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ditoriè, loquebatur et propalabat, videlicet : “ The king owre soveraigne lord is not supreme hed yn erthe of the cherche of England.” In dicti domini regis immund. despect. et vilipendium manifest.

Of this he was found guilty,* had judgment, and was remanded to the Tower, where, for a time, we leave him, and proceed,

18. Papists unjustly charge us for Schismatics. Thus was the power of the pope totally abolished out of England, whereof the Romanists at this day do bitterly complain, but can revenge themselves no other way, save by aspersing us as guilty of schism and separation for rending ourselves from the mother-church. Blame us not, if loath that the church of England (in whose doctrine and discipline we were born, and bred, and desire to die) should lie under so foul and false an imputation, which by the following narrative may fully be confuted.

19. Three Essentials in Reformation. Three things are essential to justify the English Reformation from the scandal of schism ;-to show, that they had, 1. Just cause for which they deceded from Rome. 2. True authority by which they deceded from Rome. 3. Due moderation in what they deceded from Rome.

20. The gross Errors in Popery. The first will plainly appear, if we consider the abominable errors which, contrary to Scripture and primitive practice, were then crept into the church of Rome; as the denying the cup to the laity; worshipping of images ; locking up the Scriptures in Latin, and performing prayers in an unknown tongue, with the monstrosity of transubstantiation,—unexcusable practices; beside the Behemoth of the pope's infallibility, and the Leviathan of his universal jurisdiction, so exclaimed against by Gregory the Great as a note of antichrist.

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21. The Impossibility of a free General Council. Just cause of Reformation being thus proved, proceed we to the authority by which it is to be made. Here we confess, the most regular way was by order from a free and general council; but here, alas ! no hope thereof. GENERAL it could not be, the Greeks not being in a capacity of repairing thither; nor FREE, such the papal usurpation. For before men could try the truth, hand to hand, by dint of Scripture, (the sword and buckler thereof, by God's appointment, the pope took off all his adversaries, at distance, with those

His words were spoken May 7th, in the Tower of London, but he arraigned afterwards.

VOL. II.

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guns of hellish invention, his infallibility and universal jurisdiction. So that no approaching his presence to oppose him but with certainty of being pre-condemned.

22. The Power of a national Church well improved. Now, seeing the complaints of the conscientious, in all ages, against the errors in the Romish church, met with no other entertainment than frowns and frets, and afterwards fire and faggot, it came seasonably into the minds of those who steered the English nation to make use of that power which God had bestowed upon them. And seeing they were a national church under the civil command of one king, he, by the advice and consent of his clergy in Convocation, and great council in Parliament, resolved to reform the church under his inspection from gross abuses crept into it, leaving it free to other churches either to follow his example, or continue in their former condition, and on these terms was the English Reformation first advanced.

23. Objection to the Contrary, and three Answers. But the Romanists object, that “England being first converted to Christianity by the zeal and care of the church of Rome, when pope Gregory the Great sent Augustine over to preach here, cannot, not only without great ingratitude, but flat undutifulness, depart from the church which first taught it true religion."

It is answered: First. This argument reacheth not west of Severn into Wales, where the ancient Britons, by general confession, were converted before the time of Augustine.

Secondly. This first favour received from Rome puts not on England so strict and servile an obligation of perpetual continuance, that she may and must not serve God without asking her leave. It ties England only to a fair and grateful respect, which she always tendered, till the insolency of the church of Rome made us unwilling to pay, and her unworthy to receive it.

Thirdly. Some strength may be allowed to this objection, if Rome could be proved the same in doctrine and discipline, when, under the reign of king Henry VIII. England divided itself from it, with Rome, when, in the time of Gregory the Great, it was converted by God's blessings on his endeavours. But since that time the church of Rome hath been much corrupted in opinions and practice, easy to prove, but that it is not the set work of our History. 21–27. Second Objection of the Romanists; the Answer. Third

Objection ; the Answer. The Moderation of Reformers.

The Conclusion of the Contest. But again the papists object, that “the most judicious Protestants do ingenuously confess, that the church of Rome maintaineth

all the fundamentals of religion. England, therefore, cannot be excused from schism, for dividing from that church which, by their own confession, still retaineth the true foundation of Christianity.”

It is answered: If some Protestants be so civil in their censures on Papists, it appears thereby, though they have left Rome, they have not lost their courtesy, nor their charity. But grant (which is disputable) the errors of the church of Rome not fundamental, they are circa-fundamental, grating on the very foundation. Besides, we are bound to avoid, not only what is deadly, but what is hurtful; not only what may destroy the life, but what may prejudice the health, of our souls.

But our adversaries persist to object, that our “ Reformation took its rise from king Henry's pride, to pluck down a power which crossed his designs; from his covetousness, to compass the revenues of abbeys; and from his wantonness, to exchange his old embracings for new ones. Well, therefore, may the English blush at the babe, when they behold its parents, and be ashamed of their Reformation, considering the vicious extraction thereof."

ANSWER.-Malice may load the memory of king Henry about his demerit; yet grant the charge true,—that bad inclinations first moved him to the Reformation,—yet he acted therein nothing but conformable to the law divine and human. It is usual with God's wisdom and goodness to suffer vice to sound the first alarm to that fight wherein virtue is to have the victory. Besides, king Henry's Reformation hath since been reformed by successive princes of England, who cannot justly be taxed with any vicious reflection therein.

