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6952. (Rev. . 6.] Seven horns - seven rays in bis celestial crown : seden eyes — seven stars on the summits of those seven horns.

5958. (Red. vi. 4, 12.) Dr. Halley, having descended in his great diving-bell fifty fathoms into the sea, reports, that the water which from above was usually seen of a green color, when looked at from below, appeared to him of a very different one, casting a redness upon one of his hands like that of damask roses.

See Newton's Optic. p. 66.

5953. [- 11.] Thus the heavens of angels are represented as concentric circles round about the throne of God. His primary sphere, like a screen encircling an illuminated object, will present him facing every angel in every heaven. Looking down from that sphere, he may be represented by a phantasmagoria. Would you see how he apparently looks up from every part of every surrounding sphere? “ Dispose several mirrors on the circumference of a circle, in such a manner, that they shall correspond with the chords of that circle; if you then place yourself in the centre, you will see your image in all the mirrors at the same time.”

HUTTON's Recreations, vol. ii. p. 231.

5959. 8 . Death} the Image of God exhibited in the Hydrogenous gaseous sphere encircling the earth at its proper altitude. — Hydrogen, like Azote (p. 233 of Dalton's Chem.) which constitutes nearly four-fifths of atmospheric air, extinguishes burning bodies, and is fatal to animals that breathe it.

Dalton's Chem. part ii. p. 229. – Hell (carbon), See Rom. i. 25. and Rev. xx. 14.

5954. [Rev. vi. 1.] In Florence, and in Matthew of Westminster, we read that king Edgar, throughout his whole reign, at stated times used to perambulate the several provinces of his kingdom, to see how his laws were kept and enforced by his princes.

5960. - Plants which grow in darkness are (of a pale) white, languid and unhealthy color. — To make them recover vigor, and to acquire their natural colors, the direct influence of light is absolutely necessary.

Lavoisier's Chem. part ii. ş iii.

5955.
The Egyptians, says Porphyry, describe

6961. - It is hence proved that the vortex of the the sun in the character of a man sailing on a float. And Plutarch observes, to the same purpose, that they did not

Solar system is hell, as these sea-horses were sailing in it,

and as it gave back-water which followed them. represent the sun and the moon in chariots, but wasted about in floating machines. Iu doing which they did not refer to the luminaries; but to a personage represented under those titles.

BRYANT. 6962.

1 9 .] The Zoroastrians are divided between two opinions, one party believing that both soul and body will

rise, the other, that it will be the soul only. 6956. [- 2.] The colors of all bodies depend on the

VOLNEY. refrangibility of light; they may be considered as prisms, which decompose or rather divide the light. Some reflect the rays without producing any change, and these are white ; others absorb them all, and are therefore black.

5963. ( 16.) A kind of cloudy rocks, beneath the Accum's Chem. vol. i. p. 153. || world of spirits.

See SwedenBORG, Arcana, nn. 1266,

7,- 8,- 9. 5957.

The fishermen of Cadiz, says STRABO, used barks which they called horses, because they had the figure of a horse at the prow. — Aud the Egyptians represerited the Sun in a ship.

5964. 17.) Common burning glasses will aot, of See Marl. Capel. de Nupt. philol. lib. ii, p. 43.

a long time, burn, or discolour white paper. But when the The Egyptians assigned ships not only to the Sun and paper is blacked with ink, the moisture, under the saine Moon, but to all their gods.

influence from the glasses, will be quickly dried up, and the PORPHYRY ap. Euseb. Pr. Ev. lib. iii. cap. 3. paper, which would not burn before, will presently take fire.

the end of April; and during May it divides with the north the empire of the sea.

VOLNEY's Travels.

The band also, exposed to tie sun with a thin black glove on
it, is suddenly and more considerably heated, than when it
is held naked to the rays, or covered with a glove of thin
white leather.
See 2 Peter iii. 10. See PRIESTLEY's Hist. of Vision,

pp. 143, 144.

