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clothes without that cognizance. And, indeed, to poor people it was true, "put it off and be burned ; keep it on and be starved ;"/seeing none generally would set them on work that carried that badge about them.
8. Sweeting and Brewster burned. On this account William Sweeting and James Brewster were re-imprisoned. In vain did Brewster plead,* that he was commanded to leave off his badge by the comptroller of the earl of Oxford's house, who was not to control the orders of the bishops herein. And as little did Sweeting's plea prevail, that the parson of Mary Magdalene's in Colchester caused him to lay his faggot aside. These, like Isaac, first bare their faggots on their backs, which soon after bare them, being both burned together in Smithfield, Oct. 18th. The papists report, that they proffered, at their death, again to abjure their opinions, the truth whereof one day shall appear. Mean time, if 'true, let the unpartial but judge which were most faulty,—these poor men for want of constancy in tendering, or their judges for want of charity in not accepting, their abjuration ?
9. Richard Hunn murdered in Lollards' Tower. A.D. 1514.
Richard Hunn, a wealthy citizen of London, imprisoned in Lollards' Tower for maintaining some of Wickliffe's opinions, had his neck therein secretly broken, December 3rd. To cover their cruelty, they gave it out, that he hanged himself; but the coroner’s inquest sitting on him, December 6th, by necessary presumptions found the impossibility thereof, and gave in their verdict, that the said Hunn was murdered. Insomuch that Parsons + hath nothing to reply, but that the coroner's inquest were simple men, and suspected to be infected with Wickliffian heresies. But we remit the reader to Mr. Fox for satisfaction in all these things, whose commendable care is such, that he will not leave an hoof of a martyr behind him, being very large in the reckoning-up of all sufferers in this kind.
10. Cardinal Bainbrigg, why poisoned at Rome. Cardinal Bainbrigg, archbishop of York, being then at Rome, was so highly offended with Rivaldus de Modena, an Italian, his steward, (others say, his physician, and a priest,) that he fairly cudgelled him. This his passion was highly censured, as inconsistent with episcopal gravity, who should be “no striker,” 1 Tim. iii. 3. But the Italian showed a cast of his country, and with poison I sent the
Fox, vol. ii. page 12, + Examination of Fox's “Martyrology” for the month of December, pages 279, 282. Godwin in Catalogue of Bishops of York, page 72.
cardinal to answer for his fact in another world, whose body was buried in the English hospital at Rome.
11. The Founding of Corpus Christi College, in Orford.
A.D. 1516. Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester, founded and endowed Corpus-Christi College in Oxford; bestowing thereon lands to the yearly value of four hundred and one pounds, eight shillings and two pence.* And, whereas this foundation is charactered by an Oxfordman,t to be ex omnibus minimum, vel certè ex minimis unum, at this day it acquitteth itself in more than a middle equipage amongst other foundations. Erasmus is very large in the praise thereof, highly affected with a library, and study of tongues, which, according to the founder's will, flourished therein ; insomuch that for some time it was termed, “ the college of the three learned languages; "
Est locus O.ronii, licet appellare trilingue
Museum, a Christi corpore nomen habet. I Sure I am, that for all kind of learning, divine and human, this House is paramount for eminent persons bred therein.
PRESIDENTS.-John Claymond, Robert Nerwent, (Morwent, ] William Cheadsey, William Butcher, Thomas Greeneway, William Cole, John Raynolds, John Spencer, Thomas Anian, John Holt, Thomas Jackson, Robert Newlen, Edmund Staunton.
Bishops.-Cardinal Pole, John Jewel.
BENEFACTORS.-Hugh Oldham, bishop of Exeter; John Claymond, first president ; Mr. Mordent, William Frost, Mrs. Moore, Dr. John Raynolds, Sir George Paul, knight.
LEARNED WRITERS.-George Etheridge, Richard Hooker, Brian Twine, the industrious antiquary of Oxford; Dr. Thomas Jackson.
So that a President, twenty Fellows, twenty Scholars, two Chaplains, two Clerks, and two Choristers, besides Officers and Servants of the foundation, are therein maintained, which, with other Students, anno 1634, made up threescore and ten.
12. Hugh Oldham's Bounty. This Hugh Oldham, in the front of benefactors, because he was bishop of Exeter, for name's sake, intended his bounty to Exeter College. But suffering a repulse from that society, (refusing at his request to make one Atkin a Fellow,/l) diverted his liberality to • Godwin in the Bishops of Winchester, page 297. † Puzgus De Acad. O.ron.
1 Jous White in libro diacosio, &c. $ See more of him, anno 1584, sect. vi. par. 21. 11 Godwin in the Bishops of Exeter, page 473.
Corpus-Christi college ; so bountiful thereunto, that, as “founder" is too much, so “ benefactor” is too little, for him. He was one of more piety than learning, courteous in his deeds, but very harsh and rugged in his speeches, making himself but bad orations, yet good orators, so many eloquent men were bred by his bounty. Nor let it be forgotten, that, as Fox, the founder of this house, was Fellow and Master of Pembroke-Hall; so Oldham also had his education in Queen's college in Cambridge ;* so much hath Oxford been beholding to her nephews'or sister's children. But as once Ephron said to Abraham, “What is that betwixt me and thee?" Gen. xxii. 15; so, such their mutual affection, it matters not what favour one sister freely bestoweth on the other. 13–16. The Death of Dean Colet, Founder of Paul's School.
