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539. [Gen. xxi. 30.) The namber of these wells throughout || wash their clothes in the tanks, and gather the flowers of the the East, provided by benevolent individuals, is owing, says | nymphea, for their innocent sacrifice at the dewal, and its Dr. CHANDLER,“ to the nature of the country and the cli- foliage for plates and dishes ; which are renewed every meal mate. The soil, parched and thirsty, demands moisture to from the lotos, or some other vegetable with a large leaf. aid vegetation; and a cloudless sun, which inflames the air, Gen. xxiv. 13. Exod. ii. 16. FORBES' Orient. Memoirs, requires for the people the verdure, shade and coolness, its | John iv. 6. Mark xiv. 12–15. vol. i. p. 191. agreeable attendants. Hence they occur not only in the towns and villages, but in the fields and gardens, and by the | Rebekah and Rachel probably came thus to draw water, in sides of the roads and of the beaten tracks on the mountains. a religious capacity, for the congregation, and for the Many of them are the useful donations of humane persons, allar of the Lord. See Josh. ix. 27. while living, or have been bequeathed as legacies on their decease. The Turks esteem the erecting them as meritorious, and seldom go away, after performing their ablutions | 544. (Gen. xxix. 6.) Rachel in Hebrew signifies a sheep. or drinking, without gratefully blessing the name and memory It was antiently the custom to give names even to families of the founder."

from cattle, both great and small. So Varro tells us (lib. ii. de re rustica, c. 1.), Multa nomina habemus ab utroque

pecore, &c. a minore, Porcius, Ovilius, Caprilius; a majore, 540. (Gen. xxix. 3.] The argali, or wild sheep, from the || Equitius, Taurus, &c. country in which it is found, it is certain, does not drink.

See Bochart, p. i. Hieroz. lib. ii. Mr. Pallas says of it ;="This animal lives upon desert moun

cap. 43. BURDER.
tains, which are dry, and without wood, and upon rocks,
where there are many bitter and acrid plants.”

Dr. Lambe's Additional Reports on
. Regimen, p. 267.

JACOB AND RACHEL.

641. (Gen. xxix. 10.) To succour the Langobritæ, Ser. torius got together two thousand skins, and filled them with water; ordering all useless persons out of the town, that the water might be fully sufficient for the rest during the whole course of the siege.

See PLUTARCH's Lives, vol. iii. p. 250.

545. (Gen. xxix. 17, 18.) Rachel was beautiful and well favoured. And Jacob loved her; and said to Laban, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter.

Grace was in all her steps, Heaven in her eye;
In ev'ry gesture, dignity and Love.

542. [Gen. xxix. 3.] The woinen in Persia go in troops to draw water for the place. I have seen the elder ones 546. (Gen. xxix. 22.] In the earliest ages, marriage was sitting and chatting at the well, and spinning the coarse cotton considered as an important transaction, and feasts were of the country, while the young girls filled the skins which instituted at its celebration; which feasts, we have reason contain the water, and which they all carry on their backs to believe, were frequently the whole of the ceremony: into the Town.

they served to make the contract public; and were in place of Morier's Embassy to Persia. those writings, which in our times ascertain the rights and

privileges of the parties.—The Rabbies inform us, that this

feasting when the bride was a widow, lasted only three days, 543. (Gen. xxiv. 13.) At the fountain of Belgrad, which but seven if she was a virgin. Lady Montague has so picturesquely described, it is amusing

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, to see the Greek females, on a feast day, assembled to draw

vol. ii. pp. 192, 196. water, habited in their gayest attire. The form of the amphora, or pitcher with double handles, and the whole attitude produced by their manner of bearing it on their shoul

547.

- The Nuptial Rites of the modern Jews are ders, are strong vestiges of the antique. Their dances with extremely simple and significant, and probably of great antigarlands, and their rude music of the lyre, Zamboona, and quity. The Bride and Bridegroom are placed under a canopy, meskale, transmit the customs of the most distant ages to our each of them covered with a black veil. The Rabbin of the own days.

place, the Chanter of the Synagogue, or the hụsband's nearest DALLAWAY's Constantinople, p. 147. relation, takes a cup of wine and having pronounced this

Benediction, “ Blessed be thou who hast created Man and

Woman, and hast ordained marriage, &c.” presents the Cup 544.