[blocks in formation]

5965. [Rev. vii. 1.) Mention is inade of Parhelia both by the Antients and the Moderns. They have been visible for one, two, three, and four hours together; and in North America they are said to continue some days, and to be visible from sunrise to sunset. Aristotle relates that two were seen in Bosphorus from morning to evening, thongh, in general, he observes, they are not seen except when the sun is near the horizou. But the most celebrated appearance of this kind is that which was seen at Rume by Scheiner, in which there were four mock suns. -- When mock saus appear, there are always in the heavens six entire circles visible, three of which have the sun, and three the zenith for their centre; and it seems, from all the accounts put together, that parhelia appear wherever any of these circles either intersect, or touch one another.

Ibid. pp. 613, 616, 618,630.

SMITH's Wonders of Nature and Art,

vol. ii. p. 132.

5969.

The cocoa-nut tree, the palmyra or braha tree, and the date-tree, being all of the same geuus, produce the palm-wine, and are generally included under the name of Palms or Palmetos.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs.

5970. — Palin was made the sign and reward of 5966. In Egypt and Syria, the winds blow from

victory, because it is the nature of that tree to resist, overthe four cardinal points, periodically at different seasons of

come, and thrive the better for all pressures. the year. For instance, when the sun approaches the tropic

Cowley. of Cancer, the winds, which before blew from the east, change to the north, and become constant in that point. In June they always blow from the north and north west : they continue portherly in July, but vary sometimes toward the west 5971. - 14.] They had become Christians in the and sometimes toward the east. About the end of July, intermediate state; probably, wbile , Jesus Christ was on during all the month of August, and half of September, they earth. John ix, 39. remain constantly in the north, and are moderate ; brisker in the day, however, and weaker at night. At this period a universal calm reigns on the Mediterranean. - Towards the end of September, when the sun repasses the line, the winds 5072. [ 16.] The matter of heat is an ethereal return to the east; and, though not fixed, blow more regu-. || fluid, in which all things are immersed, and which constitutes larly from that than any other point, except the worth: this the general power of repulsion; as appears in explosions which lasts all October and part of November. As the son ap are produced by the sudden evolution of combined heat, and proaches the other tropic, the winds become more variable by the expans.on of all bodies by the slower diffusion of it in and more tempestuous; they most usually blow from the its unicombined state. Without heat all the matter of the north, the north-west, and west, in which points they con world would be condensed into a point by the power of attrac. tinue during the winter months of December, January, and tion; and weither fuidity nor life could exist. There are also February. About the end of February and in March, when particular powers of repulsion, as those of magnetism aud the sun returns towards the equator, the winds are southerly electricity, and of chemistry, such as oil and water; which more frequently than at any other season. During this last last may be as numerous as the particular attractions which month, and that of April, the south-easterly, south, and constitute chemical affinities; and may both of them exist as south-westerly winds prevail ; and at times the west, north, atmospheres round the individual particles of matter. ! and east; the latter of which becomes the most prevalent about

Darwin's Temple of Nature, canto i. I. 235. 5973. (Red. vii. 16.) Heat arises not from nearuess to the already established, they increase their violence, and become sun, but from the altitude and consequent density of the tempests, which last several hours. These tempests are dry aerial atmosphere; as is evident from the cold on high moun when the air is pure; but when it is loaded with clouds, they tains even in hot climates : also, from this circumstance that are attended with a deluge of rain and hail, wbich the cold air heat varies according to the direct or oblique incidence of the condenses in its fall. It may happen that a continued fall sun's rays; as is plain from the seasons of winter and summer of water shall accompany the rupture, increased by the serin every year.

rounding clouds, attracted to the same vortex ; and hence will SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 7177. result these columns of water, known by the name of Typhons

and water-spouts. These water-spouts are not unusual on the coast of Syria, toward Cape Wedjh and Mount Carmel;

and it is observed that they are most frequent at the equinoxes, 5974. - Heat is oppressive to some plants. The land in a stormy sky, obscured by clouds. great night-shade of Peru, and the arbor tristis (sad tree)

