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5780. (Heb. ii. 9. Jesus was made a little lower than ll The angels] Brachu li (Grk.) for a short while,

Boyle. See No. 1088.

5787. [Heb. vii. 27. He offered up Himself ] See Judg. xiii. 20.

See No. 437, 438, 434.

6781. [Heb. ii. 7. The Holy Ghost saith) What the Psalmist Il 5788. (Heb. ix. 6. The priests go always ] Which proves, attributes to Jehovah, is here said to be spoken by the Holy | that this Epistle was written while Jerusalem and the temple Ghost. Aud what is in Acts xxviii. 25, called the Holy

stood. Ghost is, in the prophet Isaiah vi. 8, &c., called Jehovah, or LORD.

5789. (- 7. Once every year] One day in the year, according to the Hebrew echad bashanah. — The fact was,

he entered into the Holy of holies four times on that day 5782. [Heb. iv. 2. The word preached did not profit | of atonement; I. With the incense, 2. With the blood for them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it] himself, 3. With the blood for the people, 4. When he Or, as the Greek will bear, because they were not united | fetched out the burning incense. by faith to the things they heard.

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 201. Boyle, on the Style of the Holy Scriptures, p. 238.

6783. [- 12.] The Cly-more, or great two-handed sword, seen by Sir Joseph Banks in North Britain, was an unwieldy weapon, two inches broad, doubly edged ; the length of the blade three feet seven inches ; of the handle, fourteen inches; of a plain transverse guard one foot; the weight six pounds and a half.

PINKERTON's Coll, part X. p. 318.

5790. [ 15.) The appointment of an heir, by a man's last testament, was regarded at Athens as a mode of adopting a son.

Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. iv. p. 235.

5784. - The word of God is quick, and power. ful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow) in allusion probably to the samiel, which occasions instantaneous death to every man or beast that has his face towards it: after such death, the limbs, on being pulled, will separate from the body; so absolute is the dissolution.

See Mall. xxiv. 51. See Ives' Trad. pp. 76, 77, 275.

5785.

13. All things are opened unto the eyes of him] Tetrachelismena (Grk.), extraverted.

Boyle.

679). ( 19. With water] In a note on Exod. xxiv. 8, it may be seen that blood was used by some nations, as a symbol of peace. From the following Extract it will appear, that water, which the Apostle observes was sprinkled by Moses with the blood of the covenant, was also made by certain Indians an ensign of peace. When Schouten and La Moire, in their yoyage round the world, “came to an anchor off the coast of Gilola, some of the mariners laud. ing unarmed, were surprized by four soldiers of Ternate, while they were drawing a net, and had it not been for the presence of mind of one of them, who called out, Oran Hollanda, it is probable they would have been all sacrificed. At the sound of these words the Indian soldiers stopped ; and throwing water on their heads, which is here an ensign of peace, civilly assured them that they were welcome, and that they had mistaken them for Spaniards."

Mavor, vol. ii. p. 206. Moses mentions only blood, i. e. the blood of grapes.Were those grapes, like our bottled berries, put up with water in their calve-skins, and goat-skias? And was this the reason why water was always mixed with the unfermented juice of the grape, in the sacraments or eucharists of primitive Christians ? Steeping before pressing makes red wine.

Young's Travels in France, Pinkerton's Coll.

part xvi. p. 448. In the cabinet of Herculaneum there are three marble rases, square on the outside, and round within ; the borders of which

5786. 1

1 5.) On a review of the massacre perpetrated in Paris at the very commencomeut of the French Revolution, the indignant BURKE emphatically asks the religious revolutionist of his own country, “Is this a triumph to be consecrated at altars ? to be commemorated with grateful thanksgiving ? to be offered to the divine hnmanity with fervent prayer and enthusiastic ejaculation ?"

See his Reflections on the Revolution in

France, p. 107.

