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which last height it attains at Jersey, and at St. Malo, a seaport of Brittany. Currents.-The most extensive and best determined system of currents, is that which has its source in the Indian Ocean, under the influence of the trade winds; and which, after doubling the Cape of Good Hope, inclines to the northward, along the western coast of Africa, then crosses the Atlantic, near the equator, and is lost in the Caribbean Sea, yet seems to be again revived in the current which issues from the Gulf of Mexico, by the Straits of Bahama, and flows rapidly in a north-easterly direction by the bank of Newfoundland, towards the Azores. We learn from the posthumous work of Rennell on this subject, that the Lagullas current, so called from the cape and bank of that name, is formed by the junction of two streams, flowing from the Indian Ocean; the one from the channel of Mozambique, down the south-east coast of Africa; the other, from the ocean at large. The collective stream is from ninety to one hundred miles in breadth, and runs at the rate of from two and a half to more than four miles per hour. It is at length turned westward by the Lagullas bank, which rises from a sea of great depth to within one hundred fathoms of the surface. It must, therefore, be inferred, says Rennell, that the current here is more than one hundred fathoms deep, otherwise the main body of it would pass across the bank, instead of being deflected eastward, so as to flow round the Cape of Good Hope. From this cape it flows northward, along the western coast of Africa, taking the name of the South Atlantic current. It then enters the Bight, or Bay of Benin, and is turned westward, partly by the form of the coast there, and partly, perhaps, by the Guinea current, which runs from the north into the same great bay. From the centre of this bay proceeds the Equatorial current, holding a westerly direction across the Atlantic, which it traverses, from the coast of Guinea to that of Brazil, flowing afterwards by the shores of Guiana to the West Indies. The breadth of this current varies from 160 to 450 geographical miles, and its velocity is from twenty-five to seventy-nine miles per day, the mean rate being about thirty miles. The length of its whole course is about 4000 miles. As it skirts the coast of Guiana, it is increased by the influx of the waters of the Amazon and Orinoco, and by their junction acquires accelerated velocity. After passing the island of Trinidad, it expands, and is almost lost in the Caribbean Sea; but there appears to be a general movement of that sea towards the Mexican gulf, which discharges the most powerful of all currents through the Straits of Florida, where the waters run in the northern part with a velocity of five miles an hour, having a breadth of from thirty-five to fifty miles. The temperature of the Gulf of Mexico is 86°, in summer, or 6° higher than that of the ocean, in the same parallel (25° N. lat.) and a large proportion of this warmth is retained, even where the stream reaches the 43° N. lat. After issuing from the Straits of Florida, the current runs in a northerly direction to Cape Hatteras, in North Carolina, about 35° N. lat., where it is more than seventy miles broad, and still moves at the rate of seventy-five miles per day. In about the 40° N. lat., it is turned more towards the Atlantic by the extensive banks of Nantucket and St. George, which are from 200 to 300 feet beneath the surface of the sea; a clear proof that the current exceeds that depth. On arriving near the Azores, the stream widens, and overflows, as it were, forming a large expanse of warm water in the centre of the North Atlantic, over a space of 200 or 300 miles from north to south, and having a temperature of srom 8° to 10° Fahr. above the surrounding ocean. The whole area, covered by the gulf water, is estimated by Rennell at 2000 miles in length, and, at a mean, 350 miles in breadth; an area more extensive than that of the Mediterranean. The warm water has been sometimes known to reach the Bay of Biscay, still retaining five degress of temperature above that of the adjoining ocean, and a branch of the gulf current occasionally drifts fruits, plants, and wood, the produce of America, and the West Indies, to the shores of Ireland, and the Hebrides. From the above statements we may understand the description, given by Rennell, of the principal currents, which, he says, are oceanic rivers, from 50 to 250 miles in breadth, having a rapidity exceeding that of the largest navigable rivers of the continents, and so deep as to be sometimes obstructed, and occasionally turned aside, by banks which do not rise within forty or fifty fathoms of the surface of the sea." Greatest Velocity of Currents.—The ordinary velocity of the principal currents of the ocean is from one to three miles per hour; but when the boundary lands converge, large bodies of water are driven gradually into a narrower space, and then wanting lateral room, are compelled to raise their level. Whenever this occurs, their velocity is much increased. The current which runs through the Race of Alderney, between the island of that name and the main land, has a velocity of above eight English miles an hour. Captain Hewett sound that in the Pentland Firth the stream, in ordinary spring tides, runs ten miles and a half an hour, and about thirteen miles during violent storms. The greatest velocity of the tidal current through the “Shoots,” or New Passage, in the Bristol Channel, is fourteen English miles an hour; and Captain King observed, in his recent survey of the Straits of Magellan, that the tide ran at the same rate through the “First Narrows.” Causes of Currents.—That movements of no inconsiderable magnitude should be impressed on an expansive ocean, by winds blowing for many months in one direction, may easily be conceived, when we observe the effects produced in our own seas by the temporary action of the same

