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2 HE GO de Rom. 1: Ascension..
I HE Gospel according to St. Luke (which Paul calls y a mine at Liege, and filling all the lower parts, prevented his Gospel, see Rom. ii. 16. xvi. 25) was written in the || four men, who stood on an ascent, from escaping, till after 28th year after our Lord's Ascension.
twenty-four days; when the water had been drawn off again, Verse 3.] Theophilus was probably a magistrate of An
the men were found living, having had nothing to take all that
time except water. tioch, converted and baptized by this Evangelist.
Phil. Trans. pol. iii. p. 32.
4967. ( i. 5.] Of the twenty-four classes of priests only four returned from the captivity at Babylon, namely those of Jedaiah, Immer, Pasher, and Harim. These however, soon after their arrival, subdivided themselves each into six, that they might again make up the old nomber, and restore the names accordingly. Hence Zacharias the father of John the Baptist is here said to have been of the course of Abia, and Mattathias (1 Maccab. ii. 1) to have been of that of Joarib, though it is certain peither of them, nor any other but the four above-mentioned, returned into Judea.
Unider, Hist. dol. ix. p. 504.
4970. [- i. 19.) Gabriel, cuphon and Gratia, for Dabriel ; i.e. the Word of God, or God's Speaker.
" The names of the angels and of the months, such as Gabriel, Michael, Yar, Nisan, &c. came from Babylon with the Jews ;” says expressly the Talmud of Jerusalem. And
the Persians had 365 angels, answering to the number of days | in a year.
4971. ( 36.) To espouse a priest, Elizabeth, Mary's cousin, must have been of the tribe of Levi. St. AugusTine says, in his time, several apocryphal books asserted that Mary actually was of the tribe of Levi.
See lib. 23, contra Fraustum, cap. 9.
4968. [ 15.] Sicera (Hebræo sermone Shecar) omnis potio nominatur, quæ inebriare potest, sive illa quæ frumento conficitur, sive pomorum succo (as Cyder).
HERON. Ep. ad Nepot.
of Health, val. iii. p. 337.
4972. - Elizabeth's connection with Mary, as here admitted, is a most manifest proof, that according to the law of Moses, Israelites of one tribe might marry into another; and that a priest, for instavce, might marry a virgin of the house of Judab, or a descendant of Judah marry the daughter of a Levite.
See Num. XXXVI. 8. - Smith's MICHAELIS, Sol. ii.
4973. (Luke i. 36.) Take another view of the subject, Rome, and their estates, by censors. This cense shewed which appears preferable : An heiress could not marry out what every one ought in equity to coutribute to the indispenof her own tribe : but such women as had no inheritance, 1 sible necessities of the State. inight marry into whatever tribe they pleased, Num. xxxvi. 8.
See Long Liders, p. 32. - The priests and Levites also, as having no inheritance, nor being entitled to any; might marry in any tribe such females as were not heiresses. Thus it appears from 2 Chron. xxii. 11, that Jehoiada the priest had taken the king of 4978. [Luke ii. 2. This laxing] This register. - When Judah's daughter to wife : and in Ezra ii. 61, it is written | Sultan Selim had conquered Syria, in order to render the that Barzillai the Gileadite had married another priest. - || collection of the revenue more easy, he established a single " By reason of such marriages," says Mr. AINSWORTH, territorial tribute, called the Miri. — That this tas might “there might be a kindred between Elizabeth, the mother of be collected regularly, Selim gave orders to prepare a deftar, John the Baptist, who was of the daughters of Aaroit, and or register, iu which the contingent of each village should be Mary. the Virgin, the mother of our Lord, who was of the set down. lineage of David, and tribe of Judah."
Volner's Trav. vol. ii. p. 406. See Dr. A. CLARKE, on Num. xxxvi. 8. Whenever a census was made at Roine, the censors regis
tered all the Roman citizens, their wives and children, their age, qualities, trades, offices, and estates both real aud
personal. — Augustus was the first who extended this census 4974. - Jehovah, the father of Jesus Christ, was
to the provinces, where those, who were charged with it, purin the same sense the true High-priest of the Jewish cove
sued, without all doubt, the same 'method as the censors did pant, as Jesus Christ now is of the Christian dispensation.
at Rome. This circumstance, added to the miraculous conceptiou of the
Univer. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 347. Baptist under the same influence, inade the Virgin and Elizabeth virtually relations. It is an absurdity to look for a
Justin and TertuLLIAN frequently refer the Gentiles to natural relationship, where there was a miraculous conception
the registers which were made on occasion of this censas, aud from the same source ; immediately in the virgin, and medi
were still extant in their time. ately through Zacharias in Elizabeth, see John i. 6. Matt.
. See Justin. Apolog.; and Tertullian. xii. 50.
in Marc. I. iv.
