Sidor som bilder

Half way up the mountain, Eric stopped | This world has nothing to offer, its enjoyat the road which led to the Major's. He ments are only an illusive show, which looked down at the villa which bore the tempt you hither and thither, therefore turn proud name of Eden, and the Bible story away from them. came to his memory. In the garden are And what do you desire? And what two trees, the tree of life in the midst, and ought those to desire whom you wish to the tree of knowledge of good and evil; make like yourself? knowledge. For life Eden is lost for him who eats of the tree of is not divided into enjoyment and renunciknowledge. Is it not always so ?

ation, and knowledge rather includes both Like a revelation the thought came to in itself, is the synthesis of both. It is the him, There are three things given to man mother of duty and of all beautiful deeds. upon earth, — enjoyment, renunciation, and In the old times, the combatants received knowledge.

out of an immeasurable height a protecting Sonnenkamp, yonder what does he wish shield from the hands of the gods; Eric refor himself and his son ? enjoyment. The ceived no shield, and yet he felt that be world is a spread table, and man has only was concealed from and protected against to learn to find the right means and the all foes, and he was so happy in himself right measure of enjoyment. The earth is that he felt no desire for any human being, a place of pleasure, and brings forth its no desire for anything beside; he was upfruits that we may delight ourselves there- borne by the wings of knowledge. with. Have we no other calling than to He went yet farther on in the way. drive, to eat, to drink, and to sleep, and Peaceful, and enjoying an internal satisfacthen to drive again; and is the sun to shine tion, he came to the Major's in the next just for this ?

village. He knew that here he should have What does the priest want ? renunciation. I to stand no examination.

We find the following hint to ladies given in Notes on the Island of Corsica in 1868. DedHibberd's Gardener's Magazine, by “one who icated to Those in Search of Health and enfrequently dresses up épergnes and vases for the joyment. By Thomasina M. A. E. Campbell, table":-“In a hot room a vase dressed in the of Moniack Castle, Scotland. (Hatchard & ordinary way usually changes quickly from the Co.) brightness it had at first to the deadness it will have at last. If we could be sure of every scrap Though it must always remain famous in hisof the vegetation remaining in its full beanty for tory as the birthplnce of Napoleon Buonaparte, (say) only three hours, we might be content, for the island of Corsica is very little known to trav, the appearance (say) next morning is not of ellers. The air is supposed to be malarious and much consequence. Just fill one of the Marchian the country to be rugged, monotonous, and upépergnes in the usual way, taking care to lay a interesting. Miss. Campbell, who has residel in delicate gauze of maidenhair fern over the flow- the island for some months, disputes the accuracy ers, and no matter how careful you may be to fill of both these opinions. She says the scenery is the horns, bowls, &c., with water, it is very beautiful and picturesque, an'i the climate eslikely that before the feast is over the ferns will tremely agrceable and healthy — warm, yet not be shrivelled up and the freshness of the whole overpoweringly so, in summer, and mild, yet scheme gone forever. Now for a valuable wrin- bracing, in winter. In the latter season, the kle, the result of observation in the writer's temperature, she asserts, is far more equable and household. If the fronds of ferns, more particu- genial than that of Nice, Cannes, Mentone, &c. larly of that favourite for this purpose, Adiantum The island being in the possession of Franoe, cuneatum, are plunged into water for an instant the language of that country is spoken by the up. and then gently shaken dry, they will continue per classes, which is more convenient for English fresh twice as long, no matter how they are travellers than if Italian were exclusively used. placed in the decoration, than if inser ied without We are indebted to Miss Campbell for writing ? being dipped. When a frond of adiantum has very pleasant little guide book to this almost unbeen dipped and gently shaken it appears to be known spot. The volume abounds in lively deas dry as before, but of course it is not; a cer- scriptions of scenery and manners, and in practain amount of moisture is entangled in the tex- tical information on those points with respect to ture of the frond, which enables it for a long which a visitor would be glad to receive some time to resist the killing properties of the air

of hints. a room heated and dried by fire and gas. One

London Review. trial will prove the fact.”