* Rennell on Currents, p. 58.

cause. It is well known that a strong south-west or north-west wind invariably raises the tides to an unusual height along the east coast of England and in the Channel; and that a north-west wind of any continuance causes the Baltic to rise two feet and upwards above its ordinary level. Smeaton ascertained by experiment that, in a canal four miles in length, the water was kept up four inches higher at one end than at the other, merely by the action of the wind along the canal; and Rennell informs us that a large piece of water, ten miles broad, and generally only three feet deep, has, by a strong wind, had its waters driven to one side, and sustained so as to become six feet deep, while the windward side was laid dry.* As water, therefore, he observes, when pent up so that it cannot escape, acquires a higher level, so, in a place where it can escape, the same operation produces a current; and this current will extend to a greater or less distance, according to the force by which it is produced. Currents flowing alternately in opposite directions are also occasioned by the rise and fall of the tides. The effect of this cause is, as before observed, most striking in estuaries and channels between islands. A third cause of oceanic currents is evaporation by solar heat, of which the great current setting through the Straits of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean is a remarkable example, and will be fully considered in the next chapter. A stream of colder water also flows from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean. It must happen in many other parts of the world that large quantities of water raised from one tract of the ocean by solar heat, are carried to some other where the vapour is condensed and falls in the shape of rain, and this in flowing back again to restore equilibrium, will cause sensible currents. These considerations naturally lead to the inquiry, whether the level of contiguous seas, where currents prevail, varies considerably. Arago is of opinion that, so far as observations have hitherto been made, the difference in relative level is not great, or at least that it is insufficient to bear out the hypothesis that currents in general are referable to the action of prevailing winds. He admits the important and remarkable fact that the level of the Mediterranean near Alexandria is lower, by twenty-six feet six inches, than the Red Sea near Suez at low water, and about thirty feet lower than the Red Sea at the same place at high water. This result was obtained during the French expedition to Egypt, from the measurements of M. Lepère.t It was formerly imagined that there was an equal, if not greater diversity, in the relative levels of the Atlantic and Pacific, on the opposite sides of the isthmus of Panama. But the levellings recently carried across that isthmus by Mr. Lloyd, to ascertain the relative height of the Pacific

* Rennell on the Channel current. f An. du Bureau des Long. pour l'an 1836. Vol. I.-2 F

