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present day, an invitation to au entertainment is uot supposed 5064. [Luke xvi. 12.) If a man have hired a person to to be given with sincerity, until it have been renewed three or conduct a trade for him, and no agreement be made in regard four times in writing. A card is sent on the evening before I to wages, in that case, the person hired shall receive onethe entertainment; another on the morning of the appointed tenth of the profit. day; and a third when every thing is prepared.
Gentoo Laws, chap. ix. GOLDSMITH's Geography, p. 117.
It is a cominon custom with the merchants of Turkey when they hire a broker, book-keeper, or other confidential servant, to agree, that they shall claim no wages; but, to make amends
for that unprofitable disadvantage, they give them free and 5059, (Luke xiv. 23. Compel them) Earnestly persuade them.
uncontrolled authority to cheat them every way they can, in
managing their business; but with this proviso, that they Essay for a New Translation.
must never exceed the privileged advantage of ten per cent. All under that, which they can fairly gain in the set
tling of accounts with their respective masters, is properly 5060. [- 26.] When proselytes were received into their own. the Jewish Church, the boud of natural relationship between
Aaron Hill's Trav. p. 77. them and their kindred was considered as dissolved. -Accordingly, says Tacitus, they then quickly learn to despise the gods, to renounce their country, and to hold their (idolatrous) parents, children, and brethren in the utmost
1 3. Ye cannot serve God and mammon) contempt.
The advice here given to these men is this: not to attempt, at Hist, lib. v. c. 5. || the same time, to serve God and mammon; but, when they,
by their iniquities, have lost all hopes of admission into the kingdom of light, to secure a reception in the kingdoin of darkness, and to imitate the example of the unjust steward, in the parable which he had just before delivered to them,
wbo, having abandoned all expectations of future support 5061. [Luke xv. 8.) The drachma was the proper money
from his lord, on account of his misbehaviour, had endeayof the Atheniaus, as the denarius was of the Romans; and
oured to conciliate to himself the goodness of his tepants, each in value, seven peuce hall-penny.
that when he was put out of the stewardship, they might Essay for a New Translation, part ii. receive him into their houses; for which ariful precaution p. 36.
his lord commended him, because he had done WISELY, but
SOAME Jenyns' Works, 5062. [- - 12.] It has been an iminemorial custom in the east for sons to demand their portion of (family) inheritance during their father's life-time ; and the parent, however aware of the dissipated inclinations of his child, could not 5066. [ 19.) What is here translated “fine linen”, legally refuse to comply with the application. — But, if a is more probably a very fine cotton. father divide among his sons the property earned by himself,
See PLINY, lib. xix. c. 1. - WORMIUS, Mus. he shall give it according to his own choice : his sons shall
p. 139. — And BODEUS, a Stapel, in his not have authority to force him to such a division.
Commentary on Theophrastus, p. 425, Verse 31.] If any of bis sons have been particularly du
ct seq. tiful, he has authority to give a larger share to such than to the rest. (HALHED's Preface 10 Gentoo Laws, pp. 53, 70, 71.)- In the instance before us, it seems, the father had given, at least intentionally, the whole of his private earnings
5067. [ 22.] When two or three Jews reclined on to his elder son : “ All that I have is thine.”
the same couch, LIGHTFOOT says the worthiest or most hovourable persou lay in the middle ; the next in dignity lay with his head reclining on the breast or bosom of the first,
as John is said to have done on the bosom of Jesus at supper : 5063. [- 23.] Such (calf-skin) hottles when full, as
and hence the phrase, Abraham's bosom, came to denote the this is represented to have been, must differ greally from the
highest state of celestial happiness next to that of Abraham saine when einpty: being, when full, swollen, round, and
biinself, the father and head of the Jewish nation. firm; when empty, flaccid, weak, and bending.
See No. 1328.
Burder. Fray. to Calmer's Dict. First Hundred, p. 106.
5068. [ 23.] The wicked are tormented by envy,
when they behold from a distance the blessedness of the good; yes, when they only think about it.
