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5524. (Rom. xii. 5. One body in Christ] exhibited so in the New Christian Heaven, by the glory of Christ striking on our distinct souls and reflected up again, directly under Him, into one united body, as a married pair become one spiritual flesh. See Matt. xix. 6.

5525. [- 10.] By analogy with the Physical World, which is supported as a whole by the principles of attraction and repulsion, we discover, that in the Moral World the principle of mutual love will constantly direct the approach of one member to another, and that the principle of reverence, which is due to everyone, will keep them each at a proper distance.

ΚΑΝΤ.

5530. (Rom. xii. 20.] In Turkey, there lies no appeal beyond the Grand Vizier, except to the person of the Grand Seignior, of which this is the manner : At cerlain hours of the day, when the gates of the Seraglio are set open for the admittance of citizens, such persons as would complain of any grievous injury they have suffered, and which the injustice or connivance of the Vizier has refused to redress, enter hastily the outward court, and putting pots of fire on their heads, run swiftly forward; nor dare the greatest officer presume to stop them, till they arrive at the presence of the Grand Seignior, whose justice they implore to redress their wrongs. (Hill's Trav. p. 9.) — Thus they will in troops attend the coming forth of the Emperor, and by burning straw (in pots) on their heads provoke his regard.

SANDYS' Trav. p. 62.

5526. - 15.) From our aptitude to imitation arises what is generally understood by the word sympathy. - Thus the appearance of a cheerful countenance gives us pleasure, and that of a melancholy one makes us sorrowful. Yawning, and sometimes vomiting, are thus propagated by sympathy; and some people of delicate fibres, at the presence of a spectacle of misery, have felt pain in the same parts of their bodies, that were diseased or mangled in the object they saw.'

The effect of this powerful agent in the moral world, is the foundation of all our intellectual sympathies with the pains and pleasures of others, and is in consequence the source of all our virtues. For in what consists our sympathy with the miseries or with the joys of our fellow-creatures, but in an involuntary excitation of ideas in some measure similar or imitative of those which we believe to exist in the minds of the persons whom we commiserate or congratulate !

Darwin's Temple of Nature, canto iii.

1. 466.

5531. [- 20, 21.] PYTHAGORAS used to say, Let men avenge themselves on their enemies only by labour. ing lo convert them into friends : and Socrates taught, that it was not lawful for a man who had received an injury, 10 revenge it by doing another injury.

To overcome evil with good, is the most glorious of all victories: it is the most beneficial, because this amiable conduct alone can put an end to an eternal succession of injuries and retaliations ; for every retaliation becomes a new injury, and requires another act of revenge for satisfaction.

Soame Jenyns' Works, vol. iv. p. 46.

5527.

The bad man is he who confines his reason to ohjects regarding himself personally, who merely looks at other men, but has no feeling for them. Rom. i. 31. St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature,

vol. iii. p. 6.

5532. (Rom. xiji. 1.] In all human Society there are two powers; the one temporal, the other spiritual. You find them combined, as body with soul, in all the Governments of the World ; in Europe, in Asia, in Africa, and in America. As the flesh lusts against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh; so, in the body politic, are these powers often contrary the one to the other. When, in this case, Nations are coerced by the spiritual power, they resort for relief to the temporal , when this last oppresses in its turn, they have recourse to the other. When both concur, as by infernal combination, to render them miserable; then arise heresies in swarms, schistos, civil wars, and a multitude of secondary powers, which balance the abuses of the two first till there results at length a general apathy, and a final dissolution of the Civil Body.

See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. i. p. 323.

5528. [- 18.] In Africa, there is one tribe distinguished by the name of Pholeys, whose constant maxim is, if possible, to live in peace ; who are no indifferent proficients in some of the arts of civil life ; and, perhaps, second to no people in benevolence and humanity.

Dr. W. Alexander's llist. of Women,

vol. i. p. 186.

5529. [- 19.] Plutarch says, We ought not to give || 5533. 1 6. For this cause pay ye tribute also] place to wrath : no, not in jest, or play.

Nothing can be more reasonable than au impartial and moderate taxation, by which the necessary expenses of the slate may be defrayed; but there is no insinuation in the apostle's || to idols ; or things that had been slored by Gentiles in the words in behalf of an extravagant and oppressive taxation, skins of unclean beasts. See Lev. xi ; and Acts x. 15. for the support of unprincipled and unnecessary wars; or the See No. 99. pensioning of corrupt or useless men.

