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tract from the Philosophical Transactions" In the year 1719, the body of a man was found under water in a coppermine, eighty-two fathoms deep, where he had been accidentally killed by the falling in of a rock, which had crushed both his legs and his right arm; but his face, body, and clothes, were all preserved entire, and free from putrefaction, by means of the vitriol with which the water was impregnated. From the concurring testimonies of an old minor, and a woman to whom the defunct had promised marriage, it appeared that the body had lain under ground forty-nine years ; yet not only his clothes and linen, but even his flesh and skin, which were almost as hard as horn, had been preserved from corruption by the vitriolic water."

Phil. Trans, vol. vii. p. 41.

497. - Basaltes is a black, smooth, glossy kind of marble, formerly found in Lydia and Ethiopia, and called by the antients Lapis Lydius. According to Pliny, the famed statue of Memnon at Thebes was made of this stone, and most of the antique Egyptian figures are apparently of the same. It is called Touch-stone by the moderns, as being used in trying the gooduess of gold and silver.

Wonders of Nature and Art,

vol. ii. p. 67.

498. — Respecting Lot's wife becoming a pillar of Salt, Vatablus, Bodinus, &c, take it in a metaphorical sense; viz. for a perpetual silence in her mourning; and that she became, not a pillar of salt, but as a pillar of salt. 1 Sam. xxv. 37.

SHAW's Trav, in Barbary.

Pinkerton's Coll. part Ixii. p. 614, Note.

493. - Aristotle says, that in the Metalline grots of Lydia, near the city Pergamos, certain workmen, in a time of war, having fled into them to hide themselves, and the mouth of one being stopped, those within not only necessarily perished, but when discovered, as to their bones, veins and humors, they were found to be turned into stone.

See SHERLEY, on the Origin

of Bodies, p.8.

LOT'S DAUGHTERS.

494.

The fossil or petrified skeleton from Guadaloupe, may now be seen by the public among the collections of natural history in the British Museum. It is perfect from the neck to the ancles, and is evidently the remains of a female, of about five feet two or three inches high. The stone is of a loose texture ; but of its real age, no precise estimate can be formed.

Month. Mag.for March, 1814, p. 157.

499. (Gen. xix. 31.) And the first-born said to the younger, Our father is old and there is not a man in all the land to come in to us after the manner of all the country;--that is, not a descendant of Seth's family, besides their father, who could with propriety, according to the laws or customs of their country, adopt the children of which, it should seem, they were then pregnant, or which at least they wished their father then to adopt as his sons and heirs of the promise.--Abraham, their father's brother, having taken a separate inheritance, could only adopt into his own possess sions in the land of Canaan.

495.

- The water of the Dead Sea is bitter and setid to the last degree, insomuch that neither fish nor any other aquatic animals are able to live in it. (DIODORUS SICULUS, Hist. I. xix. p. 734.)—There is no fish in this sea, by reason of its extraordinary saltness. And when the fish of the river Jordan are carried into it by the rapidity of the stream, they immediately die.— The land within three leagues round the lake Asphaltis, is not cultivated, but is white, and mingled with salt and ashes.

THEVENOT, Trav. vol. 1. p. 194.

500. [Gen. xix. 36,) According to a custom of the Brahmins in Malabar, the bride must always carry her dowry to the bridegroom. When she has done this and left her father's honse, she receives nothing further; and loses her right of inheriting any of the patrimony destined for the female part of the family.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 272.

501. [Gen. xix. 34.] He wlio has no son, inay appoint his 496.

In the year 1349, during an earthquake || daughter in this manner to raise up a son to him, saying, among the Carini a people of Germany, more than fifty coun “ The male child, who shall be born from her in wedlock, try men there, with their milch cows and calves, being stifled shall be mine.”—The son of a daughter thus appointed, shall and killed, as was supposed, by an earthy saline vapor, were inherit the whole estate of her father, who leaves no son. turned into saline statues ; seen by the chancellor of Aus

Laws of Menu. tria, and by AVENTINUS, who describes them in his Histor. | It appears from Gen. xix. 14, that Lot's daughters were Bavar. lib. vii. id est, in Anal. Bavar.

ll married.

