of human Dominion, as approved or condemned in the Scriptures, we find there were two sorts ; the one proceeding from love towards the neighbour, the other from the love of self. That towards the neighbour prevails among those who live separated into houses, families and nations ; this from the love of self, among those who dwell together in society. Among those who live separated into houses, families and nations, he has the dominion who is the Father of the nation; under him are the fathers of families, and under these the fathers of each house. He is called the Father of the nation or Patriarch, from whom the families are derived, and from the families the houses. But all those have their dominion from a love like that of a father towards his children, while he teaches them how they ought to live, is beneficent towards them, and as far as he is able, communicates to them from his own store. It never enters the mind of such a one to subjugate a people to himself as subjects, or as slaves : he desires that done should obey him but as sons obey their fathers As this paternal affection is known to increase in descending, a father of a nation acts from a more interior love than the father himself from whom sons proximately spring.

But dom nion from the love of self, being the opposite to that from a love towards the neighbour, cominenced when man alienaled himself from the LURD; for so far as a nan dues not love and worship the LORD, so far he loves and worships himself: he so lar also loves the world more than heaven. Thell, from a necessary regard to security, nations with fainilies and their bouses consociated together unitedly ; and entered into governments under various forins. This love of self increasing, evils of every kind increased equally ; as enmities, envyings, hatreds, revenges, deceits, and cruelties against all who opposed themselves. Such also is the quality of this love, that so far as its reins are relaxed, it hurries away the person under its influence into the extravagance of wishing to have dominion over the whole world, and to possess all the good things on earth. - This now is the dominion of selflove from which the dominion arising from a love towards the neighbour differs as widely as heaven from hell.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 10814.

1931. [Mark xi. 2, &c.] Jesus Christ rode on an ass, because horses were forbidden the Jewish kings by an express law, see Deut. xvii. 16, as unclean, and as instruments of war.

Verse 8.] This was a judgment-year when the High-priest went froin city to city, to execute Justice throughout the land; therefore many spread their garments in the way : &c.

Verse 11.] As the colt comes froin the she-ass, so did the king from the judge who used to ride on a she-ass.

See No. 4760.

4932. [- 13.] In Judea the harvest began at the Passover, when ihis tree which had leaves, might regularly be expected to be of the early sort, and to have fruit; as the fruit always precedes the leaves of the fig tree. Those who cannot easily be convinced that the tree should have fgs ou it at the time of the Passover (when summer is nigh), may consult Julian the Apostate Ep. xxiv. p. 392; who observes, that the fiy-trees of Damascus, particularly, bore figs all the year round; the last year's fruit remaining while that of the next succeeded. About Naples they have figs twice a year, in August or September, and about May ; the latter is expressly called fico di pascha, the Pass. over fig. See No. 4765. See HoLD-WORTH, or Virg. Georg ii.

pp. 149, 150. Also Bib. Rescarch. vol. i. p. 105.

4930. - - Accordingly, “ As to slaves,” says Philo, “the Christians here have none; but all are free, and all equally labour for the common good. The supporters of slavery they condemn as unjust and base despots, by whom are violated the sacred laws of nalure, who, like a common parent, hath produced all maukind without distinction, and

4933. - In Barbary, and no doubt in the botter climate of Judea, after mild winters, some of the more forward trees will now and then yield a few ripe fys, six weeks or more before the full season.

Suaw's Trav. p. 142. Figs are put forth twice in the year, and doubtless each

crop ripens in its season, under the line. There one cropnished at the full effect of that sentence, He went with them, is pul lorth in the latter end of March, and is ripened in filled with adiniration at what they had seen, into the temJuly or August; another in September, which frequently ple; and after having silenced the cavils of the chief priests hangs on till the next season, but none of them come to their ll and elders, delivered the three parables contained in Malt. full size : most of them are blasted in the winter, and those xxi. 28. — xxii. 10 verse 14. Now, in these circumstances, which escape are not ripe till the next season. Whether that what impressions may we reasonably imagine to have been crop which answers these come all to perfection in Judea in made on the minds of the disciples, when they heard their their season, and before the next crop be put forth, is uncer Master deliver these parables with an awful dignity, and even tain. As however this tree puts forth its fruit with its leaves; severity of mauner ? especially when they heard him apply if it bear at all, when it has leaves, it will have fruit, whether the first in these words : Verily, I say to you, the publiripe or not. And if it had no fruit when it had leaves, it cans and harlots go into the kingdom of heaven before could have none at the time or season when figs were to be you, &c. &c. In like manner, the second parable concluded ripe : which was the state of this trec, wlren examined by thus: Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of heaven our Saviour.

