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5297. (John xxi. 13.] EPIPHANIUS (Hæres. 58. cap. 4) says, that James and John in particular, never ale either fish or flesh.

See No. 994.

deemed it so glorious a thing to die for his Master, that he begged to be crucified with his head downwards, not considering himself worthy to die in the same posture in which his Lord did. See Reo. xi. 7-13.

5299. [John xxi. 21.) What shall happen to this, man? shall he suffer or not?

6298. [ -- 18.] It was the custom at Rome to put the necks of those that were to be crucified, into a yoke, and to stretch out their hands and faster thiem to the end of it, and having thus led them through the city, they were carried out to be crucified.

See WESTEIN, in loco. Verse 19.] EUSEBIUS, Prudentius, CARYSOSTOM and AJAOSTIN state that, about thirty-four years after the passion of Christ who suffered, according to Calmet and others, in the thirty-sixth year of his age, Peter was crucified; who

5300. - 24.] Eusebius says, that John, who had all along preached the Gospel by word of mouth, was at last induced to write, because “the three former evangelists, as is evident, only give us an account of the Acts of our Sariour after the imprisonment of John the Baptist."


VIs he went up, behold two other divine manifestations 5305. [- i. 25. That he (the elected Apostle) may as men stood — in white apparel; as at the resurrection. I go to his proper place] Each Apostle had his particular - lo every heaven there are three degrees; the highest is jurisdiction, or office, as Sir Norton KNATCHBULL has very divine, the lowest human, the mediate combines both : the well observed, in his Animadversions on the New Testament, Divine Image in the highest is king, in the second priest, in loco. and in the lowest prophet.

See Essay for a New Translation, Verse 10.

part ii. p. 210.

5302. [- i. 12. A sabbath-day's journey from the extremity of the squares of the camp in the wilderness, the respective distances were two thousand cubits, which consequently became a sabbath-day's journey, to the Lord's tabernacle at the centre. See Exod. xxxiii. 8, &c. Num. IXXV. 5. Josh. üi. 4.

Our law, says Josephus, requires us to go to dinner on sabbath-days, at the sixth hour (or noon).

See his Life, $ 54. A sabbath-day's journey, it may hence be concluded, was but an English mile, as that was the distance' of Olivet from Jerusalem.

See Dr. A. Clarke, on Exod. xvi. 29.

5306. [ ii. 1.) On the fiftieth day from the celebration of the Pass-over in Egypt, the glory of God appeared on mount Sinai. To commemorate that glorious manifestatión at the giving of the Ten Commandments, the Jews celebrate the feast of Pentecost.

See Dr. A. CLARKE, on Exod. xix. 1.

5303. ( 13. Into an upper room] This might be that large one, in which Jesus had celebrated the last pass. over with bis disciples. It is supposed to have belonged to John, surnamed Mark. (See Unirer. Hist. col. 2. p. 104.) - Rather perhaps, it belonged to Joseph of Arimathea.


2-11.) As specula's may be so ordered, that by reflection they shall make one single thing appear many different things; as one single man to seem many men, differing as to shape and complexion : so may Echoing Bodies also be ordered, that from any one sound given, they shall produce many echoes, different both as to their tone and intension. By this meanis a musical Room may be so contrived, that not only one instrument, played on in it, shall seem many of the same sort and size ; but even a consort of (scmewhat) different ones; only by placing certain, echoing bodies so, as that any note (played) shall be returved by them iu 3ds, 5ths, and 8ths.

Br, Narcissus, Derham's Miscellanea

Curiosa, vol. i. p. 138.

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5308. [ Acts ii. 8.] The discourse of spirits with man is common, a rich man among them enjoyed uo more of his in his mother tongue, which they speak as readily and skil. own wealth than be who had nothing at all. fully, as if they had been born in the same country, and had Acts iv. 32.

Joseph. Antiq. b. xviii. ch. i. $ 5. been taught the same language from their infancy; and this,

- vol. iv. whether they be Europeans, or Asiatics, or from any other part of the globe. They know no other than that the language, in which they discourse with a man, is their own 5312. [Acts ii. 44, 45.] The American Indians, in their proper aud native language: the case is the same with common state, are strangers to all distinction of property, the other languages that the man is acquainted with. The except in the articles of domestic use, which everyone reason is, because the language, which is familiar to spirits, considers as his own, and increases as circumstances admit. is not a language of expressions, but a language of ideus

Carver's Trav. in N. America, p. 158. of thought, which is the universal language of all lan

| Even among the Spartans, Lycurgus, a Heathen, it is guages; and when spirits are with a man, the ideas of well known, prevailed on the rich and noble to give up their their thought are conveyed into the expressions which are ample possessions, to throw all they had into a common fund, with the man, and this so correspondently and aptly, that and to reduce themselves to a level with their neighbours. the spirits know no other than that the very expressions

BELOE. are theirs, and that they are speaking in their own language, when yet they are speaking in the language of the man. - All souls are gifted with this faculty, immediately


In this, they might be said to have imi. on their entrance into the other life, that they can understand

tated the instinct of certain animals, particularly of bees. the speech of all that dwell on the face of the whole earth,