502. (Gen. xix. 36.] By this mode of adoption, the chil- | the great woman chief, have particular privileges and honors dren became heirs to Lot's patrimony.

conferred on them. Ruth iii. 7. Sce and compare 2 Sam. vi. 23.—|

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, with xxi, 8.

vol. i. pp. 180, 181.

508. (1 Kings xv. 13.] In some parts of India, queen is a title always given to the king's oldest sister, as his spouse cannot and dare not become queen.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 114.

503. - Both at Athens, and at Rome, an adopted son acquired all the rights, both sacred and civil, and succeeded to all the advantages and burdens, of the new family into which he was introduced ; nor was he considered in any other light than that of a son by nature born in lauful wedlock.—But all pretensions whatever to the inheritance of his natural father were wholly lost by adoption or emancipation.

Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. iv. p. 231.

509. [Gen. xii. 13.) Cleopatra was equally the wife, as the sister, of Ptolemy Dyonysius, the last king of Egypt.

Month. Mag for Feb. 1812, p. 2.

504. [Gen. xix. 31.) A maternal inheritance, indeed, was 510. (Gen. xx. 5.) Nero and Octavia were not only husnot lost by adoption ; for the father only was changed. band and wife, but brother and sister, Claudius being the

Ibid. p. 232. || father of both.

Addison, on Medals, p. 102.

505. [Gen. xix. 33.] MICHAELIS supposes, what Dr. Geddes thinks not at all improbable, that more of Lot's 511. (Gen. xx. 2.) The Apostles carried their wives about family than his two daughters were saved from the general with them, “ not as wives," says CLEMENS Alexandrinus devastation ; see ver. 12.

(Strom. lib. vii. c. 12.), “but as sisters, who migbt mi. pister to those that were mistresses of families; that so the doctrine of the Lord might, without reprehension or evil suspicion, enter into the apartments of the women.See

1 Cor. ix. 5. 506. (Gen. xx. 2, 12.] And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, she is my sister. She is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother ;--that is, she is the spiritual or religious daughter of iny father, but not his natural daughter by my mother. The children of American

ABRAHAM OFFERING UP HIS SON ISAAC. . Indians are always distinguished by the name of the mother : and if a woman marry several husbands, and have issue by 512. (Gen. xxii. 2.) And God said to Abraham, Take each of them, they are all called after her. The reason now thy son, thine ONLY son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and assigned is this : as the offspring are indebted to the father get thee into the land of Moriah, and offer him there for for their souls, the invisible part of their essence; and to a burnt-offering ;-not to kill him but to devote him to the the mother for their corporeal and apparent part, it is more service of the Lord as a Priest, rational that they should be distinguished by the name of the Accordingly, in Numbers, " The LORD spoke to Moses, latter, from whom they indubitably derive their being, than saying, Take the Levites from among the children of Israel, by that of the father, to whose name a doubt might some and cleanse them. And Aaron shall offer the Levites before times arise whether they are justly entitled.

the LORD, for an offering of the children of Israel ; that they Carver's Travels in North | may execute the service of the LORD. And thou shalt set America, p. 247. the Levites before Aaron, and before his sons, and offer them

for an offering to the Lord. And the Levites were pari

fied :—and Aaron offered them an offering before the LORD. 507. (2 Kings xxiv, 15.] Among the Natches, in Ame- (Chup. viii. 5, 6, 11, 13, 21.)- Ayain, in Isaiah, They rica, the supreme authority is hereditary, and descends not shall bring all your brethren for an offering to the LORD, only in the female line, but seems to devolve equally on a out of all nations,—to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the male and female of that line ; the male is called the man LORD, as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean chief, and the female the woman chief. The woman chief vessel into the house of the LORD. And I will also take of is not the wife, but the sister, or other nearest relation of them for priests, and for Levites, saith the Lord. (Chap. the man chief. She is attended by as numerous a retinue, Ixvi. 20, 21.) See Rom. xv. 16.—From Numbers vi. 18, we and has the same authority, deference, and respect, as the learn how they became a burnt-offering.--" The Nazarite man chief ;-aud we meet with a few anecdotes in their shall shave the head of his separation at the door of the taberhistory, which seem to hint that some other females, besides Wuaele of the congregation; and shall take the hair of the

