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stench whereof made some of them to die soon after, and others escaped with great difficulty. Taverner was excellently skilled in music ; on which account he escaped, though vehemently accused, the cardinal pleading for him, that he was but a musician, though afterward he repented to have set tunes to so many popish ditties.

We must not forget that all in the foresaid catalogue, whose Christian names are expressed, were originally Cambridge-men,* and invited by the cardinal, on promise of preferment, to plant his new foundation ; besides Florence, a Dominican, John Akers, and many more famous for their learning, which at this time removed to Oxford, seasoned both with good learning and true religion.

Know also this, John Higdon, first dean, was he, of whom cardinal Wolsey, when fallen into distress, did borrow two hundred pounds, there with to pay and reward some of his poorest servants, giving them money on this condition,--that hereafter they should serve no subject, but only the king himself ;+ as if this had been suscipere gradum Simeonis, for those who so long had attended on a lord cardinal. But this happened many years after ; return to this proud prelate, while he flourished in the height of his prosperity. 36-38. Wolsey turns his Waiting into Revenge. The Scruple

of the King's Marriage. The King willingly embraceth the Motion. Their heads will catch cold which wait bare for a dead pope's triple crown. Wolsey may be an instance hereof, who, on every avoidance of St. Peter's chair, was sitting down therein, when suddenly some one or other clapt in before him! Weary with waiting, he now resolved to revenge himself on Charles the emperor, for not doing him right, and not improving his power in preferring him to the papacy, according to his promises and pretences. He intends to smite Charles through the sides of his aunt, Catherine queen of England, endeavouring to alienate the king's affections from her. And this is affirmed by the generality of our historians, though some of late have endeavoured to acquit Wolsey, as not the first persuader of the king's divorce.

Indeed, he was beholding for the first hint thereof to the Spaniards themselves. For, when the lady Mary was tendered in marriage to Philip, prince of Spain, the Spanish ambassadors seemed to make some difficulty thereof, and to doubt her extraction, as begotten on a mother formerly married to her husband's elder brother. Wolsey now put this scruple into the head of bishop Longland, the king's confessor, and he insinuated the same into the king's conscience : • Caius De Antiq. Cant. Acad.

Rex Platonicus, page 43. VOL. II.


advising him hereafter to abstain from the company of his queen, to whom he was unlawfully married ; adding moreover, that, after a divorce procured, which the pope in justice could not deny, the king might dispose his affections where he pleased. And here Wolsey had provided him a second wife : namely, Margaret duchess of Alençon, sister to Francis king of France ; though heavens reserved that place, not for the inistress, but her maid, I mean Anna Bullen, [Boleyn,] who (after the return of Mary the French queen for England) attended in France for some time on this lady Margaret.

Tinder needs no torch to light it; the least spark will presently set it on flame. No wonder if king Henry greedily resented the motion. Male issue he much wanted, and a young female more on whom to beget it. As for queen Catherine, he rather respected than affected, rather honoured than loved her. She had got a habit of miscarrying, scarce curable in one of her age, intimated in one of the king's private papers, as morbus incurabilis. Yet publicly he never laid either fault or defect to her charge ; that, not dislike of her person or conditions, but only principles of pure conscience, might seem to put him upon endeavours of a divorce.

39, 40. The Pope a Captive. The Character of Campegius.

A.D. 1528. The business is brought into the court of Rome, there to be decided by pope Clement VII. But the pope at this time was not sui juris, being a prisoner to the emperor, who constantly kept a guard about him. So that one wittily said, it was now most true, Papa non potest errare, The pope could not wander," as cooped up and confined. Yet, after some delays, the pope at last, , to satisfy the king, and clear his own credit, dispatched a commission to two cardinals, Wolsey, and Campegius an Italian, at London, to hear and determine the matter.

Campegius was the junior cardinal, and therefore the rather procured by Wolsey to be his colleague in this business, -whose pride would scarce admit an equal, but abhorred a superior,—than any foreign prelate should take place of him in England. As Wolsey's junior, so was he none of the most mercurial amongst the conclave of cardinals, but a good heavy man, having ingenium par negotio, “neither too much, nor too little, but just wit enough for the purpose the pope employed him in.” Wolsey might spur Campegius, and Campegius would bridle Wolsey, keeping them both strictly to the letter of their instructions. Wolsey, hearing Campegius was come to Calais with an equipage not so court-like as he could have desired, and, loath that his own pomp should be shamed by the

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other's poverty, caused him to stay there till he sent him more splendid accommodations, at least in outward show, and then over he came into England. But see the spite of it! As the cardinal's mules passed Cheapside, out of unruliness they chanced to break the trunks they carried, which were found full of nothing but emptiness, which exposed his mock state to the more scorn and contempt. Empty trunks, the lively emblem of this cardinal's legacy, coming hither with intent and instruction to do little, and going hence having done nothing at all! However, a court is solemnly called, and the cardinals, having first read their commission, set themselves to examine the matter.

