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flowing towards the equator; there heaping itself up in a ridge, and being retained in opposition to its weight or natural tendency towards the centre by the pressure thus caused. This, however, could not take place without laying dry the polar regions, so that protuberant land would appear at the poles, and a zone of ocean be disposed around the equator. This would be the first or immediate effect. Let us now see what would afterwards happen, if things were allowed to take their natural course. “The sea is constantly beating on the land, grinding it down, and scattering its worn-off particles and fragments, in the state of sand and pebbles, over its bed. Geological facts afford abundant proof that the existing continents have all of them undergone this process, even more than once, and been entirely torn in fragments, or reduced to powder, and submerged and reconstructed. Land, in this view of the subject, loses its attribute of fixity. As a mass it might hold together in opposition to forces which the water freely obeys ; but in its state of successive or simultaneous degradation, when disseminated through the water, in the state of sand or mud, it is subject to all the impulses of that fluid. In the lapse of time, then, the protuberant land would be destroyed, and spread over the bottom of the ocean, filling up the lower parts, and tending continually to re-model the surface of the solid nucleus, in correspondence with the form of equilibrium. Thus, after a sufficient lapse of time, in the case of an earth in rotation, the polar protuberances would gradually be cut down and disappear, being transferred to the equator (as being then the deepest sea), till the earth would assume by degrees the form we observe it to have—that of a flattened or obtate ellipsoid. “We are far from meaning here to trace the process by which the earth really assumed its actual form ; all we intend is to show that this is the form to which, under a condition of a rotation on its axis, it must tend, and which it would attain even if originally and (so to speak) perversely constituted otherwise.”* In this passage, the author has contemplated the superficial effects of aqueous causes only ; he might have added that every stream of lava which flowed out of a volcano would be impelled, in a slight degree, towards the equatorial regions, in obedience to the same power; and if the volcanic action should extend to great depths, so as to melt, one after another, different parts of the earth, the whole interior might at length be remodelled under the influence of similar changes, due to causes which may all be operating at this moment. The statical figure, therefore, of the terrestrial spheroid (of which the longest diameter exceeds the shortest by about twenty-five miles), may have been the result of gradual and even of existing causes, and not of a primitive, universal, and simultaneous fluidity. Experiments made with the pendulum, and observations on the manner
* Herschel's Astronomy, chap. iii.
in which the earth attracts the moon, have shown that our planet is not an empty sphere, but that it must rather increase in density from the surface towards the centre; and it has also been inferred that the equatorial protuberance is continued inwards, that is to say, that layers of equal density are arranged elliptically, and symmetrically, from the exterior to the centre. The inequalities, however, in the moon's motion, on which this opinion is founded, are so extremely slight, that it can be regarded as little more than a probable conjecture. The mean density of the earth has been computed by Laplace to be about 5}, or more than five times that of water. Now the specific gravity of many of our rocks is from 24 to 3, and the greater part of the metals range between that density and 21. Hence some have imagined that the terrestrial nucleus may be metallic—that it may correspond, for example, with the specific gravity of iron, which is about 7. But here a curious question arises in regard to the sorm which materials, whether fluid or solid, might assume, if subjected to the enormous pressure which must obtain at the earth's centre. Water, if it continued to decrease in volume according to the rate of compressibility deduced from experiment, would have its density doubled at the depth of ninety-three miles, and be as heavy as mercury at the depth of 362 miles. Dr. Young computed that, at the earth's centre, steel would be compressed into one-fourth, and stone into one-eighth of its bulk.” It is more than probable, however, that after a certain degree of condensation, the compressibility of bodies may be governed by laws altogether different from those which we can put to the test of experiment; but the limit is still undetermined, and the subject is involved in such obscurity, that we cannot wonder at the variety of notions which have been entertained respecting the nature and conditions of the central nucleus. Some have conceived it to be fluid, others solid; some have imagined it to have a cavernous structure, and have even endeavoured to confirm this opinion by appealing to observed irregularities in the vibrations of the pendulum in certain countries. Central Heat.—The hypothesis of internal fluidity calls for the more attentive consideration, as it has been found that the heat in mines augments in proportion as we descend. Observations have been made, not only on the temperance of the air in mines, but on that of the rocks, and on the water issuing from them. The mean rate of increase, calculated from results obtained in six of the deepest coal miles in Durham and Northumberland, is 1° Fahr. for a descent of forty-four English feet.t A series of observations, made in several of the principal lead and silver mines in Saxony, gave 1° Fahr. for every sixty-five feet. In this case,
* Young's Lectures, and Mrs. Somerville's Connexion of the Physical Sciences, p. 90.