head of his separation, and put it in the fire which is under | in a year. (Biblical Researches, vol. i. p. 82.)—As her the sacrifice of the peace offerings.” Compare Gen. xxii. 9. father had devoted her to God, and to perpetual virginity, Ezek. sliv. 18. Acts xxi. 24.—That Abraham did not intend those yearly visits were paid her, as compliments of condoto kill his son is clear from Gen. xxij. 5. “And Abraham | lence that she, the daughter of an Israelitish judge, could said to his young men, Abide ye here,--and I and the lad not in her present circumstances give birth to the promised will go yonder and worship, and come again to you." Messiah. (See Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 469.)—The daugh

ter of Jephthah was a recluse dedicated (to the sanctuary). (HUTCHINSON's Sine Principio, p. 9.)-But Samson and

Samuel, persons whom their parents devoted as Nazarites for -“The Scripture mentions a son of king life from their mother's womb, were married :-Judg. xiv. 1. Ahaz, who had been offered to Moloch, and yet reigned after xv. 2. 1 Sam. viii. 1. 1 Chron. vi. 13. (SMITH's Mihis father. 2 Kings xvi. 3, compared with 2 King's || chaelis, vol. ii. p. 287.)—Their wives, however, were of

another sort than what has been generally supposed. See Calmer's Dict. Art. Sacrifice. Gen. ii. 16.

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xviii. 1."

514. — Boys could not be devoted, or bound by a father's vow, before they were fully thirteen years of age.

See HADOCK, on Num. vi. 2.

JACOB AND ESAU.

515. [Judg. xi. 36–39.] Jephthal's daughter was only, by his vow, devoted to serve God at the tabernacle, or elsewhere, in a state of perpetual virginity.

WHISTON's Josephus, Dissert. ii. 6.

[Gen. xxv. 23.) And the LORD said to Rebekah, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels ; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.

517, [Gen. xxv. 34.] The right of primogenitare, among the antient patriarchs, entitled the first-born to the priesthood,

BINGHAM's Antiq. vol. i. p. 133.

And Jephthah vowed a vow to the Lord, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into my hands, then it shall be that whatsoever cometh fortb of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord's, and I will offer it up for a burnt-offering.–And the Lord delivered them into his hands.—And Jephthah came to Mizpeh to his house, and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances ; and she was his only child :-And it came to pass when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou art one of them that trouble me: for I have opened my mouth to the LORD, and I cannot go back; And she said to him, My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth to the LORD, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth. And she said to her father, let me alone two months, that I may go up and down on the mountains, and bewail my virginity, I and my fellows. And he said, Go.-And it came to pass at the end of two months, that she returned to her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed :And it was a custom in Israel, that the daughters of Israel went yearly to lament the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite four days in a year. Judges xi. 30–40.

518. (Gen. xxvii. 19.) Bechor (Hebr.) implies properly the principal or most excellent of every thing, or creature in its kind, whether in a good or bad sense. See Ps. Ixxxix. 27. Job xviii. 13. Isai. xiv, 30. Gen. xlix. 3.—Here we must observe, that the word first-born of the males must not be restrained to the eldest son ; for he may be eldest and yet not first-born.

Univer. Hist. vol. iji. p. 218.

519. (Gen. xxv. 24.] In the Encyclopædia Britannica, under the article Negro, we find an account of a young negro woman in Virginia, wife to a negro man, who had for the first time a black child, and the second time twins-a boy that was black, and a girl that was a mulatto. The boy as he grew up was a perfect negro : the girl, on the other hand, was to. lerably white; had blue eyes, and long black hair, without curl. In sbort, she had a great resemblance to the overseer of the plantation.—Here we should allow a SUPERFETATION.

The boy was a perfect negro; the natural production of the negress and her black husband. The girl was a mulatto; whose father probably was the overseer, or some other white inan, as a mulatto is never produced regularly by two blacks.

See White's Regular Gradation

in Man, p. 122.

516. [Judges si. 40.) Thaneh, to lament, in Judges v. 11 is rendered rehearse. So corrected, the translation will be- The daughters of Israel went yearly to rehearse with the daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite, four days

520. (Gen. xxv. 23.] Hesiod, the oldest of the Greek Poets, represents the Nine Muses as successively begotten, though born of one mother nearly at the same time “ In number equal to the nights of love."

