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Verse 16.] According to my gospel, says Luke, the amanuensis. Compare No. 5499.

5479. (Rom. i. 20.] As we should not see the light of 11 the Sun, did it not rest on bodies, or at least on clouds; so we should never lay hold on truth, did it not fix on sen. sible events, or at least on metaphors and comparisons which reflect it.

· St. PIERRE, Works, col. iv. p. 504.

5480. - The philosopher, by learned investigations, and the force of his own understanding, may be conyinced of the great truths of natural religion ; but, without the sanction of supernatural authority, he will never be able to convince others, who will never believe his doctrines, or obey his precepts.

Soamr. Jenyns' Works, vol. iii. p. 298.

5486. [Rom. ii. 19.] As shell-fish are observed to thrive at the increase of the moon, though her light be unattended with heat, and though even when she is at full, she wants not her spots; so devout hearers will be careful to prosper proportionably to the instructions they receive even from those preachers, whose illuminations are unaccompanied with zeal and charity, and who, when they shine with the greatest lustre, are not free from their darknesses, as to some points, or from notorious blemishes.

Boyle's Reflections, p. 58. — Works,

vol. iy.

5481. [- 25. Changed the truth of God into a || 5487. 1— 24. The name of God is blasphemed among lie] Whatever, in the circle of affection, does not change us | the Gentiles through you] When Governor Flanter had preinto itself, that we change, as far as may be, into ourselves. sented the Iroquese Indians with fine clothes sent them by order See No. 223, 1210.

LAVATER. of Queen Anne, he further told them, that she intended likewise

to adorn their souls, by the preaching of the gospel, and that for this purpose some ministers would be sent to instruct

them. Immediately one of the oldest Sacbems got up, and 5482.

The life of evil lusls, and of pleasures thence derived, appears at times like a coal-fire ainongst evil

answered, that in the name of all the Indians, he thanked spirits. The life of the Lord's love and mercy, which

their gracious good Queen and mother for the fine clothes she

had sent them; but that in regard to the ministers, they had flows into them, is changed into such a fiery (carbonic acid).

already had some among them, who had taught them to drink SweDeNBORG, Arcana, n. 1528.

to excess, to cheat and to quarrel among theinselves. He therefore entreated the Governor to take fruin them these preachers, and a number of Europeans who resided amongst them; for

before they came, he said, the Indians had been an honest, 5483. - Iu the process of respiration, a portion of

sober, and innocent people, but that most of them were uow oxygenous gas disappears, and an equal one of carbonic

become rogues; that they had forinerly had the fear of God, acid is produced.

but that at present they hardly believed His existence. Dalton's Chem. Philosophy, part ii. p. 227.

See Kalm's Trav. in Pinkerton's Colle See No. 1205, 1073, 1196, 1201.

part liv. p. 538.

5484. (Rom. ii. 14, 15.] The Samoiedes, unacquainted with any law, and without terms even for vice or virtue, are accustomed to preserve their wives each to themselves, and carefully to avoid all degrees of consanguinity in marrying to such a degree, that a man never marries a girl descended from the same family with himself, however distant the affinity.

PINKERTON's Coll. vol. i. p. 532.

5488. [- 25.) The Jews, in later timnes, bad cortrived a plan to render their circumcision imperceptible, and to form a new prepuce, when they were desirous to make the completest possible renunciation of the religion of their fathers; see 1 Macc. i. 15.

MICHAELIS. See No. 1228, 1267.

5485. - The Jakutskoi of Asiatic Tarlary do not worship idols carved in wood, like many of the neighbouring wations, but offer sacrifices to an invisible God in heaven ; whom they worship under three different denominations.

SMITH's Wonders of Nature and Art.