These sagacious insects“ are actuated by a social spirit, just as if it were their native tongue, because they perceive

which forms them into a body politic, immediately united, whatever a man thinks.

and perfectly happy. They all labour for the general advanThought is distinguished into ideas, as speech into ex

tare ; they are all submissive to the laws and regulations of pressions. External ideas of thought are the expressions of

the community; having no particular interest, nor distincspirits; and the ideas of more interior thought the expres.

tion, but those which nature or the vecessities of their young sions of angels. Being thus the expressions of their speech,

have introduced amongst them. We never see them dissatisfied ideas are also sonorous among spirits and angels. Hence the

with their condition, nor inclinable to abandon the bive in tacit thought of a man is audible to spirits and angels, when

disgust, at finding themselves slaves or necessitous. On the it so pleases the Lord.

contrary, they think themselves in perfect freedom, and perfect There is a certain channel within the mouth, which is

affluence; and such indeed is their real condition. They are called the eustachian tube, open in the mouth, terminating

free, because they only depend on the laws; and they are in the chamber of the ear, and encompassed with a thin

happy, because the concurrence of their several labors io. membrane; through that channel respiratory air slides in

evitably produces an abundance, which contributes to the under a gentle sound, and thus speaking thought is commu

riches of each individual. Human societies, compared with nicated

this, will appear altogether monstrous; for although necessity, SWEDENBORG, Arcana, nn. 1637, 6624,

reason and philosophy have established them for the com.. 10,587.

mendable purposes of mutual aid and benefit, a spirit of selfishness too often destroys all; and one half of mankind,

to load themselves with superfluities, leave the other destitute 6309.

r 9 .] The Parthians, and Indians near the || of common necessaries.” Ganges, were converted by the Apostle Thomas.

Suitu. Bingham's Antiq. vol. i. p. 365. See No. 1269, 1185. The Persians are here called Elamites. See Jer. xlix. 35 -- 38.

5310. [- 23.] Having taken Him who had been 5314. [ Acts iji. 1.] The Jews had stated hours both for given them by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of public and private prayer. It was Dauiel's custom to pray God, they liad crucified and slain him with wicked hands. — three times a day, see Dun. vi. 10, and this was also the A participle is here used, which denotes the gift and present Il practice of David, Ps. Iv. 17. Hence we learn not only wbich God made of his Son to the Jews, to reclaim them how frequently, but at what times of the day those duties from their error and vice.

were performed. It is generally supposed that the morning See Essay for a New Translation, p. 79. and evening prayers were at the time of offering the morning

and evening sacrifice, that is, at the 3rd and 9th hour :

and the noon prayer was at the 6th hour, or 12 o'clock. 5311. ( 44, 45.] The Essenes, having all things in we find in Scripture no express institution of the sacred

hours of prayer. The Jews say they received them from the | 5319. [Acts v. 13.] Kollao (Grk.), signifying to glue, patriarchs; the first hour from Abraham ; the second from to cement, or to join compactly and close, here means the Isaac; and the third from Jacob.

forming a compact, inviolable band, by an entire union of See Sale's Koran, Prelim. Dis. sect. iv. property and interest ; such as was formed by this first assop. 107.

ciation of sincere Christians, but such as could not, in the nature of things, be expected to take place afterwards among mankind in this world, nor would be expedient.

Bib. Research, vol. i. p. 22. 5315. Acts iii. 1, 3.] The Alames of two candles joined give a much stronger light than both of them separate ; as is made very evident when a person holds the two candles near his face, first separate, and then joined in one. For immediately 6320. [- 34. There stood up one in the council, a on the junction, his face will be observed to be much more || Pharisee, named Gamaliel] Son of that Simeon who took strongly illuminated than it was before. It is conjectured, Jesus in his arms and blessed him, &c. Luke ii. 25, &c. says Dr. PRIESTLEY, that the union of the two fames produces a greater degree of heat, and that this causes a further attenuation of the vapor, and a more copious emission of the particles of which light consists. .

5321. [- - 36, 37.] Josephus tells us, that Judas the See his Hist. of Vision, p. 807. Galilean was several years before Theudas, having lived in

the reign of the emperor Augustus.

Compare Antig. lib. xx. cap. 4. § 1; with Antiq.

lib. xvij. cap. 12. § 5, and War, lib. ii. cap. 4. $ 1. 5316. [ 23.] From a review of mankind, in every

See also Essay for a New Translation, part climate, and under every kind of governinent and religion,

ii. p. 209. we are compelled to conclude, that all are nearly in an equal These Galileans, the sect that followed Judas, professed, degree vicious and immoral. The cloak of civilization ill

in general, Pharisaical principles, but carried them to an couceals the depravity of the heart, and the turbulence of

immoderate length, particularly in civil points ; hurrying their maliguant passions sets the best principles at defiance.

nation into that war, which terminated in the utter ruin of its Mavor. whole people.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iji. p. 63.