From The Spectator. fact and nature, distinctions which could not DR. NEWMAN'S OXFORD SERMONS.* be excluded from operating their inevitable As this reissue of Dr. Newman's “ paro- of revelation had been proclaimed or not.

consequences, whether a particular decree chial and plain " sermons preached at Oxford is now nearly completed, only one of He is a realist in the sense of believing that the eight volumes remaining to appear,


all religious distinctions are distinctions not seems the right time to say something of created either by our minds or even for our their adaptation for the wants of the gener: stitution of all moral beings. He is so far

minds, but deeply rooted in the moral conation which only knows him as the greatest of the Roman Catholic converts. We do not thoroughly scientific in his conceptions of pretend to have read as yet all or nearly all theology; He regards the moral constituthe sermons in these seven volumes. With tion of the universe not as a sic-volo, sic

were familiar long ago. With jubeo of the Almighty's, but as a chain of many we have made acquaintance for the causes all in the closest connection, of first time in this reissue, but each of them which one could not be separated from is a separate work in itself, and in all there another without a general overthrow of the are a set of common assumptions and com

moral foundations of human life. Thus in. mon features which reappear so frequently Dr. Newman aims at showing that there is

the very first sermon of this long series, that, for the purpose of estimating their general character, tendency, and influence, nothing arbitrary in the law which makes it is impossible to regard them as if they

holiness here the necessary condition of were chapters in a continuous treatise. happiness hereafter, - that it is not a law The Rector of Farnham (Essex) who has of the divine Will, so to say, so much as a republished them has, we think, done well. with his usual force, impresses on us how

law of the divine Nature. Dr. Newman, Certainly no sermons representing so vividly miserable an unrighteous and unholy man the real inner scenery of the preacher's mind have been preached in our generation. would be if he could be admitted into closer With the most perfect and unaffected sim- communion with God without any change plicity of style, they combine every other

in his inner nature; how he would find in trace of coming from a inind filled to over- which he had disliked or despised, nothing

the divine world “no pursuits but those flowing with the faith and thoughts they

, which bound him to aught else in the uniexpress. There is none of the made eloquence of Church dignitaries, nor of the verse, and made him feel at home, nothing dry monotone of priests officially rehearsing

which he could enter into and rest upon.' a lesson. It is a life, and an intense life,

A careless, a sensual, an unbelieving and not merely a creed, which speaks in mind, a mind destitute of the love and fear these volumes. That it is, however, not aims, a' low standard of duty, and a be

of God, with narrow views and earthly only a life, but also a creed, and in many nighted conscience, a mind contented with respects, as we hold, a false creed, — false chiefly by its misinterpretation of and com

itself and unresigned to God's will, would forces of our own day, — is the chief, though does now at the words · Let us pray.'” parative contempt for the new intellectual feel as little pleasure at the last day at the

words. Enter into the joy of thy Lord' as it

Noa great, deduction from their value. Let us make some attempt at separating those thing could more forcibly illustrate than elements of thought in Dr. Newman's ser

that, the joylessness of divine life to those mons which have given him so singular a

unprepared for divine life, the divergence power over his own day, from those ele- of moral desires, of hopes, and fears, and ments of thought which have separated him longings, between the mind which seeks from it and driven him out of sympathy

God and the mind wbich does not. It is with, we do not mean merely the noisy, but not a mere decree of God's that the latter the most sincere and earnest of those of his must suffer; it is of the essence of its own countrymen who have most cared not only nature, no less than of His. Dr. Newman to know truth, but to live for it.

says in another page of the same sermon, On the first side of the account we must tion of nature that straw ignites and burns

that, as it is part of the physical constitunote that Dr. Newman has never treated revelation as a mere expression of the ar- away at a heat which leaves iron unaltered bitrary or even purely inscrutable will of in form and substance, so it is of the moral God, but always as expressing the deepest of minds must be simply inflamed and

constitution of nature that certain orders and most iminutable distinctions in moral * Parochial and Plain Sermons. By John Henry which are perfectly in harmony with the

thrown into suffering by the very influences Newman, B. D., formerly Vicar of St. Mary's, Ox. ford, eight vols. New edition. Rivington. "1868. nature of others.