In the Brahmin villages of the Concan, || to the Bridegroom, and then to the Bride, who just taste the women of the first distinction, like Rebekah and Rachel, liquor. The Bridegroom afterwards puts a ring upon the draw water at the public wells, tend the cattle to pasture, J Bride's finger, in the presence of two witnesses, saying, “ By this ring thou art my spouse, according to the custom of

1 553. (Gen. xxix. 25.) In little Bukhâria, the persons to be Moses, and the children of Israel.” They then read the married must not see or speak to each other from the time of contract of marriage, which the Bridegroom puts into the || their contract, till the day of marriage. bands of the Bride's Relations: afterwards they rehearse six

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v, p. 136. Blessings; the married couple drink wine, and the vessel is thrown with violence against the floor, and broken to pieces. In some places they throw handfuls of wheat upon the mar 554.

Even now, at Zante, in their marriage ried couple, saying, “ increase and multiply.”

negociations, the parties are not allowed an interview till the LEO of Modena's Ceremonies evening previous to the wedding, when all the articles are of the Jews, p. 4. already signed.

Athenæum, June 1809, p. 502.

548. [Gen, xxix. 26.] In the East, they are constant in

555. [Gen. xxix. 26.] In the Gentoo Laws, it is made all things : the habits are at this day in the same manner,

equally criminal for a man to give his younger daughter in as in the precedent ages ; so that one may reasonably ||

marriage before the elder; and for a younger son to marry believe, that in that part of the world, the exterior

while his elder brother remains unmarried. forms of things (as their manners and customs) are the

HALHED's Preface, p. 69. same now, as they were two thousand years since ; except in such changes as may have been introduced by religion, which are nevertheless, very inconsiderable.

556. [Gen. xxix. 27.] In Guinea, those who are rich have Sir John CHARDIN's Preface to

in the house two women perpetually exempt from labor. One Trav, in Persia, p. vi.

is properly the wife; the other is she who is consecrated to their God, and thence called Bossum. These Bossuins are

slaves, bought with design to be consecrated to their God, 549. (Gen. xxix. 18.] Among the Hindoos, no man has || and therefore always the most handsoine that can be selected. more than one wife at a time; betrothed generally in her

See Bosman's Guinea, p. 420,sixth or seventh year, but not married fully till she is thir

Pinkerton's Coll. part Ixvi. teen, or fifteen years of age. See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 276.

557. [Gen, xxx. 16.] D’Arvieux, in his Travels (part i. p. 65. of quarto edit. 1711), says, that among the Mahometans there are three sorts of wives (we should read women),

married, hired, and bought. 550. (Gen. xxiv. 22.] In India, the Taly, or love-pledge, is hung round the neck of a betrothed girl, even so early as the seventh year, though she remains in the house of her

558. (Gen. xxix. 24.] CHARDIN observes that none but parents till her twelfth.

very poor people 'in the East, give a daughter in marriage, BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 273.

without giving her a female slave for a handmaid, there being no hired servauts there as in Europe. See Prov. xii. 9.

551. (Gen. xxix. 23.) All Indian girls, except those of one or two yery inferior castes, are confined at home till their twelfth year; and when they go out, they are always accompanied by their mother or aunt. They inhabit a particular division of the house, which none of the male sex dare approach.

Ibid. p. 226.

559. (Gen. xxix. 24, 29.] What a father gave his daughter, in the way of marriage establishment, absolutely belonged to herself as her own property. She might, however, transfer it to her husband, at her own good pleasure. Thus Sarah had a handmaid, Hagar, belonging to herself, whom she gave to Abraham, that she might, as it is expressed, obtain children by her, Gen. xvi. 2, 3.-Rebekah, whose marriage was altogether noble and free from any thing like sale, or traffic, had several companions given her, Gen. xxiv. 61; so that her establishment was on a liberal scale : but we do not find that she gave away any of them to her husband, though she was long married without having children. And even this selfish Laban, who sold his daughters, gave to each of them a maid on her marriage ; and that was all they carried from their father's house: to these inaids Jacob could not claim the smallest right, till they were given him by Rachel and Leah. See No. 446.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 466.

552. [Gen. xxiv. 67.] In Africa the houses, or tents, in which the women live, are interdicted to all men except their husbands; and if any of these are so poor as not to have a separate tent, or hut, for their wives, they will sooner receive their visitors, or transact any business without, in the open air, than suffer them to come in, vnless it be a parent, or very near relation.

, Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xiv. p. 44.

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560 (Gen. xxx. 14.] And Reuben went, in the days of (Gen. xxxi. 17, 18.] Then Jacob rose up, and set wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and his sons and wives upon camels; And he carried away all brought them unto his mother Leah.

his cattle, and all his goods which he had gotten, the cattle Dudaim (Hebr.) probably signifies first

of his getting, which he had gotten in Padan-aram, for to fruits such as were used in the Agapæ, or love-feasts of the

go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan. Antients -On great festival days the Jews made feasts for their family, the priests, the poor, and orphans ; or sent

564. [Gen. xxxi. 18, 21.] When a marraige in Lapland, is

consummated, the husband does not carry away his wife, but portions to them. By their law, certain sacrifices and first fruits were set apart for this purpose.-On the day of pen

remains one year with his father-in-law ; at the end of which tecost, they offered as first-fruits, in the name of all the na

period, he goes to settle himself where he pieases, and carries tion, two loaves, of two assarons (about ihree pints) of

with him all that belongs to his wife. The presents even which flour each, made of leavened dough.—The first-fruits were of

he made to his father-in-law during the courtship are given wheat, barley, grapes, figs, apricots, olives, and dates.

back, and the parents repay those which have been made CALMET, Art. Agapæ, and First-fruits.

them by soine rein-deer, according to their ability.

PINKERTON's Coll. of Voy, and Trav. In Africa, all the harvests of the antient Guanches were

vol. i. p. 166. celebrated with great solemnity by public festivals.

GOLBERRY's Trav. by Blagdon,
vol. i. p. 52.

565. [Gen. xxix. 18.] Throughout the whole continent of Asia, women have been, from time immemorial, and still are,

considered either as public or private property, and sold to 661.

When the Teleoutes celebrate their feast | such husbands as would give the highest price for them. of the spring, the kam, or priest, repairs to the fields, where

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, all the males of the community, decently habited, assemble

vol. i. p. 115. about him He recites a number of prayers, during which the congregation make libations of milk, &c., and scatter parched corn about the ground. This done, he eats and 566. (Gen. xxxi. 15.] With respect to Rachel and Leah drinks of the offerings, giving a small portion to each person l after marriage, their father (the Patriarch) had already acof the assembly, who eat and drink it with great devotion. tually exercised the highest stretch of authority in having sold

Historical account of Russia, || them to their husbands, and, of course, could not still claim vol. iii. p. 274.

them as his property.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 444.

parchiedsregation reciteser

562. [Gen. xxx. 16.) And Jacob came out of the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said,

567. (Gen. xxxi. 27.] The Easterns used to set out, at Thou must come in unto me ;-that is, to eat with me, or lie

least on their long journeys, with music. When the Prefetto by me at our testal supper. See Esther v. 12.

of Egypt was preparing for his journey, he complains of Thus Jacob became harvest king, and being incommoded by the songs of his friends, who in this Leah harvest queen this year. Whoever had the first-ripe |

manner took leave of their relations and acquaintance. These wheat and barley, were entitled to this honor.

valedictory songs were often extemporary. These spiritual or religious marriages of subordinate church

Exod. xv.

HARMER, vol. i. p. 435. women with the high-priest were renewed every seven years. In the first seven years Leah has four sons who religiously belong to Jacob in consequence of her first covenant with

568. [Gen. xxxiji. 17 ] The present inhabitants of Great him. After he has made a second covenant with her as here recorded, she bears two other sons who equally belong to him

Tartary in general, who have exactly preserved the manner with the former. This fact explains all that we read respecting |

of living peculiar to their forefathers, carry their whole sub

stance, their wives, children and cattle, along with them temporary marriages, by purchase, spilling the millet, &c. See Gen. xxxviii. 9.

wherever they go.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 319.

563. [C'en. xix. 33.] In the East, women lie not al table with the men, except at betroihings, adoptions, or marriages.

569. Gen. xxxii. 22, 23.) The Hottentots live after the manner of the Patriarchs, by breeding cattle ; and have no fixed habitation. When they remove from one place to

WA

another, they put their wives and children into large wag- || 575. (Gen. xxxi. 46.] They did eat there a little on the gons ; dispatch these before, and follow them with their herds. heap, for a memorial; because it was the manner of those BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 447. who enter into covenant, to eat both together of the same

bread, as a symbol of love and friendship.