VOLNBY. of the Moluccas, flower only in the night-time. Nay, in the severity of Winter, vegetate most of the mosses which clothe the rocks with an emerald-coloured green ; and then the trunks of trees cover themselves in humid situations with plants imperceptible to the naked eye, called Minium and Lichen,

5978. (Red. viii. 7.) At a meeting in 1810, of the Glasgow which give them the appearance in frosty weather of columns

Philosophical Society, Professor Leshe's process for effecting of green bronze.

the congelation of a mass of water in a warm rooun without St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

the aid of ice, of any cooling mixture, or expense of materials, vol. i. p. 241.

was exhibited by Dr. Uce. It consists in placing two yessels under the receiver of an air-pump; the one containing water, the other (unslacked lime or) any substance very attractive

of moisture. The weight of the air being removed by working 5975.

The heat of boiling water is only triple the machine, copious evaporation begins to take place from that of the direct rays of the sun, on a fine summer's day. the water. Were there nothing under the receiver but this HUTTON's Recreations, vol. ii. p. 247. liquid, an atmosphere of vapor would thus be formed; by

whose pressure further evaporation would be prevented: but the other substance absorbs the vapor almost as speedily as it rises. Hence evaporation, and its invariable effect the production of cold, proceeds so vigorously as soou to cou.

vert the water into ice ; spicula of which are seen shooting 5976. (Red. viii. 7. Fire mingled with blood] Strontes

beautifully across. In the present case a considerable cake of has the property of giving a red or purple color to flame.

ice was formed and preserved for upwards of half an hour, Dalton's Essays, p. 525.

although the temperature of the room was thirty degrees above

the freezing point. Indeed the ice might have been taken out -How purple and fiery, during the tempest, appeared the tumul

of the receiver for the purpose of throwing on it portions of tuous clouds, swiftly ascending or darting from the horizon

the potassium, which, at the instant of contact, took fire and upwards! They seemed to oppose and dash against each other ;

burnt holes in it. the skies appeared streaked with blood or purple fame over

Public Prints. head; the flaming lightning streaming and darting about in every direction around, seemed to fill the world with fire ; whilst the heavy thunder kept the earth in a constant tremor. BARTRAM's Travels, p. 139.

5979. - The Tuscans held, that the world was subject to certain revolutions, in which it became transformed

successively into new ayes; each having a certain number of 5977. The superior air refrigerated, and the

years assigned it of God, ending in what they called the great inferior air dilated, constitute in the atmosphere two strala,

year. The approach of such a change was portended, they which maintain a perpetual struggle with each other. If the

believed, by a prodigy which happened in the time of C. equilibrium be lost, the superior, ob eying the law of gravity,

Marius, when the air being perfectly clear and serene, there may rush into the inferior region, even to the earth. To

was heard a shrill and mournful sound of a trumpet, to every accidents of this nature we must ascribe those sudden torrents

one's astonishment and terror. of frozen air, kuown by the name of Hurricaves and squalls,

See PLUTARCH, in Sylla, p. 456. which seem to fall from heaven, and produce, in the warmest The Druids also taught the alternate dissolution of the seasons, and the hottest regions of the earth, the cold of the (sopernal) world by water and fire, and its successive polar circles. If the surrounding air resists, their duration is renovation. limited to a short time; but when they fall in with currents

See STRABO, lib. 4. 6980. [Rev. viii. 7.] The continual luininous decompo. 1 of Lowertz, and it has been calculated that a fifth part of it sitions in the superior regions of the sun's atmosphere, and is filled up. — So large was the body of water raised, and the consequent necessary regeneration of the atmospheric gases pushed forward by the falling of such a mass into the lake, that serve to carry them on, and which probably are pro. that its two islands, and the whole village of Seven, at the duced below the inferior cloudy regions, near the surface of northern extremity, were for a time completely overwhelmed the sun's body, must unavoidably be attended with great I by the swell. - By this catastrophe, 484 humap beings, 170 agitations, such as with us might even be called hurricanes. cows and horses, 103 goats and sheep, were killed ; 87 mea. Phil. Trans. 1801, part ii. p. 301. dows, 95 houses, 166 cowhouses, barns or stables, were en

tirely destroyed; and 60 meadows, 8 dwelling-houses, 19 cowhouses, bariis or stables, were considerably damaged.