TCHBULL.

Dr. A. CLARKE, in loco.

5537. [Rom. xiv. 23.] It was Paul's custom, to close his

exhortations with prayers and doxologies. 5534. [Rom. xii. 10. Love is the fulfilling of the law]

See Rom. xvi. 25 – 27.

CHRYSOSTOM. The tranquillity of every nation, we know, is maintained by the authority of positive laws, and the terror of penal sanctions; for in the present imperfect state of things, there is no other effectual method of preserving the public repose, but a certain ineasure of force and authority to overawe the unjust, the violeut and audacious ; human laws being a kind

5538. [Rom. xv. 16. The offering up of the Gentiles] of props devised to support a tottering edifice. But was the

| See Isai. Ixvi. 20. Num. viii. 11, 13, 21. Gen. xxij. 2. power of benevolence felt universally prevailing, then might we see the world stand self-balanced and secure, without the need of either laws or punishments to hold it up. Benevolence, in that case, would do the work of government, and serve to every person as an inward law, infinitely superior to

5539. (Rom. xvi. 10. Aristobulus] Was this the son of the highest positive obligation; and we find, in fact, that every society which is not founded on principles of mutual love among

Herod the Great by his second wife Mariamue ? the members, and of affection to the welfare of the whole, when viewed in a just light, is no society at all, is a contradiction to itself, and involves its own ruin in its bosom.

5540. [ 18.] Learn what an evil to mortals

DRYSDALE. their stomach is, what crimes it dietates to them, compelled See No. 1215.

as it were by necessity. Take away this part from the body, and no one will advertently injure bis neighbour : whereas, at present, every meanuess, every atrocity, is committed for its sake.

ATHENEUS; Quoled by Newton, in his Defence 5535. [Rom. xiv. 1.] Dialogismos (Grk.), in the Sep

of Vegetable Regimen, vol. i. p. 32. tuagint and in the New Testament, generally denotes the thought of a man reasoning within himself.

STEPHANUS.

5541. [- 25, 26.] How was the Gospel kept secret, but by being not literally but typically contained in the Old Testament ? And how could it be manifested thence, but by

the developement of a sense applying therein to Christ and 5536. [- 2.] The Jew, who is timid, eats herbs ; his kingdom, previously unknown ? lest eating fruits put up in skins, he should eat things devoted |

See Locke in loco, and on 1 Cor. ii. 17.

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I HE Church of Christ was planted by Paul at Corinth, , 6546. j. 12.) Such are the hereditary attachments of about A. D. 52. — This (Paul's third) Epistle was written the goat species, that so long as several generations continue from Ephesus, a little before Pentecost, in the year 56.

in the same vicinity, the progenitors recognize their offspring, and the family distinguish each other. Every tribe herds logether, whether they browse on the mountains, rest on the

plains, or seek shelter in the cot. 5543. i. 12, 13, &c.) At the adoption by baptism

Month. Mag. for Jan. 1815, p.514. a name was given; among Christians, the name of Father Son and Holy Spirit.

6547. [- 20.] When the first General Council was convened at Nice, on the appearing of the Christian Bishops

there, several of the Heathen Philosophers offered themselves 5544. [ 12.] When the principles of a science rest | among the sons of God, intending to signalize themselves on on the firm basis of facts, there can be no sects or parties so great an occasion, by attacking the Faith in its most emiamong those who cultivate it. Occasional error may have nent professors, and by endeavouring to overthrow it by Phi. crept into mathematical science; but there are no sects of losophy and Reason. To this end, several conferences were mathematicians.

held on the principles of Reason, by the most noted men of See Dr. LAMBE's Additional Reports on | their party ; in which one of their Philosophers more forRegimen in Chronic Diseases, p. 5. ward than the rest, began to grow insolent, on a supposed

advantage; and must needs triumph before victory. An aged Bishop took fire at this ; one, who had been a Confessor in

the late Persecution, and was inore noted for his faith than 5645.

