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Division of the subject into changes of the organic and inorganic world—Inorganic causes of change divided into aqueous and igneous—Aqueous causes first considered—Destroying and transporting power of running water—Sinuosities of rivers—Two streams when united do not occupy a bed of double surface (p. 171.)— Heavy matter removed by torrents and floods—recent inundations in Scotland— Effects of glaciers and icebergs in removing stones—Erosion of chasms through hard rocks (p. 174)—Excavations in the lavas of Etna by Sicilian rivers—Gorge of the Simeto–Gradual recession of the cataracts of Niagara.

Division of the subject.—Geology was defined to be the science which investigates the former changes that have taken place in the organic, as well as in the inorganic kingdoms of nature; and we may next proceed to inquire what changes are now in progress in both these departments. Wicissitudes in the inorganic world are most apparent; and as on them all fluctuations in the animate creation must in a great measure depend, they may claim our first consideration. The great agents of change in the inorganic world may be divided into two principal classes, the aqueous and the igneous. To the aqueous belong Rivers, Torrents, Springs, Currents, and Tides; to the igneous, Volcanos and Earthquakes. Both these classes are instruments of decay as well as of reproduction; but they may also be regarded as antagonist forces. For the aqueous agents are incessantly labouring to reduce the inequalities of the earth's surface to a level; while the igneous are equally active in restoring the unevenness of the external crust, partly by heaping up new matter in certain localities, and partly by depressing one portion, and forcing out another, of the earth's envelope. It is difficult in a scientific arrangement, to give an accurate view of the combined effects of so many forces in simultaneous operation;

because, when we consider them separately, we cannot easily estimate
either the extent of their efficacy, or the kind of results which they pro-
duce. We are in danger, therefore, when we attempt to examine the
influence exerted singly by each, of overlooking the modifications which
they produce on one another; and these are so complicated, that some-
times the igneous and aqueous forces co-operate to produce a joint effect,
to which neither of them unaided by the other could give rise, as when
repeated earthquakes unite with running water to widen a valley; or
when a thermal spring rises up from a great depth, and conveys the
mineral ingredients with which it is impregnated from the interior of the
earth to the surface. Sometimes the organic combine with the inor-
ganic causes; as when a rees, composed of shells and corals, protects one
line of coast from the destroying power of tides or currents, and turns
them against some other point; or when drift timber, floated into a lake,
fills a hollow to which the stream would not have had sufficient velocity
to convey earthy sediment.
It is necessary, however, to divide our observations on these various
causes, and to classify them systematically, endeavouring as much as
possible to keep in view that the effects in nature are mixed, and not
simple, as they may appear in an artificial arrangement.
In treating, in the first place, of the aqueous causes, we may consider
them under two divisions: first, those which are connected with the cir-
culation of water from the land to the sea, under which are included all
the phenomena of rivers and springs; secondly, those which arise from
the movements of water in lakes, seas, and the ocean, wherein are com-
prised the phenomena of tides and currents. In turning our attention to
the sormer division, we find that the effects of rivers may be subdivided
into those of a destroying and those of a renovating nature ; in the
destroying are included the erosion of rocks, and the transportation of
matter to lower levels; in the renovating class, the formation of deltas by
the influx of sediment, and the shallowing of seas.
..?ction of running water.—I shall begin, then, by describing the
destroying and transporting power of running water, as exhibited by tor-
rents and rivers. It is well known that the lands elevated above the sea
attract, in proportion to their volume and density, a larger quantity of
that aqueous vapour which the heated atmosphere continually absorbs
from the surface of lakes and the ocean. By these means, the higher
regions become perpetual reservoirs of water, which descend and irrigate
the lower valleys and plains. In consequence of this provision, almost
all the water is first carried to the highest regions, and is then made to
descend by steep declivities towards the sea; so that it acquires superior
velocity, and removes a greater quantity of soil, than it would do if the
rain had been distributed over the plains and mountains equally in pro-
portion to their relative areas. Almost all the water is also made by these
means to pass over the greatest distances which each region affords,

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before it can regain the sea. The rocks also, in the higher regions, are particularly exposed to atmospheric influences, to frost, rain, and vapour, and to great annual alternations of cold and heat, of moisture and desiccation. Its destroying and transporting power.—Among the most powerful agents of decay may be mentioned that property of water which causes it to expand during congelation ; so that, when it has penetrated into the crevices of the most solid rocks, it rends them open on freezing with mechanical force. For this reason, although in cold climates the comparative quantity of rain which falls is very inferior, and although it descends more gradually than in tropical regions, yet the severity of frost, and the greater inequalities of temperature, compensate in some degree for this diminished source of degradation. The solvent power of water also is very great, and acts particularly on the calcareous and alkaline elements of stone, especially when it holds carbonic acid in solution, which is abundantly supplied to almost every large river by springs, and is collected by rain from the atmosphere. The oxygen of the atmosphere is also gradually absorbed by all animal and vegetable productions, and by almost all mineral masses exposed to the open air. It gradually destroys the equilibrium of the elements of rocks, and tends to reduce into powder, and to render fit for soils, even the hardest aggregates belonging to our globe.” When earthy matter has once been intermixed with running water, a new mechanical power is obtained by the attrition of sand and pebbles, borne along with violence by a stream. Running water charged with foreign ingredients being thrown against a rock, excavates it by mechanical force, sapping and undermining till the superincumbent portion is at length precipitated into the stream. The obstruction causes a temporary increase of the water, which then sweeps down the barrier. Sinuosities of Rivers.—By a repetition of these landslips, the ravine is widened into a small, narrow valley, in which sinuosities are caused by the deflexion of the stream first to one side and then to the other. The unequal hardness of the materials through which the channel is eroded, tends partly to give new directions to the lateral force of excavation. When by these, or by accidental shiftings of the alluvial matter in the channel, and numerous other causes, the current is made to cross its general line of descent, it eats out a curve in the opposite bank, or in the side of the hills bounding the valley, from which curve it is turned back again at an equal angle, so that it recrosses the line of descent, and gradually hollows out another curve lower down in the opposite bank, till the whole sides of the valley, or river-bed, present a succession of salient and retiring angles. Among the causes of deviation from a straight