See No. 1316, 1320. SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 1974.
austerities and abasement of a monk; not by the liberal, generous, and spirited conduct of a man."
A. SMITH. See No. 1140, 1142, 1145.
5069.' [Luke xvi. 26.] The world of spirits is the intersice (or gull) distinguishing heaven from hell. See No. 1326, 1318.
Ibid. n. 5852.
5070. [Luke xvii. 10.] Our highest performances, though they be dues, amount not to tributes, but are rather like those pepper-corns of rent which freeholders pay; not with hope or with intent to enrich their landlord, but to acknowledge, that they hold all from him.
Boyle's Seraphic Love, p. 84.
5076. [Luke xix. 4.] The Sycamore of Scripture is a huge tree, the stem being often fifty feet thick. — Of this the antient Egyptians made coffins, wherein to lay their embalmed dead. The wood is very proper for this use, as it does not rot for several ages, and not until it is very old. The Mummies which I saw in Egypt, says HASSELQUIST, were all preserved in coffins made of this wood, which, as well as the corpse, had kept sound for 2000 years. This large and branchy tree, by spreading out its boughs, affords excellent shade, being of great use to people living in a scorching climate, and travelling through deserts, as they may frequently rést their wearied limbs and drooping bodies, under the shade of a sycamore.
Travels to the East, p. 259.
5071. [- 23. And they shall say &c.] Two MSS. the Syriac and Armenian have ean (Grk.), IF — And if they shall say &c.
3072. [ 37.) At the head of every Roman legion is the Eagle, the king and the strongest of all birds, which seems to them a signal of dominion, and an omen that they shall conquer all against whom they march.
JOSEPHUS, Wars, b. iii. ch. vi. $ 2.
5077. [- 8.] The Christian writers tell us, that the Turkish emperor Selim, during his illness, leaning his head one day on the lap of Piri Pashâ, whom he loved above all others, said, “O Piri, I see I must shortly die without remedy." The Pashâ, availing himself of so favourable an opportunity, told him he would do well to build a hospital for the relief of the poor, with the great wealth taken from the Persiau merchants in several parts of his empire. The Sultan answered, “Wouldst thou have me, Piri, bestow other men's goods, injuriously taken from thein, on works of charity, for my own vain glory ? That I will never do: nay, rather see, that they be restored to the right owners." — Which was done accordingly.
See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xii. p. 267.
5073. [Luke xviii. 8.] Shall he find such faith on this land?
Sir NORTON KNATCHBULL.
5078. [- 13.] The Maneh was, when of silver, five pounds ten shillings three-pence, English.
See I Kings x. 17.
5074. [ - 19.] Among the Saxons, God signified both the Divine Being and GOODNESS; as the word Man signified both the Human Being and wickedness.
See Somner's Saxon Dictionary.
3 1.] According to an established usage amongst the Jews, a prophet might demand, and receive whatever he demanded, in the Name of the LORD.
5075, [ 29, 30.] “In the antient philosophy, the perfection of virtue was represented as necessarily productive, to the person who possessed it, of the most perfect happiness in this life. In the modern philosophy, it was frequently represented as generally, or rather as almost always, inconsistent with any degree of happiness in this life ; and heaven was to be earned ouly by penance and mortification, by the
5080. [ 44.] In the second year of Vespasian, on || the eighth day of the month Elul, Jerusalem was taken.
Joseph. Wars, b. vi. ch. x. § 1. Titas Cesar gave orders that they should now demolish the entire city and temple. Consequently its very wall, excepting
that part which inclosed the western side of the city, was so #those buried by relations. Such as had none to carry them thoroughly laid even with the ground by those that day it up out, were thrown into great houses and shuf up: of such to the foundation, that there was left nothing to make those that multitudes no account was ever taken. came thither believe it had ever been inhabited. This was the
BARONIUS. end which Jerusalem came to by the madness of those that were for innovations; a city otherwise of great magaificence, and of mighty fame among all mankind.