Truth will ever stand upright alone; but learning. Philosophy he had none, but encounters his advererror is tottering, and falls to the ground when its props are sary in a new manner; in the name of Jesus, and by the removed ; and every thing merely human is to be esteemed, Word of God. Adducing thence a few plain weapons, he not according to the Person who said it, but according to the humbles the pride of this arrogant Philosopher, and leads himn intrinsic weight of what is said. . .

unreluctant to the Font. All Ibe reply our Philosopher bad Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Under left him, was, That while he was encountered by philosophy derstanding, p. 47.

and human learning, he could defend himself in the same way :

but being attacked by higher Reasons, it was necessary for in other deities are only intermediate beings; heroes and empe. him to yield himself to the power of God.

rors were classed ainong the gods, which meant no more than Sozom. Hist. 1. i. c. 18. Rufix. Hist. the blessed ; for it is not supposed that Claudius, Octavius, 1. i. c. 3.

Tiberius, and Caligula, were accounted creators of beaven and earth. — In a word, it seems certain that in Augustus's tire, all who had any religion acknowledged one supreme eternal

God, with several classes of secondary deities; the worship5548. [1 Cor. i. 21.) They could not out of the good

ping of whom has since been called idolatry. things that are seen know Him that is ; neither, by consider

VOLTAIRE. ing the works, did they acknowledge the Work-master : but deemed either fire, or wind, or swift air, or the circle of the stars, or the violent water, or the lights of Heaven, to be the Gods which govern the world.

5553. (1 Cor. si. 9.] Thought, in the other life, diffuses Wisdom of SOLOMON, xiii. 2. l itself into societies of spirits and angels round about; and

the faculty of understanding and perceiving thert, is accord

ing to its extension into those societies. Also there, in one 5549. - 27, 28.] The moon, though she be small,

idea of thought are things innumerable, and more so in one less elevated, and full of imperfections, lends yet a useful light

thought composed of ideas.

SweDENBORG, Arcana, n. 6599. to men, and produces here and there a motion that obeys a heavenly influence; while a star of the first magnitude, though

Verse 10.] Ta bathe tou Theou (Grk.), the depths of more high, more vast,' 'and more flawless, shines only bright God. enough to make itself conspicuous.

BOYLE. Boyle.

6550. [ 29.] Me pasa sarx (Grk.), no flesh : this correct rendering will clear up many a text in the Old, as well as New Tostament.

See KnATCHBULL, on Rom. x. 16.

5554. [- ]1.] The Light and Love of God admit of no delineation or comparison, they are only so far known to any one, as they are brought into the soul by a birth of themselves in it.

Law's Appeal, p. 101.

5555. [1 Cor. ii. 13. Comparing spiritual things with

spiritual] “ To form our ideas of things on their actual re5551. [1 Cor. ii. 4.] When people hear any one speak

lations only, betokens a solid understanding : whereas, lo and teach wisely, they believe him to be wise. In coinpany be contented with their apparent relations, betrays a superfihowever, the man of knowletlge, whatever be his diposition,

cial one. To conceive these relations as they really exist, thinks and speaks from his memory, and if he be merely na

displays 'a right judgment; to conceive mistaken notions of tural, from the surface of his love, which is the affection of them, denotes a wrong one. Those who see imaginary relahonor, glory, or lucre ; but when he is alone, he thinks from | tions, that have neither reality lior appearance, are madmen ; the interior love of his spirit, and then not wisely, but some

while those who make no comparison between them, are idiots. times insanely. Hence it may appear, that no one is to be

The less or greater aptitude to compare these ideas and discojudged of from wisdom of speech, but from his life; that is, not

ver şuch relations, is what constitutes a greater or less degree from a wisdom of speech separate from his life, but from the of genius or understanding.”

ROUSSEAU. wisdom of speech joined to his life. SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love,' n. 418. Those who have connected a great class of ideas of resem

blances, possess the source of the ornaments of poetry and oratory, and of all rational analogy