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are of very delicate workmanship: these vases served to keep stance is in this life represented in types and images ; so that the lustrul water used in temples.

we hope for things in another world whereof we have no WINCKELMAN's llerculaneum, p. 120. direct perception or idea. — The evidence of things not

seen, that is either by the direct eye of body or mind; but clearly and distinctly conceived and understood in their types and representatives : In which we have a full proof and evidence of the true substance and real existence of the

antitypes, though, as they are in themselves, they be now 5792. [Heb. x. 10.) When animal and vegetable bodies |

utterly inconceivable. Thus the sum and import of this defi

nition of the Apostle's is, that the things of another world are burnt without the access of air, that is, when their vola

are now the immediate objects of our knowledge and faith, tile parts are sublimed; there remains a great quantity of

only in their types and representatives. charcoal, - tened carbon by the French school, when it is

Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Underquite pure; and is now known to be one of the most universal materials of nature. — The wbole atmosphere contains always

: standing, p. 462. à quantity of it in the form of carbonic acid, or fixed air ; — which may therefore be said to encompass the earth. - It is ten times heavier than the common atmosphere :- whence

5795. [Heb. xi. 3.] That there are several worlds, may there must be constantly a great sediment of it on the surface

be manifest to every one from this consideration, that so many of the earth.

stars appear in the universe: and it is known in the learned The carbon, which exists in the atmosphere, is united

world, that every star is like a sun in its own place (for it with oxygen, and thence becomes soluble in the water,

remains fixed as the sun of our earth in its place) and that which is also diffused in the atmosphere. — It may thus

distance makes it appear in a small form like a star ; consebe absorbed by the living, action of vegetable vessels ;

quently that it has plavets which are earths, revolving around be again combined by chemical attraction with the lime,

it, in like manner as the sun of our system has. To what which has been deprived of it by calcination, - into stone,

other purpose could so great a heaven be intended with so or into a spar by its more perfect or less disturbed crystal

many constellations ? For the end of the creation of the unilization ; - be attracted by the earth, — drank up by the

verse is man; or, that from mankind there may be an roots of vegetables (or appropriated in the food of animals.

angelic heaven. But what would mankind and an angelic “ Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his

heaven from one single earth avail, to answer the purposes of blood, ye have no life in you”).'

an infinite Creator ? For which purposes a thousand, nay Darwin's Phytologia, sect. I.

ten thousand earths could not suffice. — By calculation it has been discovered, that suppose there were in the universe

1,000,000 earths, and on every earth 300,000,000 men, and 5793. [- 22.) For ablutions, sea waler, on account 200 generations within 6000 years; and that to every man of its cleansing saltness, was preferred to any other. Hence were allotted a space of three cubic ells : in this case the sum Aristeas reports concerning some of the Jews who lived near of men collectively would not occupy a space equal to a the sea, that every day before matins they used to wash their thousandth part of this earth; consequently not so much as hands in the sea.

the space posssesed by one of the Satellites of Jupiter or Potter's Archæol. Græca, vol. i. p. 222. Saturn. This would be a space so diminutive in respect to Not far from Patna, at a small distance from the town

the universe as to be scarcely discernible ; for a satellite of Mongheer, is a celebrated hot-well called Seeta Coond ; and

Jupiter or Saturn is scarcely visible to the naked eye. What near it is another well, called Ram Coond, where the water

they would this be in regard to the purposes of the Creator is only tepid : that in the Seeta Cooud is of such purity, as

of the universe! To answer which purposes, the whole not only to be preferred to any other by the natives, but is

universe, though filled with earths, would be inadequate ; for procured by those who can afford it, on the voyage from India

He is infinite.

SwedenBORG, Arcana, n. 9441. to Europe, as it never putrefies, nor becomes in the least offensive. Ram and Seeta are as eminent in the Hindoo mythology as Jupiter and Juno in the Grecian. See FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iv.

5796. - The disciples of Pythagoras were, perp. 91.

haps of all antient philosophers, best aoquainted with Nature, and maintained the opinion that all the planets were inhabited.

St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature,

vol. iii. p. 348.