5489. [Rom. iii. 8.) IR: I, by oppression, reduce an innoIl cent man to poverty, and if Providence endow himn with

strength of mind to bear his misfortune as becomes a Chris. Il can, it is possible he may be happier in adversity than ever U he was in prosperity. But will this excuse me for what Is

have done? If it is unlawful to enslave an inoffensive crea- | according to a common law respecting angelic ideas, that ture, no unforeseen and unintentional good consequences that during their descent into the world of spirits, they are fixed may follow opon it, will ever render it lawful. The knife of and exhibited representatively. — But these are things which the ruffian may disiniss a good man froin the troubles of this cannot as yet be clearly comprehended, because the nature of life, and send him to Heaven ; but is it therefore lawful to the influx of the Angelic heaveu into the World of Spirits is murder a good mau ? If we estimate the morality of actions, unknowo). not by the intention of the agent; but by the consequences

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, t. 730. whereof, by the overruling care of a good Providence, they may be productive, we shall at once confound all moral principles.


5494. [Rom. v. 6. Without strength] the finite spirit of truth not having received the power given by the influx of the lufinite Human and the Divine; the all of power in heaven and on earth.

5490. Rom. iii. 23. All have sinned, and come short of the glory of God] When we talk in general of frailties, faulte, and the weakness of human nature, every person ac. knowledges himself guilty. But give to these weaknesses, or faults, their true names, read over the whole register distinctly, and then enquire around you ; - not a single individual will own his share. What an inconsistency ! - The truth is, God alone is good; the want of the effulgence of His glory in the soul of man, is our natural or hereditary state of evil; actual transgression alone, produces positive sin, or realizes " the iniquity of the fathers upon their children." - In the latter, and in the former sense surely, “ all have sinned and come short of the glory of God.” See No. 5316. All have sinued, aud have need of the glory of God.


5495. [- 10.] The atonement, or reconciliation by the death of Christ, is thus to be understood: The Jews. and Gentile Romans having affixed Him to the cross, He voluntarily laid down His life to prevent their sin in killing llim by the breaking of His legs; and, to reconcile their inimical designs with the beneficial intentions of the divine will and wisdomn, in the death of that merely human nature from the Virgio, which, otherwise, might have been exalted by man into an object of idolatrous worship. - It should be noted also here, that the manslayer was set at liberty, and restored to bis possessions and privileges, by the death of the high-priest. See Num. XXXV. 25, 32.

5491. i - 24.] Dia tes apolutroseos (Grk.), through the ransom paid for the redeeming of captives.

Boyle's Seraphic Lore, p: 106.

5492. [ 30.] Among the Jews, it is well known, there were two kinds of proselyles ; one of the gate, another of justice. The latter, fully admitted to every privilege of the Mosaic codenant, were is nothing different from the Jews, except in their having been once heathens. Now these being justified, or made full proselytes of justice, under the Law, by CIRCUMCISION; the Apostle argues that Jews and Gentiles, or the circumcision as well as the uncircumcision, are justi. fied, or made proselytes of God's justice, under the Gospel covenant, simply BY FAITH.

See Dr. A. Clarke, on Exod. xi. 43.

. 5496. [- 20. Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound) Thus Providence has caused the Rattle-snake Plantain, an approved antidote to the poison of the reptile from which it receives its name, to grow in great profusion wherever that species of snake particularly abounds; and during those months in which the bite of this creature is most venomous, this remedy for it is also in its greatest perfection, and most luxuriant in its growth.

Carver's Trad. in N. America, See No. 1253.

pp. 320, 344.

5497. [Rom. vi. 16.) Man is a threefold being; he has

three natures ; he partakes of the divine, the elementary, 5493. Rom. iv. 17. God calleth the things which are and the diabolical nature. Had he not these three natures not, as though they were] What is to come, and what is Il in a certain degree in him, he could have no coinmunion with present, are the same thing with the Lord, and thereby the God, he could not enjoy the elements, nor could the evil

elic heaven. There what is to come, is spirits have the least power of access to him. present; or what will come to pass, that is coine to pass, –

Law's Spirit of Prayer, p. 192.