shall be taken from you and given to a nation bringing See Hutchinson's Trinity of the Gen forth the FRUITs thereof, &c. And in the third parable are tiles, p. 260.

these words : But when the king heard thereof he was uroth, and SENT FORTH HIS ARMIES, AND DESTROYED THOSE MURDERERS, AND BURNT UP THEIR CITY - When

the disciples heard such things, could they doubt one moment, 4934. [Mark xi. 15. Money-changers] Render to Cesar

whether what they had seen in the morning bore a relation to the things that are Cesar's; and to God, the oxen, sheep

viat they now heard ? Or, whether the miraculous witherand doves, that are God's appropriate money for the pur ing of the fig-tree were intended to exhibit before-hand a chase of sacrifices prepared in vessels, figured, according to divine attestation of the dequociations suggested in these value, as oxen, skeep and doves.

parables.

Theological Repository, vol. i. p. 382.

Verse 23.] See Acis x. 11 – 16. 4935. ( 16.) And would not suffer that any man should carry through the temple any vessel of skin, or a vessel containing what was called in measure, a lamb, a sheep, a goat, &c. — They might bring such vessels into the temple and offer them there, but not make a market of the temple,

4938. [Mark xii. 15, 16.] With the antient Romans, thore by bringing them in, selling them there, and carrying them

was no difference between money and medals. As soon as out for private use. Compare Ezek. xlvi. 9. John ii. 14. Acts 2. 11.

an emperor had done any thing remarkable, it was immediately stamped on a coin, and became current through his whole doininions.

ADDISON, on Medals, p. 174.

4936.

On the death of Sylla, the Roman ladies, to do honor to his funeral obsequies, contributed such an enormous quantity of rich spicery and perfumes, that besides those which were carried in 210 vessels, there was sufficient to form a large image resembling Sylla himself, and another of a Lictor bearing the fasces before him, consisting entirely of the most exquisite incense and cinnamon.

PLUTARCH.

4939. [- -- 20, 21, &c.] None of the seven had any children by their own proper wives to be transferred by way of adoption to the first brother's widow as his children and heirs. — See I Tim. v. 9, &c.

See No. 604.

4940.
1

2 4.) Man's mind is always readier at draw. 4937. [ 21.] In order to see this miracle in its | ing the just consequences of a faise principle, than at making proper light, we must consider it in connexion with the dis- itself sure of the truth of a principle. courses our Lord soon after delivered in the temple.

Abbe Pluche's Hist, of the Head. Jesus, knowing what important and awful truths he had to

vol. ij. p. 38. deliver to the people assembled there, and desirous to impress them deeply on the minds of his own disciples in particular; first, in the way of giving a prophetic sign, propounced a sentence of destruction on the barren fig-tree. 4941.

30, 31.] These commandments are in Next morning, after the disciples had beheld and been asto Il perfect agreement with that natural axiom universally kept by all the affinities of material objects throughout creation : Quæ sunt eadem unitertio, sunt eadem inter se.

See Lavoisier's Chemistry, chap. x.

stantine the Great and his mother Helena, out of their great esteem and veneration for places so irreligiously profaned, erected over them those magnificent temples which subsist to this day.

Dr. Shaw's Trav. p. 335, folio edit.

4942. [Mark xii. 42.] A mite, leples, was in value half the kodrans, which see Matt. y. 26. - 8. 29.

4946. [Mark xiji. 18.] The Author of Nature frequently paves the way, through the midst of calamity, to the attain. ment of great human felicity, as the fecundity of Autumn is prepared by the rigors of Winter:

St. Pierre's Works, dol. iv. p. 217.

An antient episcopal law in Europe enjoined testators to 4943. [Mark‘ziji. 1.] The stones ased in building the bat leave by will, under pain of having their testaments declared tlements or additional wall to support the precipice of Mount null and void, bequests in favor of the Church, with deMoriah, on which the Temple was erected, were each forty privation of Christian burial to those who died intestale. cubits in length, fourteen in breadth, and eight in thickness.

Ibid. p. 342. Wonders of Nature and Art, vol. i. p. 58, note. These stones, says Josephus, were white and strong, fifty feet long, twenty four broad, and sixteen in thickness.

