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rains accompanied the shocks before mentioned; and two volcanos are said to have been in eruption in the mountain-chain nearest to Bogota. Chili, 1822.—On the 19th of November, 1822, the coast of Chili was visited by a most destructive earthquake. The shock was felt simultaneously throughout a space of 1200 miles from north to south. St. Jago, Valparaiso, and some other places, were greatly injured. When the district round Valparaiso was examined on the morning after the shock, it was found that the whole line of coast, sor the distance of above one hundred miles, was raised above its former level.” At Valparaíso the elevation was three feet, and at Quintero about four feet. Part of the bed of the sea, says Mrs. Graham, remained bare and dry at high water, “with beds of oysters, muscles, and other shells, adhering to the rocks on which they grew, the fish being all dead, and exhaling most offensive effluvia.”f An old wreck of a ship, which before could not be approached, became accessible from the land, although its distance from the original sea-shore had not altered. It was observed, that the water-course of a mill, at the distance of about a mile from the sea, gained a fall of fourteen inches, in little more than one hundred yards; and from this fact it is inferred that the rise in some parts of the inland country was far more considerable than on the borders of the ocean.S. Part of the coast thus elevated consisted of granite, in which parallel fissures were caused, some of which were traced for a mile and a-half inland. Cones of earth, about four feet high, were thrown up in several districts, by the forcing up of water mixed with sand through funnel-shaped hollows, a phenomenon very common in Calabria, and the explanation of which will hereafter be considered. Those houses in Chili of which the foundations were on rock were less damaged than such as were built on alluvial soil. Mr. Cruckshanks, an English botanist, who resided in the country during the earthquake, has informed me that some rocks of greenstone at Quintero, a few hundred yards from the beach, which had always been under water till the shock of 1822, have since been uncovered when the tide is at half-ebb; and he states that, after the earthquake, it was the general belief of the fishermen and inhabitants of the Chilian coast, not that the land had risen, but that the ocean had permanently retreated. Dr. Meyen, a Prussian traveller, who visited Valparaiso in 1831, says that on examining the rocks both north and south of the town, nine years after the event, he found in corroboration of Mrs. Graham's account, that remains of animals and sea-weed, the Lessonia of Bory de St. Vincent, which has a firm ligneous stem, still adhered to those rocks which in 1822 had been elevated above high-water mark." According to the same author, the whole coast of central Chili was raised about four feet, and banks of marine shells were laid dry on many parts of the coast. He observed similar banks, elevated at unknown periods, in several places, especially at Copiapo, where the species all agree with those now living in the ocean. Mr. Freyer also, who resided some years in South America, has confirmed these statements;t but Mr. Cuming, a gentleman well known by his numerous discoveries in conchology, and who resided at Valparaiso during and after the earthquake, could detect no proofs of the rise of the land, nor any signs of a change of level. On the contrary, he remarked, that the water at spring-tides rose after the earthquake to the same point, on a wall near his house, which it had reached before the shocks. The opinions of this gentleman well deserve attention from those who may have opportunities of minutely investigating the Chilian coast; but after considering his objections to Mrs. Graham's account, even before the late convulsion, I felt satisfied with the proofs of elevation in 1822. Had I still cherished any scepticism, it would have been removed by the coincidence of the facts related by Captain Fitz Roy; a shaving occurred in 1835, thirteen years afterwards, in another part of the same country.f Extent of country elevated.—The area over which this permanent alteration of level is conjectured to have extended, in 1822, is 100,000 square miles. The whole country, from the foot of the Andes to a great distance under the sea, is supposed to have been raised, the greatest rise being at the distance of about two miles from the shore. “The rise upon the coast was from two to four feet:—at the distance of a mile inland it must have been from five to six, or seven feet.”| The soundings in the harbour of Valparaíso have been materially changed by this shock, and the bottom has become shallower. The shocks continued up to the end of September, 1823; even then, forty-eight hours seldom passed without one, and sometimes two or three were felt during twenty-four hours. Mrs. Graham observed, after the earthquake of 1822, that, besides the beach newly raised above high-water mark, there were several older elevated lines of beach one above the other, consisting of shingle mixed with shells, extending in a parallel direction to the shore, to the height of fifty feet above the sea." In order to give some idea of the enormous amount of change which this single convulsion may have occasioned, let us assume that the extent of country moved was correctly estimated at 100,000 square miles, an

* See Geol. Trans., vol. i., second series; and also Journ. of Sci., 1824, vol. xvii. p. 40.

t Geol. Trans., vol. i., second series, p. 415. # Ibid.

§ Journ. of Sci., vol. xvii. p. 42.

* Reise um die erde; and see Dr. Meyen's letter cited Foreign Quart. Rev. No. 33. p. 13., 1836.

ł Geol. Soc. Proceedings, No. 40. p. 179., Feb. 1835.

f Cuming, Geol. Proceedings, No. 42. p. 213.

§ Journ. of Sci., vol. xvii. | Ibid., pp. 40.45.

* Geol. Trans., vol. i., second series, p. 415.

extent just equal to half the area of France, or about five-sixths of the area of Great Britain and Ireland. If we suppose the elevation to have been only three feet on an average, it will be seen that the mass of rock added to the continent of America by the movement, or, in other words, the mass previously below the level of the sea, and after the shocks permanently above it, must have contained fifty-seven cubic miles in bulk; which would be sufficient to form a conical mountain two miles high (or about as high as Etna), with a circumference at the base of nearly thirtythree miles. We may take the mean specific gravity of the rock at 2.655,-a fair average, and a convenient one in such computations, because at such a rate a cubic yard weighs two tons. Then, assuming the great Pyramid of Egypt, if solid, to weigh, in accordance with an estimate before given, six million tons, we may state the rock added to the continent by the Chilian earthquake to have more than equalled 100,000 pyramids. But it must always be borne in mind that the weight of rock here alluded to constituted but an insignificant part of the whole amount which the volcanic forces had to overcome. The whole thickness of rock between the surface of Chili and the subterranean foci of volcanic action, may be many miles or leagues deep. Say that the thickness was only two miles, even then the mass which changed place and rose three feet, being 200,000 cubic miles in volume, must have exceeded in weight 363 million pyramids. It may be useful to consider these results in connexion with others already obtained from a different source, and to compare the working of two antagonist forces—the levelling power of running water, and the expansive energy of subterranean heat. How long, it may be asked, would the Ganges require, according to data before explained, to transport to the sea a quantity of solid matter equal to that added to the land by the Chilian earthquake The discharge of mud in one year by the Ganges equalled the weight of sixty pyramids. In that case it would require seventeen centuries and a half before the river could bear down from the continent into the sea a mass equal to that gained by the Chilian earthquake. In about half that number of centuries, perhaps, the united waters of the Ganges and Burrampooter might accomplish the operation. 4leppo, 1822–Ionian Isles, 1820–When Aleppo was destroyed by an earthquake in 1822, two rocks are reported to have risen from the sea near the island of Cyprus;* and a new rocky island was observed in 1820 not far from the coast of Santa Maura, one of the Ionian Islands, after violent earthquakes.t Cutch, 1819–A violent earthquake occurred at Cutch, in the delta of the Indus, June 16, 1819. (See annexed Map, Plate V.) The principal

* Journ. of Sci., vol. xiv. p. 450. t Von Hoff, vol. ii. p. 180.

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