5498. [Rom. vi. 16.] For the true ground, and absolute necessity of turning wholly and solely to the Spirit of God, you need only know this plain truth ; namely, that the Spirit of God, the spirit of satan, or the spirit of this world, are, and must be, the one or the other of them, the continual leader, guide, and inspirer, of every thing that lives in nature. There is no going out from some one of these; the moment you cease to be moved, quickened, and inspired by God, you are infallibly moved, and directed by the spirit of satan, or the world, or by both of them. And the reason is, because the soul of man is a spirit, and a life, that in its whole being is nothing else but a birth both of God and nature; and therefore every moment of its life, it must live in some union and conjunction, either with the spirit of God governing nature, or with the spirit of nature fallen from God, and working in itself. As Creatures therefore, we are under an absolute necessity of being under the motion, guidance, and inspiration, of some spirit, that is more and greater than our own. All that is in our power, is only the choice of our leader ; but led and moved we must be, and by that spirit, to which we give up ourselves, whether it be to the spirit of God, or the spirit of fallen nature. To seek therefore to be always under the inspiration and guidance of God's Holy Spirit, and to act by an immediale power from it, is not proud enthusiasm, but as sober and humble a thought, as suitable to our state, as to thjuk of renouncing the world and the devil; for they never are, or can be, renounced by us, but so far as the spirit of God is living, breathing and moving in us.

Ibid. p. 139.

animal part of their children, as the means of more properly influencing and guiding the mental. It cannot be unknown that however a madman may rage and rave, however strongly his mind may be exercised, it never improves; he gaios no accession of knowledge: the case is not precisely similar, but there is an analogy, between a man actually inad, and a man the slave of any passion; whatsoever he does, wherever he goes, this passion gives a color to his conduct; it is always uppermost in the mind, and it guides the understanding. To make any advances in self-government is impossible; the strong bent of the mind to run in a certain direction must first be corrected; the madness must first be overcome; the influence of religion is, indeed, alone sufficient to effect it. A man preparing to run a race, to fight a battle, or even to wrestle, lives in a prescribed manner; no gratification is allowed ; no passion is indulged or provoked; he has an end in view, and that is attained only by the due subserviency of the body. But in common life, the food most desired and most indulged in is, that which most excites the darling passion. We are not as wise in training our offspring, as we are in training of gladiators; the effect of food is known, as applied to the one; but is unconsidered in our treatment of the other.

Luke xvi. 8. D1, JARROLD's Anthropologia, p. 108. I Cor. ix, 25.

5503. [Rom. viii. 15. We cry, Abba, Father) addressing ourselves to him as an own father, with the affection of legitimate children, in full trust and assurance that the Father himself loves us ; that he haath prepared a kingdom for us (in the eternal heaveus) before the foundation of the world ; and that he sends the Comforter, that Promise of the Father, to guide, and strengthen, and support us auder all the infirmities of nature.

Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Under

standing, p. 331.

7499. (Rom. vii. 3. She shall be called] The word Chrematisei (Grk.) is here again used in the peculiar sense in which it first occurs Acis xi. 26. This is no mean interval evidence, that the Acts of the Apostles, and the eleven first chapters of this Epistle, were, as has been observed above, equally written by St. Luke. See Rom. ji. 16.


7. I had not known covetousness to be a sin, if the law had not said, Thou shalt not codet.

Month. Mag. for Sept. 1815, p. 107.

6504. [- 17.] The adopted son, and the after born sons to the person who adopted him, shall be coheirs of the estate : but no adoption by a man who has legitiinate sons then born, shall be valid. — An adopted sou could not himself adopt another : he must either leave a legitimate sou — or the estate he received from his adopting father must revert to his adopting father's natural heirs : there cannot be two adopted sons at the same time. See No. 1247, &c. Laws of Athens, as stated by

Sir WILLIAM Jones.

5501. - 24.] Who shall deliver me from this body, this death P - The grace of God, through our Lord Jesus, the Christ.

See No. 1237, 1239, 1268, 1262.