The Mercers mude Overseers thereof, out of provident Pre
science. A.D. 1519. John Colet, dean of Paul's, died this year, September 4th, in the fifty-third year of his age, of a pestilential sweating, at Sheen in Surrey. He was the eldest and sole surviving child of Sir Henry Colet, mercer, twice lord mayor of London, who, with his ten sons and as many daughters, are depicted in a glass window, on the north side of St. Anthony's, (corruptly St. Antholin's,) to which church he was a great benefactor.t His son John founded the freeschool of St. Paul's; and it is hard to say, whether he left better laws for the government, or lands for maintenance, thereof.
A free school, indeed, to all natives or foreigners of what country whatsoever, here to bave their education, (none being excluded by their nativity, which exclude not themselves by their unworthiness,) to the number of one hundred fifty and three, (so many fishes caught in the net by the apostles, John xxi. 11,) whereof every year some appearing most pregnant (by unpartial examination) have salaries allowed them for seven years, or until they get better preferment, in the church or university.
It may seem false Latin, that this Colet being dean of St. Paul's, the school dedicated to St. Paul, and distanced but the breadth of the street from St. Paul's church, should not be entrusted to the inspection of his successors, the dean and chapter of Paul's, but committed to the care of the Company of the Mercers, for the managing thereof. But Erasmus rendereth a good reason, from the mouth and mind of Colet himself, who had found by experience many laymen as conscientious as clergymen in discharging this trust in this kind ; conceiving also, that whole Company was not so
• See John Scot's Tables. † Stow's “ Survey,” page 265. Epistle unto Jodocus Jonas.
1 In bis
easy to be bowed to corruption as any single person, how public and eminent soever.
For my own part, I behold Colet's act herein, not only prudential, but something prophetical, as foreseeing the ruin of churchlands, and fearing that this his school, if made an ecclesiastical appendant, might, in the fall of church-lands, get a bruise, if not lose a limb, thereby.
17–20. William Lilly first Schoolmaster. His Grammar
often printed, and privileged by Authority; since amended
by many. William Lilly was the first schoolmaster thereof, by Colet's own appointment : an excellent scholar, born at Odiam in Hampshire, and afterward he went on pilgrimage as far as Jerusalem.* In his return through Italy he applied himself to his studies. And because some, perchance, would be pleased to know the lilies of Lilly, (I mean his teachers and instructers,) know that John Sulpitius and Pomponius Sabinus, two eminent critics, were his principal informers. Returning home into his native country wellaccomplished with Latin, Greek, and all arts and sciences, he set forth a grammar, which still goes under his name, and is universally taught all over England.
Many were the editions of this grammar; the first set forth anno 1513, when Paul's school was founded, as appears by that instance, meruit sub rege in Galliâ, relating to Maximilian the German emperor, who then at the seige of Therovenne in Flanders, fought under the banner of king Henry VIII. taking an hundred crowns a-day for his pay.t Another edition, anno 1520, when audito rege Doroberniam proficisci refers to the king's speedy journey into Canterbury, there to give entertainment to Charles V. emperor, lately landed at Dover.
Formerly there were in England almost as many grammars as schoolmasters, children being confounded, not only with their variety, but (sometimes) contrariety thereof; rules being true in the one which were false in the other. Yea, which was the worst, a boy when removed to a new school lost all he had learned before : whereupon king Henry endeavoured an uniformity of grammar all over his dominions ; that so youths, though changing their schoolmasters, might keep their learning. This was performed, and William Lilly's grammar enjoined universally to be used. A stipend of four pounds a-year was allowed the king's printer for printing of it; and it was penal for any publicly to teach any other.
PITZÆUS De Ang. Scriptor. page 697.
+ Godwin's “ Annals," page 16.
I have been told how, lately, bishop Buckeridge examining a free school in his diocess of Rochester, the scholars were utterly ignorant of Lilly's rules, as used to others; whereat the bishop exclaimed, “What, are there Puritans also in grammar ? "
I deny not but some since have discovered blasted leaves in our Lilly, observing defects and faults therein ; and commendable many persons' pains in amending them. However, it were to be desired, that no needless variations be made, and as much left of Lilly as may be ; the rather, because he submitted his Syntaxis to the judgment of Erasmus himself,* so that it was afterward printed amongst his works. Indeed Quæ Genus was done by Thomas Robinson, and the Accidence (as some will have it) by other authors, after Lilly was dead, and prince Edward born, of and for whom it was said, “ EDVARDUS is my proper name.'
And thus we take our leave both of Lilly and Paul's school, flourishing at this day as much as ever, under the care of Mr. John Langley, the able and religious schoolmaster thereof.
21–23. King Henry writes against Luther: styled by the Pope DEFENDER OF The Faith. His Jester's Reply. A.D. 1521.
King Henry had lately set forth a book against Luther, endeavouring the confutation of his opinions as novel and unsound. None suspect this king's lack of learning, (though many his lack of leisure from his pleasures,) for such a design ; however, it is probable some other GARDNER gathered the flowers, (made the collections,) though king Henry had the honour to wear the posy, carrying the credit in the title thereof.
To requite his pains, the pope honoured him and his successors with a specious title, “A Defender of the Faith.” Indeed, it is the bounden duty of every Christian, “earnestly to contend for the faith which once was given to the saints,” Jude 3 ; but it is the dignity of few men, and fewer princes, to be able effectually to appear in print in the vindication thereof.
There is a tradition, that king Henry's fool, (though more truly to be termed by another name,) coming into the court, and finding the king transported with an unusual joy, boldly asked of him the cause thereof; to whom the king answered, it was because that the pope had honoured him with a style more eminent than
any his ancestors. “O good Harry," quoth the fool, “let thou and I defend one another, and let the faith alone to defend itself.” Most true it is that some of his successors more truly deserved the title, than he to whom it was given ; who both learnedly then solidly engaged their pens in the asserting of true religion.
• PITZÆus, ut prius.