Rab. Moses BAR Nachman, in loco. 570. (Gen. xxxii. 2.] The Indians of North America, dever travel without their households. Carver's Trav. in North America, p. 41. 576. (Gen. xxxi. 44.] It was an antient custom, that they

who did eat bread together, should ever after be accounted

for faithful brethren. 571. [Gen. xxxi. 34.] In Africa the women lade the camels

R. ISAAC ABARBANEL. with their tents and utensils, and especially with the large panniers, which carry their children and themselves. These are large enough for them to sit or lie in conveniently, and so compact and closely covered as to keep them from heat, wind and rain.

JACOB's DREAM, Modern Part of Univer. Hist. vol. xiv. p. 56, Note (Q). || 577. [Gen. xxxii. 24.) And Jacob was left alone ; and

(in dream) there wrestled a man with him until the break672. - It is the custom of the Mesopotamians for

ing of the day.
all to have the idols they worship in their own houses, and to
carry them along with thein when they go into a foreign land.

Connal lay by the sounding stream,
Joseph. Antiq. b. xviii. ch. ix. 55.

Beneath a leafless oak.
Upon a moss-clad stone,
The chief of heroes reclined his head.

OsSIAN.

JACOB AND LABAN.

Originally, people never thought of going to rest, but in 573. (Gen. xxxi. 46, 52.] And Jacob said to his brethren, || their usual clothes ; and it continues the practice in many Gather stones : and they took stones, and made a heap: and parts of Asia, and other countries where the accominodation they did eat there upon the heap. And Laban said, This of beds is still in an imperfect state. heap be witness, and this pillar be witness, that I will not

Sir John Sinclair's Code of Health, pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over

vol. i. p. 745, this heap and this pillar unto me, for harm.

Made a heap, gal (Hebr.), a circle, after the mamer of the druids.- Where the Persians observe such

578. (Gen. xxxii. 31.) Dr. Tissot tells us of a peasant a large circle of hewn stones, they affirm it to be an indubita

who, having dreamt that a serpent was twisted around his ble sign, that the Caous making war in Media, had held a

arm, exerted some violent effort to relieve himself from this council in that place : it being a custom with those people,

supposed enemy, and his arm was for a long time subject to that every officer who came to the council, brought with bim

a violent convulsive motion, which returned three or four a stone to serve him instead of a chair.

times a-day, and sometimes lasted an hour. Sir JOHN CHARDIN, p.371.

Dr. ZIMMERMANN.

HERMANN.

574.
The following are the conditions of a peace

579. [Gen. xxxii. 26.] Let me go, for the day is breakconcluded betwixt the two kings of England and Scotland :

ing ;--that is, the sphere of Jacob's soul, which had, during _" That Malcolme shall enjoy that part of Northumberland

the night, assumed within itself an Image of the Christ which lieth betwixt Tweed, Cumberland, and Stainmore, and

above, is now constrained to let it go, when the hemisphere doo homage to the kinge of England for the same. In the

of night is now turning from the Sun of Righteousness into midst of Staimmore there shall be a crosse set up, with the

the presence of the natural sun.It would seem that the king of England's image on the one side, and the king of

Spiritual Sun and the natural sun are in the opposite hemiScotland's on the other, to signify that one is on his march

sphere of our atmosphere in the night between Wednesday to England, and the other to Scotland. This crosse was

and Thursday, and co-incident in what we properly call the called the Roi-crosse, that is, the crosse of the kinge.”

Lord's day.--This is to be understood of that part of the HOLINSHED, Lond. 1808, 4to. v. 280.

earth where the Lord's church is successively predominating, The situation of the cross, and the pains taken to defend it, | as it travels from east to west. seem to indicate that it was intended for a land-mark of importance.