Ibid. b. vii. ch. i. $ 1. 508.5. [Luke xxi. 21, 22.] Accordingly, when the Roman We learn from Joserius, That not less than one million
forces under Gratus did on a sudden, and without any maone hundred thousand men perished at the siege of Jeru. nifest cause, withdraw from the siege of Jerusalem, the salem : and to obviate the objection, how could so many be Christians there, as divinely admonished, made use of that asseinbled ? he adds, that at a former paschal solemnity, a opportunity, all of them, to quit the city and retire to Pella census had been made liy the high-priests at the desire of the ll on the other side of Jordan. pro-consul Cestius; and that the number of men present were
Euseb. lib. 3. cap. 3. 2,700,000, the unclean and strangers not included.
See Exod. xxxiv. 23. De Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 9. § 3.
6086. 1 24. Ye shall be led away captive] When the Tartar's possessed themselves of the Province of Nankin, they made all the women of the province prisoners, and exposed for sale in the market, all whom they did not keep for
themselves (as slaves). 5081. [Luke xx. 34. The children of this world marry,
BRETON's China, vol. iii. p. 6. and are given in marriage] by adoption. Thus Sarah, Rachel, &c. gave their servants in marriage-adoption, in order that the children of those servants by their own proper husbands, might be heirs to the inheritance of their Master.
When the city Jerusalem was taken by force, Tilus Cesar persuaded me frequently (says JOSEPHUB) to take whatsoever I would of the ruins of my country, and said that he gave me leave so to do. But when my country was destroyed, I thought nothing else to be of value, which I could take and keep as a comfort under my calamities; so I
made this request to Titus, that my family might bave their 5082. [Luke xxi. 5.) Anathemala (Grk.) is here used for
liberty : I had also the holy books by Titus's concession. the gifts and ornaments of the temple : anathemata, on the
Nos was it long after that I asked of him the life of my brocontrary, denotes where it occurs, things accursed, or devoted
ther, and of filty friends with him, and was not denied. When to destruction. Suicer. Thesaur. voce anathema.
I also went once to the temple, by the permission of Titus, where there were a great multitude of captive women and children, I got all those that I remembered as among my own
friends and acquaintance to be set free, being in numher about 5083. [ 1.] In the year of our Lord 1620, on the one hundred and ninety; and so I delivered them withont 28th of the Mahomedan mooth Rabio’lawel, there appeared in their paying any price of redemption, and restored them to the heavens at Constantinople a crooked sword (a comet?), their former fortune. He also hououred me with the privifive times as long as a spear, and three feet broad. It always
lege of a Roman citizen, and gave me an annual pension ; rose in one place, followed the apparent motion of the heavens and continued to respect ine to the end of his life, without from east to west, and for a whole month shone with great || any abatement of his kinduess to me. brightness, after sun-set. - In the year following the Bos
Works of Josephus, vol. iji. pp. 242, 243. phorus was completely frozen over; so that the juhabitants of Constantinople could pass to Skatari on foot. Modern Univer. Hisl. vol, zii. p. 450.
6088. [ 25.) In the year 51, three suns appeared at once, which sensibly united in one orb. The same year
there was a great famine in Greece; and at Rome next year. 5084. [ 20.] In the year 72, by the severe famine iu 62 there appeared a great comet, and another in 66. doring the seige of Jerusalem, from April 14th to the calends
FUNCTIUS, Chronology. of July, out of one gate were carried forth to burial 1,580,000.
In 66, by an earthquake in Asia, Laodicea, Hierapolis, and After this, the fugitives of distinction reported, that 600,000
tives of distinction reported, that b00,000 | Colosse were destroyed. carcases of the poor were thrown out at the gates, besides
EUSEB. TACIT. The sea was also in that year driven back from Egypt, and not appear that lamb was used) has been imitated in different overflowed a great part of Lycia.
ways by different sects of Christians. The Corinthians were
Chron. Magdeburg. reproached with so celebrating it, as to make it subservient to In the year 70, there were prodigious earthquakes in
intemperate pleasures of the table: they thought a Lord's Italy.