* Ed. Journal of Sci., April, 1832.
the bulb of the thermometer was introduced into cavities purposely cut in the solid rock at depths varying from two hundred to above nine hundred feet. But in other mines of the same country, it was necessary to descend thrice as far for each degree of temperature." A thermometer was fixed in the rock of the Dolcoath mine, in Cornwall, by Mr. Fox, at the great depth of 1380 feet, and frequently observed during eighteen months; the mean temperature was 68°Fahr., that of the surface being 50°, which gives 1° for every seventy-five feet. Kupffer, after an extensive comparison of the results in different countries, makes the increase 1°F. for about every thirty-seven English feet;t and Cordier considers that it would not be overstated at 1° Cent. for every twenty-five metres, or about 1°F. for every forty-five feet.f Some writers have endeavoured to refer these phenomena (which, however discordant as to the ratio of increasing heat, appear all to point one way), to the condensation of air constantly descending from the surface into the mines. For the air under pressure would give out latent heat, on the same principle as it becomes colder when rarified in the higher regions of the atmosphere. But besides that the quantity of heat is greater than could be supposed to flow from this source, the argument has been answered in a satisfactory manner by Mr. Fox, who has shown, that in the mines of Cornwall the ascending have generally a higher temperature than the descending ačrial currents. The difference between them was found to vary from 9° to 17°Fahr. : a proof, that instead of imparting heat, these currents actually carry off a large quantity from the mines.S * If we adopt M. Cordier's estimate of 1° Fahr. for every 45 feet of depth as the mean result, and assume, with the advocates of central fluidity, that the increasing temperature is continued downwards, we should reach the ordinary boiling point of water at about two miles below the surface, and at the depth of about twenty-four miles should arrive at the melting point of iron, a heat sufficient to fuse almost every known substance. The temperature of melted iron was estimated at 21,000° Fahr. by Wedgwood; but his pyrometer gives, as is now demonstrated, very erroneous results. It has been ascertained by Professor Daniell, that the point of fusion is 2786°Fahr.|
* Cordier, Mém. de l'Instit., tom. vii. t Pog. Ann. tom. xv. p. 159.
# Cordier, Mém. de l'Instit., tom. vii. § Phil. Mag. and Ann., Feb. 1830.
| The heat was measured in Wedgwood's pyrometer by the contraction of pure clay, which is reduced in volume when heated, first by the loss of its water of combination, and afterwards on the application of more intense heat, by incipient vitrification. The expansion of platina is the test employed by Mr. Daniell, in his pyrometer, and this has been found to yield uniform and consistent results, such as are in perfect harmony with conclusions drawn from various other independent sources. The instrument for which the author received the Rumford Medal from the Royal Society in 1833, is described in the Phil. Trans. 1830, part ii., and 1331, part ii.
By adopting the least correct of these two results the melting point of our ordinary rocks would be farther removed from the surface; but this difference does not affect the probability of the theory now under consideration. According to Mr. Daniell's scale, we ought to encounter the internal melted matter before penetrating through a thickness represented by that of the outer circular line in the annexed diagram (Fig. 59.);
ness of 25 miles; the space between the circles including the breadth of the lines, 200 miles.
whereas, is the other scale be correct, we should meet with it at some point between the two circles; the space between them, together with the lines themselves, representing a crust of two hundred miles in depth. In either case, we must be prepared to maintain, that a temperature many times greater than that sufficient to melt the most refractory substances known to us, is sustained at the centre of the globe; while a comparatively thin crust, resting upon the fluid, remains unmelted; or is even, according to M. Cordier, increasing in thickness, by the continual addition of new internal layers solidified during the process of refrigeration. The mathematical calculations of Fourier, on the passage of heat through conducting bodies, have been since appealed to in support of these views; for he has shown that it is compatible with theory that the present temperature of the surface might coexist with an intense heat, at a certain depth below. But his reasoning seems to be confined to the
conduction of heat through solid bodies ; and the conditions of the problem are wholly altered when we reason about a fluid nucleus, as we must do, if it be assumed that the heat augments from the surface to the interior, according to the rate observed in mines. For when the heat of the lower portion of a fluid is increased, a circulation begins thoughout the mass, by the ascent of hotter, and the descent of colder currents. And this circulation, which is quite distinct from the mode in which heat is propagated through solid bodies, must evidently occur in the supposed central ocean, if the laws of fluids and of heat are the same there as upon the surface. In Mr. Daniell's recent experiments for obtaining a measure of the heat of bodies, at their point of susion, he invariably sound that it was impossible to raise the heat of a large crucible of melted iron, gold, or silver, a single degree beyond the melting point, so long as a bar of the respective metals was kept immersed in the fluid portions. So in regard to other substances, however great the quantities fused, their temperature could not be raised while any solid pieces immersed in them remained unmelted; every accession of heat being instantly absorbed during their liquefaction. These results are, in fact, no more than the extension of a principle previously established, that so long as a fragment of ice remains in water, we cannot raise the temperature of the water above 32° F. Is, then, the heat of the earth's centre amount to 450,000° F., as M. Cordier deems highly probable, that is to say, about twenty times the heat of melted iron, even according to Wedgwood's scale, and upwards of 160 times according to the improved pyrometer, it is clear that the upper parts of the fluid mass could not long have a temperature only just sufficient to melt rocks. There must be a continual tendency towards a uniform heat; and until this were accomplished, by the interchange of portions of fluid of different densities, the surface could not begin to consolidate. Nor, on the hypothesis of primitive fluidity, can we conceive any crust to have been formed until the whole planet had cooled down to about the temperature of incipient fusion. It cannot be objected that hydrostatic pressure would prevent a tendency to equalization of temperature; for, as far as observations have yet been made, it is found that the waters of deep lakes and seas are governed by the same laws as a shallow pool; and no experiments indicate that solids resist fusion under high pressure. The arguments, indeed, now controverted, always proceed on the admission that the internal nucleus is in a state of fusion. It may be said that we may stand upon the hardened surface of a lava current while it is still in motion,-nay, may descend into the crater of Vesuvius after an eruption, and stand on the scoriae while every crevice shows that the rock is red-hot two or three feet below us; and at a some