WALTER Scott's Rokeby. Il

585. [Gen. xxiii. 15, 16.] Both among the posterity

of Abraham and other nations, wealth was estimated by ANTIENT MONEY.

the number, and quality of cattle ; and cattle were the 580. (Gen. xxxiii. 19.) And Abraham bought a parcel principal instruments of commerce. Thus we read in many of a field, where he had spread his tent, at the hand of places of Homer, of a coat of mail worth a hundred oxen; ihe children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for a hundred a caldron worth twenty sheep; a cup or goblet worth twelve pieces of money.

lambs, and the like. The words belonging to commerce, or The Hebrew kesitoth signifies lambs, with exchange of commodities, in the Greek language, are mostly the figure of which the metal was doubtless stamped, or derived from the names of certain animals, by means of coined into money. The primitive race of men being sher which that exchange was originally carried on. Thus, the herds, and their wealth consisting in their cattle, in which word itself which siguifies to truck or commute one kind of Abraham is said to have been rich ; for greater convenience goods for another, is derived from that which signifies a metals were substituted for the commodity itself. It was lamb* ; the verb which is translated to sell, comes from the natural for the representative sign to bear impressed the ob noun, which translated, signifies a colt or young horset; ject which it represented ; and thus accordingly the earliest the Greek word, which in our language is to buy, comes coins were stamped with the figure of an ox, or a sheep, &c. || from that which signifies an ass; the term that denotes Gen. xxiii. 16.

Sce MAURICE, Indian Antiq. || rent or revenue, and that which signifies a sheep, are of vol. vii.p. 471.

kindred composition and imports. A criminal, according to the magnitude of his guilt, was condemned to pay a fine of

four, twelve or a hundred oxenil. A wealthy person is 581, - - The Antients, before the invention of coin, called a man of many lambs. Two rival brothers are repaid the price of a purchase in cattle ; whence it came to pass presented in Hesiod, as fighting with each other, about the that, coin being once invented, they stamped it, in allusion to sheep of their father; that is, contending who should be his the former practice, with the figure of an ox, a lamb, &c. : and hence came the proverb Boun epi glosses (Grk.), " he

Hunter's Lectures, page 415. has an ox on his tongue.” A proverb applied to the Rhetoricians, who had accepted what we call a retaining fee, and In Latin also, the word (pecunia) money, it is well known, were consequently already agreed.

is derived from a word (pecus) signifying cattle. Isai. vii, 23, Cowper's Homer, Note

See LITTLETON's Latin Dictionary. on Iliad xxi. I. 94.

heir.

586. (Gen. xxiii. 16.) There is very great reason to le. 582. - " The coin of Attica was commonly stamp

lieve that the earliest coins struck were used both as weights ed with the figure of an ox, and this circumstance gave occa

and money : and indeed, this circumstance is in part proved sion to the phrase frequent among the Greeks, of a thing

by the very names of certain of the Greek and Roman coins, being worth ten or a hundred oxen.”

Thus the Attic mina and the Roman libra equally signify a Lev. iv. 28. Rees' Cyclopædia, Artic.

pound; and the stater of the Greeks, so called from weighAttica.

ing, is decisive as to this point. The Jewish shekel, was also

a weight as well as a coin : three thousand shekels, according 583,

That piece of Jewish money. called all to ARBUTHNOT, being equal in weight and value to one talent. Kesita, was, according to the Talmudists, enstamped with

-This is the oldest coin of which we any where read; and the figure of a lamb.

exhibits direct evidence, says Maurice, against those who See Talm. in Rosh. Hassanah, fol. 26. a.

date the first coinage of money so low as the time of Cresas

or Darius. The Kesitab was, in value, about five farthings or three

Gen. xxxiii. 19.

See Indian Antiquities, half-pence.

vol. vii, p. 470. Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 409,

587, [Gen. xliii. 21.) Money in those days being weighed, 684. - The word Kesitoth occurs only, in Gen. |

every merchant was obliged to carry scales and weights in xxxii, 19, in Joshua xxiv, 32, and in Job xlii. 11. As from his pocket, in order to know the intrinsic value of what money Gen. xvii. 12, 13.-xxiii. 16.—xlii. 16, compared with Acts

he received; but to prevent such trouble, in a short time vii. 16, it appears that money was then and there come into

thin pieces of gold and silver were every where by the suuse, the pieces of such money were probably called lambs

preme authority, impressed with the figure of some animal from the figure of a lamb stamped on each; as a species of

or other device denoting its value, that he who delivered his Athenian money was called an ox for the same reason, and as we call a piece of gold a Jacobus because the picture of that king is upon it.

Arnusthai from Arnos. + Polein from Polos. Oneisthai from Onos. Family Bible. I

Probasis and Probaton. | Timema tessaraboion, Dodekaboion,

Ikatomboion. Poluarnos.

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