The total loss was estimated at £120,000, sterling. 598). - When a precipitated condensation of the element (ch. iv. 6) Aqueous Vapor takes place, if the tem

Monthly Mag. for July 1807, pp. 513 — 520. perature of the air be above thirty-two degrees, the matter precipitated is liquid, or in form of rain; but if the temperature of the air be less than thirty-two degrees, it is in 5984. [Reo. viii. 8.] It is well ascertained by experience, form of snow : when drops of rain, in falling, pass through a that there are vast beds of pyrites dispersed through the intestratum of air below thirty-two degrees, they are cougealed,

rior parts of the earth at all depths; and it is a certain fact, and form hail.

that this compound substance inay, by the accidental affuDalton's Essays, p. 138. 1

sion of a due quantity of water, become hot, and at length Thus a portion of this Vapor, considered as a distinct and burn with great fury. peculiar fluid, is condensed into water, &c. by cold (or by the

PINKERTON's Coll. part xiii. p. 910. separation of that fire, which John saw, apart, mingled with Near Francfort, on mount Alikoniger there is a spot very blood).

favourable for seeing the day-break. Ibid.

At the instant the first ray of morn gilds the tops of Spessarl and Odenwalde, both appear to be islands of fire.

As far as Alikoniger all is thick darkness; but the eastern 5982. ( 8.) Froin thaws and earthquakes, among /

view appears like an illuininated island swimming on the black the mountains of Lebanon, rocks have been known to lose

ocean of night. their equilibrium, roll down upon the adjacent houses, and

Ibid. part xxiv. p. 250. bury the inhabitants : such an accident happened about twenty years ago, aud overwhelmed a whole village near Mardjordjos, without leaving a single trace to discover where it formerly stood. Still more lately, and near the same spot, a

5985.

When potassium is thrown into water whole hill-side, covered with mulberries and vines, was de

it burns rapidly, decomposing the water, and giving off

hydrogen. tached by a sudden thaw, and sliding down the declivity of the rock, was launcbed altogether, like a ship froin the stocks,

Potassium burns in silicated Auoric acid gas. into the valley.

In general, the properties of sodium are found to agree Volney's Trav. pol. i. p. 299.

with those of potassium so nearly, as not to require distinct specification.

Soda should, with propriety, be treated as an elementary

principle. 6983. In Swilzerland, early in the evening on

Dalton's Chem. Philos. part ii. pp. 487, the 2d of September, 1806, an immense projection of the

491, 504, 494. mountain of Ruffiberg, in the canton of Schwitz, gave way, and was precipitated into the valley, situated between the lakes of Zug and Lowertz, on two sides, and the mountains of Ruffiberg and Rosi on the others. — In four minutes it com 6986. [- 9.] The northern people in general, accordpletely overwhelmed three villages, and parts of two others. ing to the Edda (Edit. Goransoni), believed in a future state The torrent of earth and stones was more rapid than that of of being. They supposed that the soul, as in this present lava, and its effects as irresistible and terrible. The mountain life it is clothed with a material body, would, in the next, have in its tremendous descent carried trees, rocks, houses, every also a body suited to that state, au etherial vehicle ; that the thing before it. The mass spread in every direction, so as to objects also of its deliglit, its happiness, and glory, would bury completely a space of charming country more than three exist there also in a kind of metaphysical existence under an miles square. The force of the earth was so great, that it aerial substance; which objects it would thus possess and enjoy not only spread over the hollow of the valley, but even in a more transcendent degree. Hence the great hunters and ascended to a considerable height on the side of the opposite warriors had the accompaniments of their former sports, mountain. A portion of the falling mass rolled into the lake or with which they performed their actions of glory, buried