4947. [--- 20.] Archbishop Usaer shews out of Antiq. b. xv. ch. si.

Josephus, that at the year of Christ 70, the whole multitude Among the ruins of Balbec, nothing is more astonishing of Jews destroyed during the entire seven years before this than the enormous stones which compose its sloping wall. I time, was 1,337,490. To the west, the second layer is formed of stones which are from twenty-eight to thirty-five feet long, by about nine in height. Over this layer, at the north-west angle, there are three stones, which alone occupy a space of one hundred 4948. [- 32.] These words seem to allude to the seventy-five feet and a half: the first, fifty-eight feet seden redemption from Egypt, when the day and hour were foreinches ; the second, fifty-eight feet eleven; the third, ex told by Moses at the passover. — At midnight, the Israelites actly fifty-eight feet: and each of these is twelve feet went forth hastily out of Ezypt, in triumph, and with spoils. thick. The stones are all of a white granite, with large At midnight, the remains of the Jewish nation were delivered shining flakes, like gypse. There is a quarry of this kind from captivity by the taking of Babylon. And at midnight of stone under the whole city, and in the adjacent mountains, there shall be a cry, Behold the Bridegroom cometh; Matt. which is open in several places; and, among others, on the XXV. 6. right, as we approach the city, there is still lying there a stone, hewn on three sides, which is sixty-nine feet two inches long, twenty feet ten inches broad, and thirteen feet three inches in thickness.

4949. [- 35.] The night was divided by the HeSee No. 4802, &c. VOLNEY's Trav. vol. ii. p. 241. brews into four parts, called watches. The first began at

sun-set, and lasted till our nine at night; the second lasted till midnight; the third till three in the morning; and the

fourth ended at sun-rising. The Scripture sometimes calls 4944.

In Egypt, the chapels of Sais and Butos the first the evening, the second midnight, the third the are formed each of one single stone several millions of cock-crowing, and the fourth the morning. pounds in weight: cut from the rocks of the Elephantine,

See Dr. A. CLARKE's Additions to Fleury, they have been transported to the distance of six hundred

p. 291. — HOLWELL's Mythol. Dici. miles.

p. 16. Month. Mag. for March, p. 143.

4945.

The site where the Temple stood is now nearly covered by a Turkish mosque.- In the time of Adrian, # there was a statue erected to Jupiter over the place of the Resurrection, another to Venus on mount Calvary, and a third to Adonis at Bethlehem. All these continued till Con

4950. [Mark ziv. 3.) The Nardus Indica, or Spikenard, has a strong aromatic odor, residing principally in the lover parls of the stalks and leaves where they unite to the roots. The Phenicians collected large quantities of it and myrrh, as

articles of merchandise. — The favourite perfume which was y notice of. In the Indies, the parts of the night are made used at the autient baths and feasts was the unguentum nar known, as well by instruments as by the rounds of the dinum ; and it appears from a passage in HORACE, that it

watchmon, who with cries and sinall drums give them notice was so valuable, that as much of it as could be contained in that a fourth part of the night is passed. a small box of precious stone was considered as a sort of See No. 4851.

CHARDIN. equivalent for a large vessel of wine, and a handsome quota for a guest to contribute at an entertainment, according to the custom of antiquity :

4954. (Mark xiv. 30.] In Chiva, most of the cities have - Nardo vina merebere

large bells hung up in their high towers, by which they give Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum.

notice of the different watches of the night; and those which Phil. Trans. Abr. Anno 1790, p. 658. have no bells do it by large drums. The first watch is The true Nard is a species of Valerian, produced in the votified by a single stroke ; the second, by two strokes; the most remote and hilly parts of India, such as Nepal, Mo- | third by three, and so on. rang, and Butan, near which ProLEMY fixes its native soil. Mark xiv. 68, 72. Modern Univer. Hist. vol. viii. See Sol. Song. i. 12. Works of Sir. W. Jones, vol. ji.

p. 301. See No. 3862. .

p. 31.

4951. [Mark xiv. 3. She brake the box] PROPERTIUS calls the opening of a wine-vessel, hy breaking the cement that secured it, breaking the vessel :

Hoc etiam grave erat, nullâ mercede hyachinthos

Injicere, et fracto busta piare cado. See No. 4839.

Lib. iv. el. 7. 0. 33.