41-43. A matchless Sight. Queen Catherine's Speech. The

Sting in her Speech. A.D. 1529. It was fashionable amongst the Heathen, at the celebration of their centenary solemnities, which returned but once in hundred years, to have a herald publicly to proclaim, “Come hither to behold what you never saw before, and never are likely to see again." But here, May 31st, happened such a spectacle, in a great

a room called the parliament-chamber in Blackfriars, as never before or after was seen in England ; namely, king Henry, summoned in his own land to appear before two judges,—the one Wolsey, directly his subject by birth,—the other his subject occasionally by bis preferment, Campegius being lately made bishop of Salisbury. Summoned, he appeared personally, and the queen did the like the first day, but afterwards both by their doctors. FOR THE KING.Richard Samson, John Bell, Peter and John Tregonwell. For THE QUEEN.—Nicholas West, bishop of Ely; John Fisher, bishop of Rochester; Henry Standish, bishop of St. Asaph. Here the queen arose, and, after her respects dealt to the cardinals, in such manner as seemed neither uncivil to them, nor unsuiting to herself, uttered the following speech, at the king's feet, in the English tongue, but with her Spanish tone, a clip whereof was so far from rendering it the less intelligible, that it soundeth the more pretty and pleasant to the hearers thereof. Yea, her very pronunciation pleaded for her with all ingenuous auditors, providing her some pity, as due to a foreigner far from her own country. But hear her words:

6 Sir, I desire you take some pity upon me, and do me justice and right: I am a poor woman, a stranger, born out of your dominions, having here no indifferent counsel, and less assurance of friendship. Alas! wherein have I offended, or what cause of displeasure have I given, that you intend thus to put me away? I take God to my judge, I have been to you a true and humble wife, ever conformable to your will and pleasure, never gainsaying any thing wherein you took delight, without

took delight, without all grudge or discontented countenance; I have loved all them that loved you, howsoever their affections have been to me-ward ; I have borne you children, and been your wife now this twenty years. Of my virginity and marriage-bed I make God and your own conscience the judge; and if it otherwise be proved, I am content to be put from you with shame. The king your father in his time for wisdom was known to be a second Solomon ; and Ferdinando of Spain my father, accounted the wisest among their kings. Could they in this match be so far overseen? or are there now wiser and more learned men than at that time were ? Surely, it seemeth wonderful to me, that my marriage, after twenty years, should be thus called in question, with new invention against me who never intended but honesty. Alas, sir, I see I am wronged, having no counsel to speak for me, but such as are your subjects, and cannot be indifferent upon my part. Therefore, I most humbly beseech you, even in charity, to stay this course, until I have advice and counsel from Spain; if not, your Grace's pleasure be done."*

This her speech ended, she departed the court, and, though often recalled, would not return ; whereupon, June 18th, she was pronounced contumacious; many commending the greatness of her spirit, and more condemning the stoutness of her stomach, as every one stood affected.

The most pungent passage in this her speech was her appeal to the king's conscience, that he found her a virgin, when first conving to her bed. Her words gained the more credit, because coming from one generally known to be spare of speech, and such may be rationally presumed to take best aim at the truth, who so seldom discharge in discourse; the rather because she saying it, and the king not gainsaying it, many interpreted his silence herein consent ; whilst others imputed the king's silence to his discretion, because both of them were parties, who, though they knew the most, were to speak the least, in their own cause, remitting it to the trial by the testimony of others.

44. Fisher's short Plea. As for the queen's counsel, which though assigned to her, appear not dearly accepted by her, as chosen rather by others for her than by her for herself,-I find at this present little of moment pleaded or performed by them. Only bishop Fisher affirmed, that no more needed to be said for the validity of the marriage, than “ whom God hath joined together let no man put asunder :" A

• SPEED, page 766.

those cunning masters of defence, could lengthen out a cause of so high concernment and so greatly beneficial unto them. For, English silver now was current, and our gold volant, in the pope's courts; whither such masses of money daily were transported, England knew not certainly what was expended, nor Rome what received, herein. Yea, for seven years was this suit depending in the pope's court; after which apprenticeship, the indentures were not intended to be cancelled, but the cause still to be kept on foot, it being for the interest to have it always in doing, and never done. For, whilst it depended, the pope was sure of two great friends; but, when it was once decided, he was sure of one great foe, either the emperor, or our king of England.

51. King and Queen both offended with Wolsey.

It was a maxim true of all men, but most of king Henry, omnis mora properanti nimia. He, who would have not only what but when he would himself, was vexed with so many delayings, deferrings, retardings, prorogations, prolongations, procrastinations, betwixt two popes, as one may say,-Clement that was, and Wolsey that would be. So that all this while, after so much ado, there was nothing done in his business, which now was no nearer to a final conclusion than at the first beginning thereof. Yea, now began cardinal Wolsey to decline in the king's favour, suspecting him for not cordial in his cause, and ascribing much of the delay to his backwardness herein. More hot did the displeasure of queen Catherine burn against him, beholding him as the chief engine, who set the matter of her divorce first in motion.

52. Wolsey looks two Ways in this Design.

Be it here remembered, that, in persuading the king's divorce, Wolsey drave on a double design: by the recess of the king's love from queen Catherine, to revenge himself of the emperor; by the access of his love to Margaret of Alençon, to oblige the king of France. Thus he hoped to gain with both hands; and presumed, that the sharpness of his two-edged policy should cut on both sides: when God, to prevent him, did both blunt the edges and break the point thereof. For, instead of gaining the love of two kings, he got the implacable anger of two queens; of Catherine decaying, and Anna Bullen increasing, in the king's affection. Let him hereafter look but for few fair days, when both the sun rising and setting frowned upon him.

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