1979. [ 6.) Lightfoor fixes the birth-day of Jesus Christ on the 15th of September.
Lev, xxiii. 34. John i. 14.
4975. [- 67.) When, by the laws of Athens, the bridegroom proceeded to loose the bride's girdle, the young men and maidens standing at the door sang epithalamia.
Dr. W. Alexander's Hist. of Women,
vol. ii. p. 205., See No. 1332.
4976. (Luke ii. 1, 2.] Augustus caused three sarveys of the Roman empire to be made in his time, of which this was the second. The decree now issued was in order to have the empire taxed according to the estimate made by the survey. Judea, though then subject to Rome, was excepted by the favor of the emperor, till the deposition of Archelaus, twelve years after the survey, when the taxation commenced there under Cyrenius, or Pub. Sulp. Quirinius, who was then mnade president of Syria.
See Univer. Hist. pol. x. p. 214.
7. There was no place for them in the inn] Chalalumali (Grk.), the place of untying beasts of burden, &c. — Caravansarai are built at proper dislances through the roads of the Turkish dominions, and afford to the indigent or weary traveller an asylum from the inclemency of the weather; are in general built of the most solid and durable materials ; have commonly one story above the ground foor, the lower of which is arched, and serves for warehouses to store goods, for lodgings, and for stables, while the upper is used merely for lodgings; besides which they are always accommodated with a fountain, and have cooks' shops and other conveniences to supply the wants of lodgers.
See Luke x. 34. Campbell's Trav. part ii. p. 8.
The Caravansarai or inns of the East are built square, much like cloysters, being usually but ove story high. To the midst of the building, there is a ball for persons of the best quality to keep together. Ou each side of the ball, to the right and left, are lodgings for every man by himself. These lodgings are raised all along the court, two or three steps bigh, just behind which are the stables, where it is often as good lying
4977. — Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, about the year one hundred and eighty of its foundation, instituted the conse, or general review of all the citizens of
as in the chamber. Some prefer to lie there in the winter, l 4984. [Luke ii. 51.) Children were then brought up in the . because they are warm and are roofed as well as the habit of serving their parents. chambers.
St. Pierre's Studies of Nature Tavernier's Trav. p. 45.
vol. iv. p. 75. See No. 591, 1085.
4985. (Luke iii. 1. Philip] Son of Herod the Great, by Cleopatra.
4981. [Luke ji. 21. For the circumcising of the child] That is, for the enrolling of his name in the genealogical Table as a Nazarite", separated from all people as being of the “holy seed ” from Abrahain. (See Ezra ix. 1, 2.) In thus making a Nazarite or the eighth day, the offering at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation was, to the priest, a pair of Turtle doves, or two young pigeons. Compare verse 24 with Num. vi. 10. - As to the circumcising or polling of the head, see Jer.. ix. 26. xxv. 23. xlix. 32. Lev. xix. 27.
Had the prepuce been cut, that blemish would have disqualified Jesus froin virtually becoming, as Paul stiles him, our High-priest : nove, so maimed or in any way mutilated, being allowed to appear in the presence of God, even as a common priest. See Lev. xxi. 17 — 23.
When Jesus agonized in the garden, he was officialing as High-priest, and transferring the great day of atonement, as Moses did the beginning of the year, from the autumnal to the vernal equinox. See Lev. xvi. 29 — 34, compared with Lev. xxiii. 27 -- 32, and Exod. xii. 2.
In 2 Sam. viii. 17, it is said, the sons of David were gricsis : according to the flesh, Jesus Christ, as a son of David, was a Prince, a Priest
See No. 475.
4986. [- 2.] There never was, nor could be, two high-priests at once. But, to supply the high-priest's place in his absence, they chosé a sort of vicar-general called Sagan, who sat at his right hand in council, and had precedence of all the other priests. Annas probably, at this time, was sagan to Caiaphas.
See Dr. A. Clarke's Additions to Fleury,
4987. [- 14.) At this time, in the land of Canaan or Palestine, the magistrates, governors, and soldiers, were Romans, stationed there under Herod, to keep, the Jews in obedience, and to receive their tribules.
When the Jews complained to Agrippa, that to serve as soldiers was repugnant to their religion, Josepnus says they were immediately exempted.
See Antiq. lib. xvi. ch. 2. § 3, 5.
4982. - 22.] Bp. Pearce has shewn from Josephus, that accounts of " pedigrees were made, and carefully preserved in the public Registers; and, agreeably to this, it is not likely that, when Jesus was presented in the Temple, an entry was then and there made by the registering priest, of his name, and of the name of Joseph his father (See John i. 45), as well as of Mary his mother." - The registering priest could know nothing of the miraculous conception : nor was it proper that it should be made known to the world, till Jesus came forth in the work of the ministry, and declared himself, and was declared from heaven, to be “the Son of God.” Malt. iii. 17. xvii. 5. Dr. Taylor's Obserdations
on a Sermon intitled " Jesus of Nazareth, the
son of" "Joseph," p. 42. Verse 28.] See ch. i. 67.