Cooke's Hesiod, the Theogony, l. 92.

was not of British manufacture, but procured from the Phænicians, who traded to this island for tin and other articles.

Archæologia, vol. xiv. p. 96.

Was not Jacob really the elder, being first begotten, though last born? See Gen. xxvii, 19.

524. (Gen. xxii. 6.] At the Druid's girdle hung a knife of fint.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature.

527.

525. (Gen. xxv. 28.) What is rendered venison, is

more probably the mountain hyssop; an odoriferous, warm, 521. [Gen. sxvii. 2-4.] And Isaac said to Esau, Behold | and bitterish herb, which, boiled up with the expressed now, I am old, I know not the day of my death: Now there “ blood of the grape,” would prepare it for keeping, and fore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow,

render it savoury meat.-Probably also, it was the expressed and go out to the field, and take me some venison; and make

juice of the grape boiled up with lentils, which constituted me savoury meat, such as I love, and bring it to me, that I

the “red pottage,” that Esau, as a priest by birth, could may eat; that my soul may bless thee before I die. This supper of savoury meat was evidently

not eat, unsacrificed, from the hand of a laic, without becomintended for a festival on a sacrifice; and upon the prayers

ing, as the Apostle says, a profane person. that were frequent at sacrifices Isaac expected, as was then usual in such eminent cases, that a divine impulse would come upon him, in order to the solemn blessing of his son

526. (Gen. xxv. 34.] According to PLINY (Nat. Hist. there present. Whence it must be that when Isaac bad

| 1. 18. c. 31) there were in Egypt, two sorts of lentils; the one blessed Jacob, and was afterwards made sensible of his mis

red, the other yellowish : both highly prized by the Antients. take, he did not attempt to alter it; because he knew this

Univer. Hist. vol.ii.p. 124, blessing came not from himself, but from God; and that an alteration was out of his power. Whiston's Josephus, book i, Note.

White or pale lentils are a sort of pulse

we have none of in England. There are three sorts of them This was not merely the blessing of a son, but the making

sold at Paris ;-from Burgundy,-from Chartres,-from Lanof a High-priest. The sacrament was received on the ooca

guedoc.

Dr. LISTER.—Pinkerton's Voy. sion, which consisted of corn and wine. See Gen. xxvii. 26, 37.—We learn from the Mosaic law, that the high-priest

and Trav. part xiv. p. 47. relinquished his office before his death.

528. [Gen. xxvii. 3.) In the neighbourhood of Philadel

phia, says KALM, the corn on the sides of the road was, 522. [Gen. xxxviii. 18.] Both among the Jews and Hin

(Sept. 21st,) almost all mown; and no other grain, besides doos, certain particular acts were necessary before a person

maize and buck-wheat, was then standing unripe. The of the priestly rank could perform any religious office. In

former was to be met with near each farm, in greater or vestiture with the sacred string, a girdle and a statt, were

less quantities : it grew very well and to a great length, necessary to the consecration of a priest.

the stalks being from six to ten feet high, and covered TENNANT's Indian Recreations, p. 169.

with fine green leaves. The buck-wbeat also was rather abundant, and in some places the people were beginning

to reap it. This buck-wheat must be sown in the middle 523. [Rev. i. 13.) In the year 1700, there was found, in l or at the eud of July : if sown earlier, as in May, or June, Staffordshire, a torques (or circulus) of fine gold : the weight it only gives flowers and little or no corn. of it was three pounds two ounces; it was about four feet

See his Trav. in Pinkerton's Coll. part (long), curiously twisted, and wreathen with hooks at each

liii. pp. 406, 422. end (Exod. xxviii. 14), cut even but not twisted : one of these hooks seemed to have a small notch in it, as if some thing had been worn hanging to it : It was fine metal, very 529. (Gen. xxvii. 28.) The promises made to the patribright and flexible; it would wrap round your arm, your archs, were assurances of the “dew of heaven," and the middle, or your hat, and be extended again easily to its “ fat of the earth.” The promised land is represented as shape, which most resembled the bow (Gen. xxvii. 3) of a “ flowing with milk and honey, a land of wheat, barley, figs, kettle. This account was communicated by the reverend Mr. pomegranates, &c.” without the least inention of animal SMITH, senior fellow of Brazen-Nose College, Oxford, to Dr. | food. The manna, with which the Israelites were fed of Leigh; who adds several arguments to prove that this torques God during forty years in the wilderness, did not cease to fall till they began to eat of the fruits of the land of Ca- | 533.