5317. (Acts iv. 23.] As a senator among the Romans, aud an alderinan in our own language, signifies a person of such au order and station, without any regard to his age, in like manner a presbyter or elder in the Christian church is one who is ordained to a certain office, and authorized by his quality, not by his age, to discharge the several duties of that office and station, wherein he is placed. — The elders here alluded to, were a sort of ecclesiastical senate, or council to the chief priests, who scarcely did any thing of great weight and moment without asking their advice, and taking their consent, to give the greater force and authority to all public acts done in the name of the church. .

BINGHAM's Antiquilies, vol. i. pp. 74, 76.

6322. [Acts vi. 1.] In this daily ministration, bread was given to poor widows, as is still the custoin in several parish Churches in England.

At these celebrations, which were generally on Sundays, the wine was mixed with water, and the bread was divided into several portions. A part of the consecrated bread and wine was carried to the sick or absent members of the church, as a testimony of fraternal love, sent to them by the whole society. See No.961.

Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. i.

p. 210..

5318. [- 27, 28.] For of a truth both Herod and Pontius Pilate gathered themselves together, with the Gentiles, and people of Israel, against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed to do whatever thy power and wisdom had before determined to be done.

Essay for a New Translation, p. 80.


August 26th, 1815, being the anuiversary l of St. Louis, in the church of St. Eustache, Paris ; several

ladies, with little girls, probably their daughters, extremely well dressed, and accompanied by a commissaire carrying a Jarge silver disii, filled with consecrated bread; paraded up and down the church during divine service, distributing it gratuitously to all who were disposed to avail themselves of their bounty.

Month. Mag.for October 1815, p. 194.

6324. [Acts vi. 3.) Deacons were to Christian ministers, what Levites were to the Jewish priesthood.

See Bingham's Antiq. vol. i. p. 84.

extra five were Joseph's grand-children and great grand. children not boru at the time Jacob went down into Egypt.

Stephen here follows the Septuagint, which is erroneous. See Gen. xlvi. 27. But in Deut. x. 22, the Septuagint has but 70.

5325. [ 5.] A proselyte adopts new opinions; a convert changes his life.

A man, so long as he lives in the natural world, can be let into the wisdom of spiritual things, and also into the love of them : This may and can be done, as well with those who are merely natural, as with those who are spiritual ; but with this difference, that the latter are reformed by them, while the former are not.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence, n. 225.

5329. [Acts vii. 15, 16.) Josephus (Antig. b. ii. ch. ) says expressly, that the bodies of Joseph's brethren were carried back by their children and grand-children, and buried in Hebron : but that Joseph's bones were carried by the Hebrews into Cagaan when they departed out of Egypt, as he had bound them by an oath. (Compare Gen. I. 25 with Exod. xiii. 19.) — Accordingly those brethren were buried, as above, in Sichem ; Joshua xxiv. 32.

5326 1 9 .] Asia comprises, according to PinkerTON, Asiatic Turkey and Russia, the Chinese empire, Japan, | 5330. - 20.] Moses — was divinely fair or fair the Birman empire, Siam, Hindostan, Persia, Independent I with God, or of a divine form. Tartary, and Arabia.

JOSEPHUS, Antiq. b. ii. ch. ix. $ 6. There was in Lybia a town or district called Libertina, wiose inhabitants were named Libertines.


5331. [- 22.] The true wisdom which Moses learned in Egypt, may be fairly considered as brought and estab. lished there by Abrahain and the Patriarchs.

He was educated at Heliopolis.

5327. [Acts vii. 6.] The four hundred years tliat Abraham's seed sojourned in a strange land, must be reckoned, not from their going into Egypt, but from the birth of Isaac. - While they sojourned in Canaan, Gerar, or elsewhere, they were still in a strange land where they had not a foot of ground, except the cave of Machpelah. — They were brought into bondage aud evil entreated of men, though blessed of God and favoured with unspeakable promises. Isaac was oppressed in Gerar, his wells filled up by its inhabitants, and himself ultimately forced from amongst them, Jacob served and was oppressed by Laban nearly twenty years. Yet ueither of them laboured under a continual oppression. The Egyptian servitude did not commence till Joseph and his brethren were dead : before that the Israelites lived in peace and plenty. These things duly considered, it will be found that they had at most but a huudred and twenty-two years of thraldom. So that the natural sense of the prophecy alluded to by Stephen can only be this : that Abraham's seed, from Isaac onwards, should be strangers in a land not theirs, during the space of 400 years; during part of which period they should be oppressed, afflicted, and at length brought under bondage: which term being expired, they should find a happy deliverance.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 364.


There might then be in Egypt Traditions, which had come directly from Adam to Lamech, to Noah, to Terab, to Abraham, to Jacob, to Levi, to Amram, to Moses — who undoubtedly had seen all the hieroglyphical representations preserved among the Israelites, and also all of that kind that constituted the wisdom of the leathen Egyptians. In particular, it is said, that Abraham taught the Egyptians many things; and it is written, that Joseph was to teach their senators wisdom : all which especially, Moses might be induced carefully to learn.

See Hutchinson's Covenant in the Che

rubim, p. 7. .

5333. .. Our legislator, says JOSEPHUS, speaks some things wisely, but enigmatically, and others under a decent allegory, but still explains such things as required a direct explication plainly and expressly.

Preface to Antiquities of the Jews.

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