Ocean at Panama, and of the Atlantic at the mouth of the river Chagres, have shown, that the difference of mean level between those oceans is not considerable, and contrary to expectation the difference which does exist is in favour of the greater height of the Pacific. According to the result of this survey, on which great dependence may be placed, the mean height of the Pacific is three feet and a half, or 3.52 above the Atlantic, if we assume the mean level of a sea to coincide with the mean between the extremes of the elevation and depression of the tides; for between the extreme levels of the greatest tides in the Pacific, at Panama, there is a difference of 27.44 feet; and at the usual spring tides 21.22 feet: whereas at Chagres this difference is only 1.16 feet, and is the same at all seasons of the year. The tides, in short, in the Caribbean Sea are scarcely perceptible, not equalling those in some parts of the Mediterranean, whereas the rise is very high in the Bay of Panama; so that the Pacific is at high tide listed up several feet above the surface of the Gulf of Mexico, and then at low water let down as sar below it.” But astronomers are agreed that, on mathematical principles, the rise of the tidal wave above the mean level of a particular sea must be greater than the sall below it; and although the difference has been hitherto supposed insufficient to cause an appreciable error, it is, nevertheless, worthy of observation, that the error, such as it may be, would tend to reduce the small difference, now inserred, from the observations of Mr. Lloyd, to exist between the levels of the two oceans. There is still another way in which heat and cold must occasion great movements in the ocean, a cause to which, perhaps, currents are principally due. It is now ascertained that there is in sea water no point, as in fresh water, at which an increase of cold causes the fluid to begin again to expand. In the ocean, therefore, whenever the temperature of the surface is lowered, condensation takes place, and the superficial water, having its specific gravity increased, falls to the bottom, upon which lighter water rises immediately and occupies its place. When this circulation of ascending and descending currents has gone on for a certain time in high latitudes, the inserior parts of the sea are made to consist of colder or heavier fluid than the corresponding depths of the ocean between the tropics. If there be a free communication, if no chain of submarine mountains divide the polar from the equatorial basins, a horizontal movement will arise by the flowing of colder water from the poles to the equator, and there will then be a reflux of warmer superficial water from the equator to the poles. A well-known experiment has been adduced to elucidate this mode of action in explanation of the “trade winds.”f If a long trough, divided in the middle by a sluice or partition, have one end filled with water and the other with quicksilver, both fluids will remain quiet so long as they are divided; but when the sluice is drawn up, the heavier fluid will rush along the bottom of the trough, while the lighter, being displaced, will rise, and, flowing in an opposite direction, spread itself at the top. In like manner the expansion and contraction of seawater by heat and cold have a tendency to set under-currents in motion from the poles to the equator, and to cause counter-currents at the surface, which are impelled in a direction contrary to that of the prevailing trade winds. The geographical and other circumstances being very complicated, we cannot expect to trace separately the movements due to each cause, but must be prepared for many anomalies, especially as the configuration of the bed of the ocean must often modify and interfere with the course of the inferior currents, as much as the position and form of continents and islands are found to alter the direction of those on the surface. Each of the four causes above mentioned, the wind, the tides, evaporation, and the expansion and contraction of water by heat and cold, may be conceived to operate independently of the others, and although the influence of all the rest were annihilated. But there is another cause, the rotation of the earth on its axis, which can only come into play when the waters have already been set in motion by some one or all of the forces above described, and when the direction of the current so raised happens to be from south to north, or from north to south.* The principle on which this cause operates is probably familiar to the reader, as it has long been recognised in the case of the trade winds. Without enlarging, therefore, on the theory, it will be sufficient to offer an example of the mode of action alluded to. When a current flows from the Cape of Good Hope towards the Gulf of Guinea, it consists of a mass of water, which, on doubling the Cape, in lat. 35°, has a rotatory velocity of about 800 miles an hour; but when it reaches the line, it arrives at a parallel where the surface of the earth is whirled round at the rate of 1000 miles an hour, or about 200 miles saster.t. If this great mass of water was transferred suddenly from the higher to the lower latitude, the deficiency of its rotatory motion, relatively to the land and water with

* Phil. Trans., 1830, p. 59.

t See Capt. B. Hall's clear Explanation of the Theory of the Trade Winds. Fragments of Voyages, second series, vol. i., and his letter in the Appendix to Daniell's Meteorology.

* In an interesting essay in the United Service Journal (Dec. 1833), an attempt is made to introduce the earth's rotation as a primary cause of currents. But the author appears to misconceive the mode in which alone this rotation could produce any effect, and reasons as if it would in all latitudes cause currents from east to west. He also seems never to have heard of Mr. Lloyd's levellings across the Isthmus of Panama, by which the waters of the Gulf of Mexico are proved (if there be any difference) to be lower than the mean level of the Pacific. He also assumes erroneously that the quantity of rain is greatly in excess in high instead of low latitudes.

! See a table in Capt. Hall's work, before cited

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