Supper .could not be too frequent, or too hearty, or too FUNCTIUS.
jovial. — Other sects have supposed,' not that the supper, but that the returning thanks (eucharistia, Grk.) constilutes the essence of the rite ; and that the psychological effects
which Christians have derived from the death, and resurrec5089. [Luke xxi. 25 — 28.] No illustrious manifestation tion of Christ, are the filtest objects at that time of human of the Divine goodness, nor any execution of Divine judy gratitude. Such Christians naturally prefer the term eucha. ment, ever carpe on the world without a double voice; a voice rist, as drawing attention to what they consider as the chief of comfort to the faithful, and of terror to the wicked.
part of the ceremony. -Others have supposed, that brotherly RICHARD CLARKE. love is in all cases the purest motive for conviviality; and
was especially so in the incident related. They place in the common participation of Christian feelings the utility of the
rile ; they would object to a solitary celebration, and insist on 5090. [- 27.] M. SAUSOUBE, from his observatory
the duty of communion. — Sacrament means an oath, and, on Mont Blanc, beheld the evening-vapor, like a light gas,
in general, any religious pledye publicly given. The ceretemper the sun's brightness, and form the finest purple belt,
mony of marriage is a sacrament. Taking the oathi of allewhich encircled all the westeru part of the horizon ; whilst,
giauce is a sacrament. Taking the test is a sacramcnt. The to the east, the spows at the base of the mount, coloured by
church of Rome has seven sacraments. Those, who call their this light, presented the finest and most magnificent spectacle.
peculiar imitation of the Lord's supper emphatically the In proportion as the vapor descended and became more dense,
sacrament, either regard that rite as the most important this belt became narrower, and of a deeper color; and ap- 11
of the ceremonies enjoined by christianity; or allude to its peared at last of a blood-red : at the same instant small clouds,
local selection by the magistrate, as the test of allegiance. which roved above this chain, darted a light of such bright
Alhenæum, Dec. 1803, N., 24, p. 496. ness, that they resembled flaming stars or meteors. — In the morning, the vapors, less condensed, did not form in the
Verse 14.] See Erod. xii. 6. horizon a cordon so distinct and highly coloured; but, in return, he observed a singular phenomenon. It was formed of rays of a fine purple, which parted from the liorizon to the 5093. [Luke xxii. 15.] The verb phagein (Grk.) signiwest, precisely opposite to the sun; they were not clouds, Nfies to eat what is sacred; esthiein, to eat a common meal. but a sort of thin vapory homogeneous substance: thesę rays to the number of six, had their centre a litile below the horizon, and extended to ten or twelve degrees from this centre.
5094. [- 36.] Without Permissions, man cannot be Pinkerton's Coll. purt xvii. pp. 681, 682.
led by the Lord from evils, nor consequently reformed and saved ; for if evils were not permitted to break out, a nan could not see and acknowledge them, nor be induced to
resist them. 5091. [- 32.] As we are informed by Malthew
SwedenBORG, on Divine Providence, (i. 17) that the forty-third generation from Abraham com.
n. 251. menced with the birth of Christ, and as the Lord here predicts that this His generation should not pass before judgment should be executed on Jerusalem, we hence learn that a generation is exactly 70 years; for nothing is more certain
5095. [than that, in 68 Vespasian waged war in Judea, in 69 was
44.) A neighbour of mine, says J. WHITEdeclared emperor there by his army, in 70 caused Jerusa
HEAD, has something in his constitution differeut from what I lem to be destroyed, and in 71 triumphed there with his son
ever met with in any other man. When he works, he gen. Titus.
erally perspires on the right side ; it just takes one half of his face aud of his body, so that you may see the sweat pouring down in large drops on the right side, while the left is perfectly dry: and, when he eats, the perspiration changes to the left side, with as great a profusion as before, while
the right is dry. Thus it alternately changes, by working 5092. Luke xxii. 7.7 The anniversary Phasah feast, and eating, from right to left and left to right; but he never among the Jews, consisted in supping on lamb and unlea- perspires all over the face and body at the same time. vened bread. - This last supper of Christ in which it does
Month. Mag. for Nod. 1814, p. 302. 5096. [Luke xxii. 48.] The Cuscula, or Dodder, roots not in the earth, but ascends the vegetables in its neighbourhood, and ultimately destroys the plant on which it had grown to maturity.