4989. [ ~ 15.] Whal chiefly excited the Jews to war, was an ambiguous prophecy, found also in the sacred books, that at that time some one within their country should arise, that would obtain the empire of the whole world.
JOSEPHus, de Bello, lib. vii. cap. 31.
4990. . The generality had a strong persuasion, that it was contained in the antient writings of the priests, that at that very time, the East should prevail : and that some, who should come out of Judea, would obtain the eropire of the world.
Tacitus, llist. cap. 13. There had been indeed for a long time all over the East a constant persuasion that it was in the Fates (or prophetic books) that at that time, some who should come out of Judea would obtain universal dominion.
Sveronius, Vespasian, cap. 4.
4983. [--- 47.] All were astonished at his understanding and answers to the Questions usually put by the Jewish Doctors, when catechising the Youth of twelve years old, in order to their eating the Passover at thirteen.
4991. [Luke iii. 17.] lu Egypt every peasant chooses for # himself in the open field, a smooth plat of ground froin eighty to oue hundred paces in circumference. Hither is brought on camels or asses, the corn in sheaves of which is formed a ring of six or eight feet wide and two bigh.— Two oxen, yoked in a sledge, are then driven over the sheaves ; aud fresh oxen succeed in the yoke from time to time, till the chaff is very much cut down: the whole is then winnowed, and the pure grain thus separated. — After this, a man collects the clods of dirt and other impurities, to which any coru adheres, and throws them into a sieve. They afterwards place in a ring the heaps, in which many entire ears are still found, and drive over them four or five hours together, a dozen couple of oxen joined two and two, till by absolute trampling they have separated the grains, which they throw into the air with a shovel to cleanse them. Matt. jii. 12. Deut. XXV. 4. NIEBUHR's Trav. vol. i.
p. 89, &c.
31. Nathan] The pridute genealogy of Mary begins froin Nathan, as Joseph's did from SOLOMON. (See Matt. i. 6.) - These sons of David had pretensious to the throne, which were united in Jesus.
4992. [- 20.] The heralds' was a sacred office, insomuch that the prohibition to harm them became proverbial.
Cowper's Iliad, vol. i. p. 127, note.
4998. [ 36.] A Cainan is here introduced in the line of Shem, uot noticed in the Hebrew text either of Genesis or of Chronicles, nor in any of the Versions, except the Septuagint followed probably by Luke, who might not hare learnt the Hebrew language. In vindication however of the Septuagint, we would observe that, according to the distinction of natural and legal parents, so often referred to in these Notes, Arphaxad might be the natural father of Sala, and the legal one of Cainan.
See Univer. Hist. vol. 1. pp. 208, 209. It is here worthy of remark, that Luke never uses the term begot or begelting, because he traces up the genealogy of Jesus by putative, and vot by natural sons.
See Euseb. Hist. Eccl. b. i. c. 7. Sce No. 1178.
4993. ( 23.] Joseph, by marriage, became the adopted son of Heli, the father of Mary bis wife. See Frag. 10 CALMET's Dictionary, vol. ii. pp. 57 — 61.
And Dr. Clarke's Fleury, p. 104. In the East, if a man bad, 1. either no child at all, or 2. none that was free-born, he had power to adopt an heir : this was to be done after the manner of a will; signed and sealed in the presence of the magistrate, as their wills were wont to be. Whosoever was thus adopted, was first to be made free of the city ; and then to be INSCRIBED AMONG THE TRIBE, OR FRATERNITY, OF HIM WHO ADOPIED HIM. See Heb. ix. 15.
5999. [Luke iv. 16.] When Jesus thus stood op to read the Second Lesson in the synagogue of Nazareth, of which he was a member, he must have read it out of a Targum, or (Chaldee) Version ; for the words recited in the 18th verse, do not agree either with the Hebrew or the Septuagint.
Bib. Research. Introduc. p. 63.
Luke, beginning the genealogy from Jesus, reckons it on the father's side upward; whilst Mat
5000. [ 18. And recovering of sight to the blind) thew, beginning it from Abraham reckons it on the mother's
This, from the following clause, appears to allude to the side downwards to Jesus, in whoin the genealogy ends.