It remaineth that we take notice of the moderation of the Reformers, who being acted not with an opposition to all which the papists practised, but with an affection to truth, disclaimed only the ulcers and sores, not what was sound, of the Romish church, retaining still what was consonant to antiquity, in the four first general councils.

Matters thus ordered, had the Romanists been pleased to join with us, there had been no complaining of schism either in their streets or ours.

But, such their pride and peevishness to persist obstinate, to this day, (to) incense many people (who listen more to the loudness, than weigh the justness, of complaints,) accusing us of wilful separation. But, the premisses well considered, England may say to Rome, “ Pharez, The breach be upon thee;" Gen. xxxviii. 29; who (with Athaliah, crying, “ Treason, treason!” 2 Kings xi. 14, being herself the prime traitor) taxeth us with schism, when she the only schismatic.

28, 29. The Pope's Revenues out of England, greatest under

King Henry III. We enter now on a subject which we must not omit, such is the concernment thereof in our History; yet which we cannot complete, so intricate the nature thereof, and so short and doubtful our intelligence therein ; namely, to give a general estimate (particulars being impossible) of the papal revenues of England.

Here be it premised, that I humbly conceive, the pope's income ran the highest in England under king Henry III. and king Edward I. before the statute of mortmain (and, after it, that of premunire) was made ; for these much abated his entrata. And although I deny not but under king Henry VIII. he might receive more money, as then more plentiful in England, yet his profit formerly was greater, if the standard of gold and silver be but stated proportionably.

30—43. Pope's Profit by Sale of Trinkets, by his Annates,

by Appeals, by King Athelwulph's Pension, by his Dispensations, by Indulgencies, by Legatine Levies, by Mortuaries, by Pardons, by Peter-Pence, to what they amounted, by

Pilgrimages, by Tenths. However, the vast sums Rome received hence at the time of Reformation, will appear by the ensuing commodities. For. First. Agnus Deis.

This is here set by Synecdoche, to signify all popish trinkets, medals, consecrated beads, &c. which I as little know what they be, as papists why they use them.

Of these were yearly brought over from Rome, into England, as many as would fill the shop of a haberdasher of holy wares. Now, though their

. prices were not immediately paid into the pope's purse, but to such his subordinate officers who traded therein ; yet they may be accounted part of the papal revenues; (the king hath what the courtiers have by his consent ;) and if such trading was not permitted unto them, the pope must either abate of his train, or find his officers other ways of subsistence.

Secondly. For Annates, so called because they were the entire revenues of one year, in the nature of first-fruits, which the bishops and inferior clergy paid to the pope ; we have no light concerning the latter, but can present the reader with an exact account what every bishop in England, new-elected or translated to a see, paid at his entrance to his Holiness.

The archbishop of Canterbury paid 10,000 F-besides for his pall, 5000 F.--The bishop of London paid 3000 F-the bishop of Winchester, 12,000 D—the bishop of Ely paid 7000 D-the bishop of Lincoln -- the bishop of Coventry and

Lichfield paid 1733 D—the bishop of Salisbury paid 4500 Cr.*the bishop of Bath and Wells paid 430 D—the bishop of Exeter paid 6000 D—the bishop of Norwich paid 5000 D-the bishop of Worcester paid 2000 F-the bishop of Hereford paid 18,000 Fthe bishop of Chichester paid 333 F—the bishop of Rochesterthe bishop of St. David's paid 1500 F—the bishop of Landaff paid 700 F—the bishop of Bangor paid 126 F—the bishop of St. Asaph paid 126 F.—The archbishop of York paid 10,000 D—besides for his pall, 5000 D.—The bishop of Durham paid 9000 F-the bishop of Carlisle paid 1000 Fit i In this account F stands for florins, being worth 4s. 6d. in our English money. D for single ducats, sufficiently known for four shillings. Lincoln's not being valued, I behold as a mere casual omission in this catalogue; but can render a reason why Rochester not rated, who, being accounted as chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury, and anciently in his donation, may be supposed valued in the high valuation of his patron. That Bath and Wells, then so high in wealth, should be so low in first-fruits, (whereat my author I wonders,) plainly shows that favour was fashionable, as in all other courts, so in the court of Rome. The rest of the English bishoprics were not in being before the Reformation,

Thirdly. By appeals. The pope—having learned this policy from the counsel of Jethro to Moses, “Every great thing they shall bring unto thee; but every small matter they” (namely, the seventy elders) “ shall judge," Exod. xviii. 22;-reserved to himself the definitive sentence in all high controversies, which brought no small profit unto him.

Fourthly. By king Ethelwulph's pension given by him to the pope, anno 856, whereof largely before ; a distinct payment from Peter-pence, (with which some confound it,) as stinted to three hundred marks :$ whereas the other were casual, and increased according to the number of houses.

Fifthly. For dispensations. O the charity of the pope! to lay heavy burdens on men's consciences, (without command from God's Word,) too heavy for them to bear! But then so merciful he was, for money to take them off again ; thus licences to marry within degrees forbidden ; for priests' base sons to succeed their fathers in a benefice, and a hundred other particulars, brought yearly a nemo scit into the papal treasury.

Sixthly. Indulgences are next, though I know not how essentially distinguished from dispensations ; nor dare warrant the distinction, that the former was against, the other above, canon law; as when

This standeth for “ crown.” + This Catalogue was extracted out of bishop Godwin. 1 Quod miror ; Godwin in his “ Catalogue of Bishops,” page 447. $See Sir HENRY SPELMAN'S “ Councils,' page 353.

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