* Sir H. Davy, Consolations in Travel, p. 271. Vol. I.-W

course by which torrents and rivers tend in mountainous regions to widen the valleys through which they flow, may be mentioned the confluence of lateral torrents, swoln irregularly at different seasons by partial storms, and discharging at different times unequal quantities of debris into the main channel. When the tortuous flexures of a river are extremely great, the aberration from the direct line of descent is often restored by the river cutting through the isthmus which separates two neighbouring curves. Thus, in the annexed diagram, the extreme sinuosity of the river has caused it to

return for a brief space in a contrary direction to its main course, so that a peninsula is formed, and the isthmus (at a) is consumed on both sides by currents flowing in opposite directions. In this case an island is soon formed,—on either side of which a portion of the stream usually remains. Transporting power of water.—In regard to the transporting power of water, we may often be surprised at the facility with which streams of a small size, and descending a slight declivity, bear along coarse sand and gravel; for we usually estimate the weight of rocks in air, and do not reflect on their comparative buoyancy when submerged in a denser fluid. The specific gravity of many rocks is not more than twice that of water, and very rarely more than thrice, so that almost all the fragments propelled by a stream have lost a third, and many of them half, of what we usually term their weight. It has been proved by experiment, in contradiction to the theories of the earlier writers on hydrostatics, to be a universal law, regulating the motion of running-water, that the velocity at the bottom of the stream is every where less than in any part above it, and is greatest at the surface. Also, that the superficial particles in the middle of the stream move swifter than those at the sides. This retardation of the lowest and lateral currents is produced by friction; and when the velocity is sufficiently great, the soil composing the sides and bottom gives way. A velocity of three inches per second at the bottom is ascertained to be sufficient to tear up fine clay,+six inches per second, fine sand,-twelve inches per second, fine gravel,-and three feet per second, stones of the size of an egg.” When this mechanical power of running water is considered, we are prepared for the transportation of large quantities of gravel, sand, and

* Encyc. Brit.—art. Rivers.


mud, by the torrents and rivers which descend with great velocity from mountainous regions. But a question naturally arises, how the more tranquil rivers of the valleys and plains, flowing on comparatively level ground, can remove the prodigious burden which is discharged into them by their numerous tributaries, and by what means they are enabled to convey the whole mass to the sea. If they had not this removing power, their channels would be annually choked up, and the valleys of the lower country, and plains at the base of mountain-chains, would be continually strewed over with fragments of rock and sterile sand. But this evil is prevented by a general law regulating the conduct of running Waterthat two equal streams do not, when united, occupy a bed of double surface. In other words, when several rivers unite into one, the superficial area of the fluid mass is far less than that previously occupied by the separate streams. The collective waters, instead of spreading themselves out over a larger horizontal space, contract themselves into a column of which the height is greater relatively to its breadth. Hence a smaller proportion of the whole is retarded by friction against the bottom and sides of the channel; and in this manner the main current is often accelerated in the lower country, even where the slope of the river's bed is lessened. It not unfrequently happens, as will be afterwards demonstrated by examples, that two large rivers, after their junction, have only the surface which one of them had previously; and even in some cases their united waters are confined in a narrower bed than each of them filled before. By this beautiful adjustment, the water which drains the interior country is made continually to occupy less room as it approaches the sea; and thus the most valuable part of our continents, the rich deltas, and great alluvial plains, are prevented from being constantly under water." Floods in Scotland, 1829.-Many remarkable illustrations of the power of running water in moving stones and heavy materials were afforded by the storm and flood which occurred on the 3d and 4th of August, 1829, in Aberdeenshire and other counties in Scotland. The elements during this storm assumed all the characters which mark the tropical hurricanes; the wind blowing in sudden gusts and whirlwinds, the lightning and thunder being such as is rarely witnessed in our climate, and heavy rain falling without intermission. The floods extended almost simultaneously, and with equal violence, over that part of the north-east of Scotland which would be cut off by two lines drawn from the head of Lochrannoch, one towards Inverness and the other to Stonehaven. The united line of the different rivers which were flooded could not be less than from five to six hundred miles in length; and the whole of their courses were marked by the destruction of bridges, roads,

* See article Rivers, Encyc. Brit.

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