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good to men, and to be no longer within their reach, is a 6806. [Heb. xi. 35. Others were tortured, not accepting resemblance to the Deity.

deliverance ; that they might obtain a better resurrection] St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, The accounts given us of people who sacrificed human victims vol. i. p. 85.

to the Deity, fall greatly short of the executions of the Inquisition. — A priest in a white surplice, or a monk who has

vowed meekuess and humility, causes his fellow-creatures to 5798. (Heb. xi. 4. By faith Abel offered unto God a

be put to the torture in a dismal dungeon. A stage is erecled more excellent sacrifice than Cain] who brought fruit, but

in the public inarket-place, where the condemned prisoners not first-fruits, Gen. iv. 3.

are conducted to the stake, attended with a train of mouks Firstlings and first-fruits were to be offered as testimonials

and religious confraternities. They sing psalms, say mass,

and butcher mankind. Were a native of Asia to come to of this primary point of faith, That the first of all things were

Madrid upon the day of an execution of this sort, it would be from God.

impossible for him to tell whether it were a rejoicing, a reli. gious feast, a sacrifice, or a massacre ; and yet it is all this

together. The kings, whose presence alone in other cases is 5799. 1

6 . He that comes to God must believe ll the harbinger of mercy, assist at this spectacle uncovered, that he is] “ What man,” says Maximus of Madaura, in lower seated than the inquisitors, and behold their subjects his letter to St. Augustine, “ is so dull, so stupid, as to expiring in the flames. question the existence of an eternal, a sapreme, infinite Deity,

VOLTAIRE. who has created nothing like himself, and is the common Father of all things."

5806. [- 36, 37, &c.] It is certain, that the above

Worthies did by the Spirit of God, what the Apostle says, 5800. - 21. Jacob worshipped, leaning upon they did by faith. See 2 Peter i. 4, &c. Therefore those the top of his staff'] Forsan rabdou (Grk.) pró krabbatou ; ll that have the spirit, bave faith : the rest not. perhaps rabdou a staff or scepire, for krabbatou a bed or couch.

5807. [- 37.] The Romans made a mock of primi

tive Christians as they perished, aud destroyed them by puta 5801. [- 23. Moses was hid three months of his ting them into the skins of wild beasts, and settiog dogs on parents, because they saw the child comely [ Acis vii. 20) thein to tear them to pieces. Soine were nailed to crosses, and were not afraid of the king's commandment] Jose and others flamed to death. They were also used in the PAUS (Antiq. l. 2. b. 5) says, it was revealed to them that night-time instead of torches, for illumination. they should have a child who should deliver his people from

Tacitus's Hist. b. xv. slavery

. — were templed) were empaled.

See KnaTCHBULL,

5802. ( 24. Pharaoh's daughter] Josephus calls her Thermathis, and says, she adopted him with the consent

5808.

- Whether the prophets, the primitive of her father on the condition that Mores should be his suc.

christians, and the heathen philosophers, who went about in cessor in the kingdom.

skins, did it in poverty, or emblematically (of their office), deserves to be considered, says JUTCHINSON, in his Intro

duc 10 Moses' Sine Principio, p. ccxlviii. 5803. 26. A Christ] There have been four : the of the Swedes who first settled in America, the men wore First was a Shechinah, in which the Love of God predorni waistcoats and breeches of skins; the women were dressed nated; in the Second, Wisdom was predominant; in the in skin-jackets and petticoats; and their beds, excepting the Third, Charity; and in the Fourth, Truth was the primary sheets, were the skills of such animals as bears, wolves, &c. Attribute : The same order predominates in the Four Angelic, || See No. 197. See PINKERTON's Coll. part liv. p. 540. and in the Four Spiritual Heavens. had respect] Turned his eye.

BOYLE.

5809. [ 38. Of whom the world was not worthy) Cicero had his head cut off by his own client Popinius Lena,

and nailed to that very pulpit which he had dignited by his 6804. [- 28. The first-born] The priesthood of eloquence. Demosthenes was pursued by order of the AtheEgypt.

nians whom he had defended against Philip, as far as the

North, and out at the South Pole. — The throne of God is heaven, of which the natural sun may be considered as a type or image. Suppose the poles of the earth and sun to lie parallel, and the movement of their respective spheres to be similar, then whatever enters heaven, the throne of God or even essence of Deity, inust, to a spectator facing the manifestation of the glory of the Eternal, appear to enter continually at the right hand of God.

temple of Neptune in the island of Calauria, he hastening to swallow poison, to find in death a refuge more certain than altars could afford. One of the Medici was stabbed to death in that very City which they had loaded with benefits. Christopher Columbus, on returuing from his second voyage to the New World, was bound in irons, which in his dying moments he ordered to be put into the toinb with him as a monument of the ingratitude of the Princes to whom he had rendered a service so magnificent. Galileo, after he hail demonstrated the Earth's motion round the Sun, was obliged to retract on his knees that sublime truth in a prison of the Inquisition. Dacarles, after having illuminated his Country with the first rays of Philosophy, became a fugitive in Sweden ; and Fenelon was exiled into his Diocese, for having loved God more than his Ministers, and Nations more than Kings.