5505. [- 22.] Nothing can be more shocking or horrid than one of our kitchens sprinkled with blood and abounding with the cries of creatures expiring, or with the limbs of dead animals scattered or hung up here and there. It gives one an image of a giant's den in romance, bestrewed with the scattered heads and mangled lipbs of those who were slain by his cruelty.


5502. [Rom. viii. 13. If ye live after the flesh, ye shall die] It greatly concerns parents and others to attend to the

5506. [Rom. viii. 22.] MAITLAND, generally allowed to be a faithful and accurate historian, furnishes us with a table of the quantity of cattle consumed annually in London, during the year 1782, when that city was far less populous than it is at present :

Beeves.......... .... 98,244
Calves .......................... 194,760
Hogs ........................


.... 52,000 Sheep and Lambs ......... 711,123

destruction and extermination. — Hence the full sense of the Apostle's words will be this: I could even wish that the destruction and extermination to which my Brethren the Jews, are devoted by Christ, might, if it would save them from ruin, be executed upon me, in the stead of those my kiosmen after the flesh, who are Israelites. St. Paul well knew the dreadful consequences of the Jews' rejecting Christ, a shameful dispersion over the face of the earth, and eternal destruction afterwards, to as many as would not repent; yet he wishes that infinite evil to himsell, on condition it could save them. The human heart can go no further. It is not possible to wish a greater evil for the sake of a greater good.

BARTON's Analogy, part vii. p. 167.


1,243,059 The amount of auimals groaning and dying for the carnivorous Londoners alone! If we could add the fish and the fowls, the number would be more than threefold.

5512. [Rom. ix. 10, 11.] More than one child cannot be 5507. - 28.1 There is nothing so luminous in the conceived at one and the same time. When there are twins, study of nature, as to refer every thing that exists to the

there has always been a superfetation. Consequenly, the goodness of God, and to the demands of humanity.

first born, as Esau, is the last begotten, or really the St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. ii. younger; whilst the last born, as Jacob, is the first beyolp. 256.

ten, or truly the elder. – Every superfetation is necessarily the offspring of lust : Esau was therefore hated, when he had realized his disposition to lust by committing fornication

with the daughters of the land'. - This child of lust inhe5008. [- 29.] No one was ever shocked at hearing

rited also a disposition to murder, even his own brother. See the systems which are made in Bedlam; and those who quote Gen. xxvii. 41. then have ever been excused the making a refutation of them.

Abbe Pluche.

6513. [ - 17.] It was just, and according to that law of inheritance called predestination that a legitimate

Pharaoh should be raised to the throne, rather than an adopted 5509. [- 29, 30.] Concerning the controversies be- ||

Moses. tween the Calvinists and the Remonstrants, about Predes

· See No. 446, &c. tination, and the coherent doctrines; - those that are truly pious of either party are perhaps otherwise looked on by God than by one another, as contending, which of God's attributes should be most respected; the one seeming to affirm irre 5514.


2 1. Hath not the polter power over the spective decrees, to magnify his GOODNESS, and the other to clay, &c.] That is, to form the same matter into a human, deny them but to secure the credit of his JUSTICE.

animal, vegetable, or mineral substance. See No. 1248. Boyle's Seraphic Love, p. 104.

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6510. 1

3 7.) To affirm that a believer is more than a conqueror, is to affirin that he conquers without a combat, and triumphs without resistance ; obtaining victory through Him thai loved us.

See Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 298.