Seward's Life of Daruin, p. 343.
was one of Herod's cast-off robes, faded by time and wear, in parts, from a purple to a scarlet; and thus, ou the whole, might be both at once.
5101. [Luke xxiii. 22. Pilate said to them the third time] Thus was Jesus three times befriended as well as three times denied.
5097. [ 52.Ho Strategos tou Hierou (Grk.), The Captain of the Temple. -- This appears to have been not a Romau but a Jewish officer : Aud as the service of the Temple is in the Old Testament expressed by a military term, iseba (Hebr.), Num. viji. 24, 25, so the Captain of the 1 Temple was the person who commanded in chief the numerous Priests and Levites who by turns attended there, and appointed to them their posts and offices. See Num. jii. 32, 1 Chron. ix. 11. JOSEPHUS mentions such an officer by the same tille, Strategos, who was evidently a Jew, being the High Priesi's son.
See his Antig. lib. xx. cap. 5. § 2. Comp. De
Bel. lib. ji. cap. 12. § 6, and cap. 17. § 2. In Luke xxii. 52 (compare verse 4), mention is made of the Sıralegoi, Captains of the Temple in the plural, who, no doubt, were the inferior Jewish officers commanding the several parties of Priests and Levites under The Strategos, or Commander in Chief.
PARKAURST's Greek Lex. p. 631.
5098. [- 60.] The Jews affirm, that all cocks were removed out of Jerusalem at the time of the passover.
See Frag. to CALMET, No. cclxiii. See No. 1086.
5104. [ 43.] Thou shalt be taken away from all; and from henceforth thou shall remain with my Son, and with such as are like thee, till the times be ended. 2 Esdras xiv. 9.
If the North Pole of the earth stood directly towards the sun in the east, we should enjoy a perpetual spring, and thus Paradise would be restored. The spiritual sun of the Intermediale State is at its North Pole, and therefore that state is now a Paradise.
See the Notes on Gen.jji. 24, and on
Ezek. i. 4. &c.
5099. [Luke xxiii.) The conspiracy of the Jews in this Chapter, evinces the justice of God in abolishing their perverted doctrine and worship, and in establishing the law and the Gospel among the Geutiles, who, so far as Pilate is concerned, had no share in his crucifixion. Pilate was constrained to give him up to the fury of the Jews, otherwise they would have impeached bin — “ Thou art not Cesar's friend.”
5105. ( 44.] Every eclipse of the sun necessarily happens between the last crescent of one periodical course of the moon, and the first phasis of the new; that is, between the time when the movu is nearest to the sun, and that when she begins to recede from bim.
Nature Displayed, tol. iv. p. 25.
6100. [ ll.] Was this gorgeous robe, which John (xix. 5) tells us was purple, put ou Jesus purposely for his | 5106. - 44, 45.] This darkness was undoubtedly condemnation ?--The punishment of death, among the Romans, caused by a volcanic eruption, which produced also a tremenwas decreed against all but the Cesars, who should have the || dous earthquake. — Every thing on this day, the third of audacity to wear purple.
April, was horribly awful. An unaccouutable darkness obSee BERTHOLLET's Dyeing, by Hamilton, vol. i. served to the astronomers in Egypt, and noted particularly pp. xiii, xix.
by Phlegon, as having happened in the 2020 Olympiad, anAs this rohe is said by Matthew (xxvii. 24) to have been ! swering to the third day of April in the thirty-third year of of scarlet, and by John (xix. 5) of purple hue; it probably the nativity. The sun completely veiled in atmospheric