4955. [ 32. Gethsemane] So called probably from the Hebrew gath hashemon, the oil press. For, as the mount had its name from the quantity of olive-trees that grew on it, it is probable, that this garden, which was at the foot of it, had a press in it; and this reconciles the other evangelists, of whom Matthew (xxvi. 30) and Luke (xxii. 39) mention only the moaot, and John (aviii. 1) the garden.

Ibid. col. 2. p. 371.

4956. (- 51.] Pococke observes, that it is almost a general custom among the Arabs and Mohammedan natives of Eyypt to wear a large blanket either white or brown, and in summer a blue and white cotton sheet, which the Christians constantly use in the country. Young people particularly, he adds, "had nothing on whatever but this blauket.”

4952. [- 25.] The yayin of the Hebrews, the oinos of the Greeks, and vinum of the antient Romans, ineant siinply the expressed juice of the grape, somelimes drunk just after it was expressed (Gen. xl. 11), while its natural sweetness remained ; and then termed mustum : at other times, after fermentation, which process rendered it fit for keeping, without getting acid or unbealthy, then called onios, and vinum. By the antient Hebrews, I believe, it was chiefly drunk in its first, or simple state; hence it was termed among them peree haggephen, the fruit of the vine, and by our Lord in the Syriac, his vernacular language, yalda dagephetha, tbe young or son t of the vine, very properly translated by the Evangelist genema les ampelou (Grk.), the offspring or produce of the dine.

Dr. A. Clarke, on the Eucharist, p. 62. This expressed juice of the grape, was the blood used in sacrifices, particularly at the feast of the passover. — “ The wine-press was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the wine-press.Rev. xiv. 20.

See No. 957, 4848.

4957. 64.] Nothing is so pure in human conduct, nothing so sacred in Divine Writ, that may not be falsified by distortion of meaning and dislocation of parts.

WHITE.

4958. [ 70.] Josephus, speaking of Upper and Lower Galilee, says, they were surrounded by strange tribes and nations. They were also inixed with them; as was Cesarea, though not in Galilee. In consequence of this mixture, the people of those parts were distinguishable by their manner of speaking, either as to tove, or dialect.

BURTON.

4953. ( 30. Before the cock crow twice] Or a second time in a second vight; - this night, before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. Matt. xxvi. 34.

As the people of the East have no clocks, the several parts of the day and of the night, which are eight in all, are given

4959. [Mark xv. 15.] An antient tradition, supported by some seeming authentic monuments, says, Pilate was banisher to Vielina in Dauphiny, where his misery forced him to kill himself with his own sword.

Univer Dist. vol. 2. p. 418.

+ Hence that calumny imputed to Christians of killing infants in their asoomblies, and drinking their blood!

4960. (Mark xv. 33.] On Friday the 10th of January, l 4963. [Mark xvi. 18.] The Psylli, a people of Africa, 1812, every shop in London was lighted up at mid-day, in who live altogether upon venomous aliment, are said to suck consequence of a dismal and unprecedented darkness. The out poison from persons infected, without any injury to themwindows of private houses were shut; and candles were used selves. (Sir Kenelm Digby.).— The vegetable poisons, like in every frequented apartment. The Royal Exchange was, at the animal ones, produce more sudden and dangerous effects, one o'clock, the seat of silence and solitude! At Mark-lane when instilled into a wound, than when taken into the stomach ; no business was done! The alleys and narrow streets in the whence the families of Marsi and Psilli, in antient Rome, City, the lamps not having been lighted, were darker than at sucked the poison without injury out of wounds made by mdnight.

vipers, and were supposed to be endued with supervatural

Public Prints. powers for this purpose. By the experiments çelated by See No. 4870.

Beccaria, it appears that four or five times the quantity, taken by the mouth, had about eqnal effects with that infused into a wound.

Darwin's B. G. vol. i. p. 107.

4961. [Mark xvi. 6.] The dress of Chinese mourners is white; that of the Turks blue; of the Peruvians a mouse 4964.

A number of experiments made for many color; of the Egyptians yellow, and in some of their pro- years past by our apothecaries, and by the major part of our vinces green : and purple is at present made use of as the botanists, who have frequent occasions to make this trial in mourning dress of kings and cardinals.

gathering their physical herbs, have taught us that snakes Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, I have no teeth, no sting, nor any venom. ool. ii. p. 295, note.

Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Head.

vol.ji. p. 14.

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