This is the first account on record of conpaan.-It is observable that whenever God prescribes or secrating with oil.-Under the Mosaic dispensation, kings, directs a regimen, no mention is made of the flesh of any priests and prophets, with all the sacred utensils of the Taanimal.

bernacle, were thus dedicated to the immediate service of God. Cheyne, on Regimen, 8c.p. 62. edit. 1753.

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 300.

534. stones with antient.

- Thus we find, the custom of anointing oil, and converting them into altars, is very

FORBES.

ESAU's wives. 530. (Gen. xxvi 34.) And Esau took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite.

Elon, was a city of Dan. See Josh. xix. 43, and there is a city of the name of Beer, four leagues from Jerusalem, in the way to Shechem, or Naplouse.

MAUNDREL's Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem.

535. - At an island in the northern parts of Canara, much frequented by wild pigeons, and called in consequence by seamen Pigeon Island, where the people assemble to pray; they offer cocoa-nuts, and perform sacrifice, before a STONE PILLAR.

Buchanan.—Pinkerton's Col.

vol. viii. p. 755.

In the ceremony of appointing a ruler or king, the city, district, or province, pledged themselves to their appointed governor through the medium of a woman, who in that sense, but in no other, became his official wife.

As Esau, during the natural life of his father, could be only a subordinate regent over Beer and Elon, he took first, in that capacity, Judith and Bashemath. But after the death of his father Isaac, when he could assume the supreme power, he then, as plenipotentiary, took besides Judith, Aholibamah ; and besides Bashemath, Adah. - In the same way, during the life of Ishmael, as heir apparent to his dominion, he received from the hands of that patriarch Mahalath, thus called the daughter of Ishmael, and thus made the pledge of Esau's future inheritance. Such women appear to have been hostages. See Gen, xxviii. 9. xxxvi. 2, 3.

N. B. The ducal government was that which prevailed first among the Idumeans, or descendants of Esau. See Gen. xxxvi. 15, &c.

After his dukes, Esau had eight king's, who reigned successively over their people, while Israel were in affliction in

The Ayeen Akberry mentions an octagonal pillar of black stoue fifty cubits high.

According to Tavernier, one of the principal ceremonies incumbent on the priests attendant at these sacred stones, is to anoint them daily with odoriferous oils.

See Maurice's Indian Antiquities,

vol. ii. p. 355.

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536. (Gen. xxviii. 22.] In Pegu, the noble edifice of Shoemadoo, or the golden supreme, is a pyramidal building composed of bricks and mortar, without excavation or aperture of any sort : octagonal at the base, and spiral at the top. Each side of the base measures one hundred and sixty-two feet. The extreme height of the edifice, from the level of the country, is three hundred and thirty-one feet. Along the whole extent of the northern face of the upper terrace there is a wooden shed for the convenience of devotees, who come from a distant part of the country. There are several low benches near the foot of the temple, on which the person who comes to pray, places his offering, commonly consisting of boiled rice, a plate of sweetmeats, or cocoa ngts fried in oil.

See Major Symes' Embassy to the

Kingdom of Ava.

531. (Gen. xx. 2.) The little kingdom of n'Goio acknowledges its dependence on that of Loango, by giving to the king a princess of the blood.

Proyart's History of Loango, 8C

Pinkerton's Coll. Ixvii. p. 570.

JACOB'S PILLAR.

EASTERN WELLS.

532. (Gen. xxviii. 18.) And Jacob rosé up early in the 537. (Gen. xxix. 1, 2.) Then Jacob went on his jour. morning, and took the stone that he had put for his ney, and came into the land of the people of The east. pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon || And he looked, and behold a well in the field, and, lo, the top of it.

there were three flocks of sheep lying by it. Jacob poured oil on the top of this stone, to consecrate it for a foundation of an altar, and afterwards 538. (Gen. xxiv, 20 ) There are wells in Persia and Araof a temple.

bia, in the driest places, and above all in the Indies, with HUTCHINSON's Introduc. to Moseso || troughs and basins of sine by the side of them. Sine Principio, p. ccxv.

CHARDIN.

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