wretched state of those prisoners bruised with the weight of their fetters, who, according to the inhuman custom still re
tained in the East, had their eyes put out ; as was the case 4995. - It is very credible, that the four sons of with Samson, Judges xvi. 21, and Zedekiah, 2 Kings David by Bathsheba were, when young, reduced to two, Na- xxv. 7. — With regard to such as these, this great Deliverer than and Solomon, of whom Nathan being the elder, wbat is represented as restoring them; a work far beyond all human ever right he had to the crowel as descending in his line, it power. ceutered in Heli, the father of Mary ; while Solomon baving
See Cradock's Harmony, p. 69. actually reigoed, transmilted the crown in his posterity, lineally to Joseph. Now the union of these two lines, distinctly traced by Matthew aud Luke, was completed, and terminated, in the persou of Jesus,
1 5001. ( 20.] The third part of the syasgogue Sec Frag. 10 CALMET, vol. ii. p. 70. service was, expounding the Scriptures and preaching to the people. The posture in which this was performed, whether in 5005. (Luke v. 6. Their net brake) When with a dragthe synagogne or in other places, was sitting. See Acis xiii. net, says Bu-BEQUIUS, we brought great shoals of trembling 14, 15, 16. - On the contrary, Paul stood up !
Gislies near the shore, as they were all naturally instigated To save themselves, some would leap over the net, others would cover themselves in the sand, others strove to bite the
meshes ; and if one made a way for itself, all would follow, till 6002. [Luke iv. 22.] A man's thought swims in the de
the whole draught had escaped. lights of his love, like a boat carried along by a gliding
Trav. p. 231. stream ; and it is perceived as a fragrant atmosphere, which
The coral net frequently, way, almost always, in some part is inhaled with a full inspiration.
or other breaks on the points of rocks or other impediinents SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence, at the botton. This causes no escape of what are caught in n. 295.
other parts. - Had the disciples' net enclosed living fish and broke with the weight, it is certain they would have had no occasion for further assistance, as most of the fish would
instantly have escaped. 5003. - 29.] The Talmudists say, that the person Ezek. xlvii. 9 - 12. thus disposed of was precipitated from an eminence, at least the height of two men ; one of the witnesses tying his hands behind him, and the other throwing him downl: and that if he did not die hy the fall, stones were cast on hiin lill he was
5006. [ 6, 7.) The net used in coral-fishing, is actually dead.
composed of two beams tied across, with a leaden weight or Unider. Hist, vol. iji. p. 311.
large stone to press then down; to the beams is fastened a By the law of the twelve Tables, a false wilness at Roine, great quantity of hemp loosely twisted round, among which was to be thrown down the Tarpeian rock.
they mix some strong nets. In this condition the machine is Verses 28, 29.] Æsop representing the Delphiaus as one
let down into the sea; and when the coral is pretty strongly worthy objects of Cresus's bounty, they, in revenge, brought
embarrassed in the hemp and the bets, they draw it out by a against hiin a charge of sacrilege, and put him to death by
rope, which they unwind according to the depth, and which throwing him headlong froin a rock namned Hyampia - See
sometimes requires half a dozen boats to draw. If the rope the story in PLUTARCH, De será Numinis Vindicià. Sec || break, the fishermen are in great danger of drowning. also HERODOTUS, 134 : and ARISTOPHANES, Vesp. 1446.
0. The sons of Zehedee -- were part. ners with Simon] Coral-fishing in that country, must have
been a very lucrative employment. — The women of Asia 5004. (Luke v. 1.] That tract of country called Genne
still wear necklaces and bracelets, made of one or more rows seret, is in extent thirty furlougs, in breadth twenty. The of red coral; there called moongah: Although obtained in Jake on which it borders, is in breadth forty furlongs, and in
their own quarter of the world, the beads are very dear ; those length one hundred and furty : its waters are sweet, and very of about the size of a large marrowfat pea being usually sold for agreeable for drinking, being filler than the thick waters of four or five rupees per tolah, of half an ounce; which is equal other feus ; the lake is also pure, and on every side ends
to sixlcen or luenly pounds sterling for a pound avoirdirectly at the shores, and at the sand; it is also of a tem.
dupvis. perale nalure when you draw it up, and of a more gentle
Nicholson. nature than river or fountain water, and yet always cooler than one would expect in so diffuse a place as this is : now when this water is kept in the opeu air, it is as cold as that snow which the country people art accustomed to make by 5008. [- 1.] Thus are Peter, James and John now night in suinier. There are several kinds of fish in it, differ- ll called. They are chosen hereafter ; see ch. vi. 13, 14. ent both to the taste and the sight from those elsewhere. It See No. 4507, and Matt. i. 20, John iv. 16, 17. is divided into two parts by the river Jordan; and that part, which is properly called the lake of Genneseret, is replenished also from a most fertile fountain, which some have thought to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the fish 5009. [— 19.] To enter into one of the principal Coracinus as well as that lake does which is near Alexanı houses of an Eastern city, we must first pass through a porch dria (See JosEPH. Wars, b. iii. ch. X. § 7, 8.) -- Tue or baleway, with benches ou each side, where the master of other division of this lake is called the Sea of Tiberias: see the family receives visits and dispatches business. From John vi. I.
hence we are received into a quadrangular court, strewed with