St. Pierre's Works, vol. iv. p. 287.

5814. (Heb. xii. 8. But if ye be without chastisement, - then are ye bastards] produced by an adulterous woman whom the husband will not treat as his own children.

5815. [- 18. Ye are not come to the mount that might be touched] You belong not pow to the people of the Old Testament.

See No. 1349.

5810. [Heb. xi. 39, 40.] The New Testament clearly represents Christ as the end of the Law and of all the promises made to the Fathers : makes all the deliverances given by God to his people to be but shadows, and as it were an earbest of the great deliverance he intended by bis Son; makes all the ceremonials of the Law to be representations of the substance of the Gospel, and the Aaronical sacrifices and Priesthood to be figures of better things to come; and in a word, makes the Jewish Religion itself, as containing virtually the hopes of the Gospel, - a prophecy, , that is, one entire typical prophecy.

See Sherlock's Use, 8c. pp. 50, 163. See No. 1191, 1199, 1204, 1192, 1195.

5810. [Heb. xiii. 4.] A strict regard for the matrimonial state characterized the antient Germaus. — Good customs and manners availed more ainong those barbarous people, than good laws among such as are more refined. (Tacirus; Quoted by Dr. W. ALEXANDER, in his flist. of Women, vol. i. p. 260.) — OSBERT, in his life of Archbishop Dunstan, says, in his time, in a Council at Winchester where the king, queen and nobility of the whole kingdom were present, the secular or married clergy were turned out of all the monasteries and cathedral churches, as defiled by conforming to this law of God!

5811. [Heb. xii. 1. Lay aside every weight] For an idea of this weight, see Num. xi. 17.

5812.

The sin which doch so easily beset] The Gnostics at that time held that Christ might be denied with the lips but not in the heart.

5817.

1 5 . I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee] Ano and egkatalipo (Grk.) are of the Second Aorist.

5813.

1 2 . Is set down at the right hand] The Magnetic Sphere of our Earth is known to go in at the

5818.

22, 23, &c.] Were these words added when the Epistle was sent a second, or a third time, in the way of a second or third Edition?

THE GENERAL EPISTLE OF JAMES.

HIS Epistle was written probably to the Jewish Christians banished by Claudios, Acts xviii. 2.

God is in heaven, and thou on earth, therefore let thy words be few. Eccles. v. 2.

See No. 1087, 1138.

5820. [- i. 14, 15. Every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed: then, when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin; and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death] Thus the root of our 5823. [

1-9.“ To a man capable of reflecdestruction is in ourselves.

tion, all civil distinctions are nothing : He observes the same CALVIN. I passions, the same feelings, in the clown and the man of

quality. The principal difference between them consists in the language they speak; in a little refinement of espression :

But if there be any real distinction, it is certainly to the dis3821. [- 17.] Though we cannot make the sun advantage of the least sincere. The common people appear shine, yet when he does vouchsafe us his heavenly beams, we as they really are; and they are not ariable: If those in can with horning-glasses concentrate light and heat into great high life were equally undisguised, their appearance would power, and carry and settle them here and there as we see make us shudder with horror.” cause ; so though the possessors of wil and parts could never

RousseaC. be able to engage God tu send forth his light and his truth, yet now that Revelation has disclosed them, and now he has been pleased to make them radiate in his heavenly Word, men of knowledge and eloquence, happily recollecting those scat

5824. [- 2.] En etheli lampra (Grk.), in splendid tered divine beams, uniting them in particular subjects, and

attire; en elheti rupara, in sordid attire. kindling with them the topics proper to warm and work on

See Univer. Hist. dol ii p. 302. our affections, may powerfully illustrate truths and inflame

real.

BOYLE.

5822. [ 19.] Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thy heart be hasty to utter any thing before God : for

5825. [- 6.] The dignified appearance of a judge, a magistrate, or a collector of taxes, may carry an air of importance : but, should the officer of revenue glitter from head to foot with gold, his outside show is merely to delude

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