[graphic]

with them. The hunter had his bow, bis spear, and his dog, lll 5991. [Rev. vii. 10, 11.] That the putrid efflavium (causlaid in the same tomb. The heroes of the land-troops had their || ing plagues, &c.) will mix with water seems to be evident arms and their horses buried with them : the naval Victs or from the following experiment. If a mouse be put into a jar heroes were buried in their ships, or were burnt together full of water, standing with its mouth inverted in another with them, or finally had their tombs erected in the form vessel of water, a considerable quantity of elastic matter of a ship. These tombs were afterwards temples, whereat (and which inay, therefore, be called air) will soon be genethe people annually assembled to offer sacrifice for the pros rated, unless the weather be so cold as to cheek all putrererity of the nation. The ruins of such a ship-temple are faction. After a short time, the water contracts an extremely now to be seen near Dundalk in Ireland. Another also has fetid and offensive smell, which seems to indicate that the been discovered in the county of Mayo, and barony of Cas putrid effluvium pervades the water, and affects the neightello, covered with a single stone; and is, says Governor bouring air. PoWNALL, of an uncominon, curious nature.

W

PRIESTLEY's Experiments on Air, vol. i. Archæologia, vol. vii. pp. 149, &c.

p. 83.

5992. - 11.) At night, says BELL in his Travels through Asia, we came to a brook of bad water, where was a little wood of oaks, and plenty of grass, among which I observed great quantities of Roman wormwood, which the hungry horses devoured very greedily. Next day, we found about five hundred of our horses dead in the wood and adjacent fields. This was ascribed to their eating the wormwood.

Pinkerton's Coll. part xxix, p. 490.

5988.

It is almost beyond doubt, that the light of the aurora borealis, as well as that of falling stars and 5993. [- 12.] Being among the Druzes, says Volthe larger meteors, is electric light solely, and that there is NEY, in the year 1784, I observed that, during the cloudy nothing of combustion in any of these phenomena.

season at the end of July and in August, every day, towards Dalton's Essays, p. 180. eleven o'clock, or about noon, the sky was overcast, the sun

was often invisible the whole asternoon, the sannia, or summit of Lebanon, was capped with clouds, and many of them,

ascending the declivities, remained among the vineyards and 5 5989.

Falling stars are thought to be no more the pines, and I was frequently so enveloped in a white, than uncluous vapors, raised from the earth to small heights, humid, warm and opaque mist, as not to be able to see four and continuing to shine till that matter which first raised and paces before me. About ten or eleven at night, the sky supported them, being burnt out, they fall back again to the grew clear, the stars appeared, and the remainder of the earth, with extinguished flame.

night was very fine, the sun rose shining, and, towards GOLDSMITH's History of the Earth, || noon, the like appearances returned in the same circle. tri vol. i. p. 389.

Trad. dol. i. p. 347.

5990. - - On Thursday evening, Aug. 10th, 1815, between ten and eleven o'clock, the country around Pickering was suddenly illuminated in a most brilliant and extraordinary manner. It was occasioned by a meteor, which appeared in the west and south-west direction, proceeding froin the north to the south. It was nearly as large as the ordinary appearance of the full moon. The light it gave oui, however, was more brilliant, very much resembling inflamed Coil of turpentine, but rather of a bluer cast. It was per. fectly globular, and without any opaque spots on its surface. A long train, equal at least to ten times its diameter, was left behind. — Whether this luminous body ultimately burst, or gradually burnt away, the Editor of the Rockingham of Hull could not immediately ascertain.

5994. [ 13.] There is a remarkable phenomenon produced by a .concave mirror: it is the image of an object appearing between the spectator and the mirror, as if it were pendulous in the air. Il is produced whenever the object is placed farther from the mirror than the centre of the sphere. If a person go nearer, to view it more allentively, it will not Ay from hiin ; and though it have the appearance of a solid substance, yet if he attempt to lay hold on it, he will find nothing. — Roger Bacon was satisfied that one might to a great advantage view objects in a concave mirror (such is the hemisphere of any degree either of the natural or spiritual atmosphere over our earth), how distant soever they were

PRIESTLEY's Hist. of Vision, pp. 13, 27.

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