5515. (Rom. a. 16. They have not all obeyed the gospel? “It is one of the great mistakes in Moreri's Dictionary, to say, that in the time of Theodosius the Younger, no idolaters remained but in the remote parts of Asia and Africa. There were still, and even down to the seventh century, many Gentile uations in Italy. All Germany north of the Weser were strangers to Christianity in Charlemagne's time; and long a ter him Poland, and the whole North, continued in what is called idolatry. Half Africa, all the realms beyond the Gauges, Japan, the innumerable commonalty of China, a

- 5511. [Roin. ix. 3.] Cherem (Ilebr.), which the Septuagint reuder anathema, signifies persons or things devoted to

hundred Tartarian hordes, retaiu their antient worship; whereas || which is thus formed in the root and carried upwards. She in Europe this religion is to be found only among some Lap conceives that the pollen ascends in like manuer, passing landers, Samoiedes, and Tartars.”

only to the male flowers, while the balls or embryos ascend VOLTAIRE. to the females ; no balls being seen in male trees, and no pollen in female ones.

See Tilloch's Journal for March 1815,

vol. xlv. p. 188.

5516. (Rom. xi. 9.] Circumcision represented the new birth : without circumcision no male could eat the paschal Jamb : but all that were circumcised, were not therefore born of the Spirit. In this sense, their table would be a snare; they would eat and drink unworthily, and thus procure from Hades “ their own damnation.”

5517. [ 11, &c.] It being a law of the Divine Providence that there should always be on earth, as much heaven as hell; when the Jews had rejected heaven, it fell necessarily on the Gentile world. See Deut. xxx. 15. Jer. xxi. 8. - This is grace. The same influence, when coming in opposition to evil, is mercy.

5520. (Rom. xi. 24.) The olive-tree, whose expressed oil is so abundantly used in the Levitical sacrifices, forms the riches of its fruit, not from the species of the grafi, but of the root and stem ; a lesson for the heathens, for naturalists, - for all wom the Apostle here charges with acting unnaturally, in attempting the salvation of the impeuitent by faith (whilst there is no radical change in the life). (See Horcajnson's Use of Reason Recodered, p. 123. And Exod. xl. 13.) lu the good olive-tree Jesus Christ, the grafi, the adopted Christian, cannot change the Root, but the Root changes the nature and fruit of the graft : whilst in every sectarian church that has man for its root, as in every kind of tree but the olive, the graft, the adopted convert, invariably changes the virtue of his root, as the doctrine of Calviu, Luther, Wesley, and Swedenborg, &c., are at this day successively changing in their respective followers into leuets the direct opposite to what was maintained by those founders.

5518. (- 17, &c.] A Syrian Vine, growing, 1789, in the hot house at Welbeck, produces, by grafting, sixteen different sorts of grapes.

SPEECHLY, on the Vine, p. 221.
The trees, which of themselves advance in air,
Are barren kinds, but strongly built and fair :
Because the vigor of the pative earth
Maintains the plant, and makes a manly birth.
Yet these, receiving grafts of other kind,
Or thence transplanted, change their savage mind :
Their wildness lose, and quitting nature's part,
Obey the rules and discipline of art.

Virgil. The Golden Pippin, when grafted on a crab-stock, produces the highest-flavoured fruit.

SPEECHLY, p. 223. That common fluid, called the sap in trees, ascends in the spring and summer from their roots. But there is another, a peculiar juice of trees and plants, which is generated by the leaf : this, introduced by engrafting, gives flavor and form to the pulp of fruit; the ascending aqueous sap supplies the seed.

See Phil, Trans. for 1805, p. 88.

5521. - Olives flower in June.

Young. The Olive yields (by virtue of the descending sap) more oil than any other plaut, and yet thrives best on dry arid rocky soils, of absolute poverty; so far as oil is concerned.

Ibid. Pinkerton's Coll. part xvi. p. 500. Vines and olives, attracting nourislıment principally by their leaves, stand in no weed of water, but thrive admirably on the driest soils without it. Compare John iv. 32. — xv. I, &c.

Ibid. part xvii. p. 667. N. B. The fat of all the sacrifices siinply consisted in the olive vil.

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In regard to the economy of general vegetation, Mrs. Ibbetson appears to have actually proved froni observation, that the embryos of the seeds are formed in the roots of plants, from which they ascend to the seedvessel through the alburnum vessels. She says it is the heurt of 'the seed, constituting the embryo of the future plant,


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