Darwin's Temple of Nature, canto ir. 5552. 1 7 . We speak the wisdom of God in a

1. 299. mystery] “ Orpheus and others instituted mysteries, which the initiated swear by execrable oaths never to reveal; and of these mysteries the principal is the worship of one only God. This great truth spreads over half the earth: the number of 5556. — Proper comparisous do the imagination the initiated swells immensely: the antient religion indeed still almost as much service, as microscopes do the eye; for, as subsists; but not being contrary to the tenet of God's unity, it this instrument gives us a distinct view of divers ininute is connived at. The Romans had their Deus Optiinus Maxi. things, which our naked eyes cannot well discern; because inus; the Greeks their Zeus, their supreme God. All the these glasses represent them far more large, than by the bare

ye we judge them : so a skilfully chosen, and well-applied, man, who, after the Koran, maintains, that the earth is carcomparison much helps the imagination, by illustrating things ried on the horns of a bull; certainly found their opinions on scarcely discernible, so as to represent them by things much | ridiculous principles and prejudices: yet each of them, in more familiar and easy to be apprehended.

bis own country, is esteemed a person of sense. What can Boyle's Preface to the Christian be the reason of this ? . It is because they maintain opinions Virtuoso, part i.

generally received. - If a sage descended from heaven, and in his conduct cousulted only the light of reason, he would universally pass for a fool. All are so scrupulously attached to the interest of their own vanity, that the title of wise is only

given to the fools of the common folly. The more foolish au 5557. [1 Cor. iii. 15.] The virtue of a load-stone may be

opinion is, the more dangerous it is to prove its folly, quite destroyed by fire.

Fontenelle was accustomed to say, that if he held every truth Smith's Wonders of Nature und Art,

in his hand, he would take great care not to open it lo shew vot. iii. p. 34.

thein to men.

In destroying prejudices, we ought to treat them with respect : like the doves from the ark, we ought to send some

truths on the discovery, to see if the deluge of prejudices does 5558. In the fire ordeal, the supposed culprit

not yet cover the face of the earth ; if error begin to subside; was either to receive in liis hand a piece of red-hot iron, of and if there can be perceived here and there some isles, where one or three pounds weight according to the nature of the virtue and truth may find rest for their feet, and communicate crime, and to carry it to the distance of three full paces, or

themselves to mankind. nine feet ; or else he was to walk barefoot over nine red-hot

HELVETIUS. ploughshares, placed at cqual distances, that he might take

However men may please themselves with an opinion of nine paces upon them, placing his foot at each step firmly

their own wisdom, it is plain, the wisest men know little; and with the whole weight of his body on one of the irons.

they that are fullest of themselves, and boast the highest, do — English history affords but one instance of a person undergoing this sort of trial.

usually see least, and are only wise for want of thinking. Archæologia, vol. xv. pp. 193, 194.

Reflections on Learning, p. 2.

5559.

16, 17.) “ God has created me, God is ] within me;. I carry him about every where. Shall I defile him with obscene thoughts, unjust actions, or infamous desires ? My duty is to thank God for everything, to praise

5562. [1 Cor. iv. 3.) In England we call him a day's him for every thing; and to thank, praise, and serve him con

man, who is closeu umpire to judge between party and party; tinually, whilst I have life.”

probably from the Latin phrase, a dicendo diem, from apEPICTETUS.

| pointing a day in which the day's man is to give his judgment.

Sir NORTON KNATCHBULL.

5560. [- 18.] To free ourselves from prejudices and errors, we must endeavour to forget all that we have learned, to trace back our ideas to their source, to follow the train in 5563. [- 6.] The sublimity of manners and sentiwhich they rise, ani', as Lord Bacon says, to frame the hu ments supposes a society depraved, where virtue requires man understanding anew. -- This remedy becomes the more heroism to resist contagion; where the few are only great, difficult, in proportiou as we think ourselves the more learned. elevated, singular, because the many are little, base, and Might it not be thought, that works which treat of the sci

common.. ences with the utmost perspicuity, and with the greatest order

EHRENMALM. Pinkerion's Coll. part ii. and precision, must be understood by every body? The fact

p. 372. is, those who have vever studied any thing will understand them belter than those who have studied a great deal, and especially than those who have written a great deal.

The ABBE de CondiLLAR.

5564. ( 7.) Knowledge of every kind depends on experience; and the mind, like the body, is developed ouly Toy exercising it.

The mind of man, is open to the admission of every kind of 5561. I 18, 19.) « The Chinese theologian, who 1 kuowledge, and his heart to every kind of feeling. He would proves the nine incarnations of Wisthinou ; and the Mussel-,

I have abandoned himself lo errors of every kind, had not God ha

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