Nor is Dr. Newman only a realist in language men use, and how specially un treating religious truth as the outcome of real it is on religious subjects, and how distinctions so deep in nature that no mere worse than worthless, mischievous, so far decree even of the Divine Will could change as it is unreal, i. e., without resting on a them. He is also a realist in treating hu- basis of facts. But Dr. Newman goes farman faith, and human thought and language ther in his realism than this. He recogon religious subjects, as worthless, unless nizes that no words on the subject of relithey mark out and point to spiritual causes gion can be wholly real, any more than and tendencies intinitely deeper and more words on the subject of half-discovered full of meaning than any mere acts and forces in physical nature. They are as real thoughts of ours. Just as the scientific man as they can be, if they rest on facts, though trusts not to the signs by which he reasons, they quite fail to express the full force and but to the forces of which those signs are bearing of those facts. Dr. Newman points the mere calculus, Dr. Newman constantly out that words may be, so to say, more real teaches that faith is the act of trusting your- than those who use them are aware of.' self to great and permanent spiritual forces, They may be the indices of powers and the tidal power of which, and not the power forces far beyond what those who use them of your acts of faith, is commissioned by suspect, because those who use them have God to carry you into the clearer light. only got a superficial glimpse into the action He uniformly speaks of faith as a “ven- and heart of those forces. Just as • weight' ture," an act of the soul by which it throws meant a great deal more than Newton himitself on what is beyond its own power, by self knew when he first began to suspect which it gives itself up without either the what the moon's weight really meant, and power or the right to know the full conse- as the idea of which the word was the index quences, gives itself up to some power higher carried him far beyond his own meaning than itself and beyond itself, as a man trusts when he first used it, so Dr. Newman points himself to the sea, or to a railway, or to out that moral professions often mean far any natural power beyond his own control. more than those who make them know, and lle speaks uniformly, just as a writer of a thus commit the soul to the larger meaning, very different school spoke in a very re- not to the less, embarking those who use markable parable in the Pall Mall Gazette them on enterprises far beyond their imof Thursday week, of faith as action, not mediate intention, nay, far beyond their feeling, but action which is taken in light immediate strength. In this way words “ neither clear nor dark," as a venture of express powers outside the speaker, powers which we cannot count the consequences, which have, when he speaks, only just taken and yet a venture for the highest end of hold of him superficially, but which, being life. To use his own words, it consists in divine powers, strengthen and tighten their risking “what we have for what we have grasp, till they carry those who half carenot; and doing so in a noble, generous lessly used them whither they had no inway, not indeed rashly or lightly, still with- tention of going. “ We ever promise out knowing accurately what we are doing, things greater than we master, and we wait not knowing either what we give up, nor, on God to enable us to perform them. again, what we shall gain; uncertain about Our promising involves a prayer for light our reward, uncertain about the extent of and strength.";. In all these respects Dr. sacrifice, in all respects leaning, waiting Newman's teaching in these sermons seems upon Him, trusting in Him to fulfil his to us realist in the truest and most modern promise, trusting in Him to enable us to sense of the term, - in that sense in which fulfil our own vows, and so in all respects modern science has taught us to understand proceeding without carefulness or anxiety the full depth of realism. And it is by about the future. And as Dr. Newman virtue of this intellectual sympathy with is a true realist in speaking of acts of faith the sincerest teachings of modern times, as ventures made in the dark, at least as to that Dr. Newman, applying the same spirit results, for the highest end possible to us, to moral and religious subjects, has exerted and in reliance upon forces which are not so great and so wholesome an influence on our own and to which we implicitly trust English theology. ourselves by our acts of faith, so again he There is, however, as a matter of course, is a true realist in speaking of human lan- in one who has become a Roman Catholic, guage. In the very fine sermon on “Un- another side to Dr. Newman's teaching, by real Words,” he points out almost in the virtue of which he has separated himself baine strain as does the author of the fine from all which is sincerest and best in the parable above alluded to, how much unreal intellectual teaching of the day. And the • Vol. IV. p., 299.

| Vol. y. p. 43.


If you

root of all his errors seems to us to be this, ( rational being to accept as a whole without that he practically applies his theory that knowing that he is going on a mere probafaith,— the act,-is a venture,' i.e., that we bility or possibility, — and, as it seems to are morally bound to do much, of the conse- us, on a strong improbability. And in thus quences of which we are necessarily kept rooting the intellectual act of belief in obein the dark, to the intellectual side of faith, dience, he has done what his great intellect not simply to the act of trust, but to the could never have done if it had once been belief of creeds. Now re, as it seems to imbued with any sympathy with the science us, is the beginning of all sorts of insin- of the day. No wonder that in the striking cerities. In action you may and must trust sermon on “ The Religion of the Age yourself to the bighest motive which God (Vol. I.), he tells us at once that man can puts into your heart, at a risk. But in in- find out nothing about himself by studying tellectual belief there is no such thing le- the outward universe, and that he himself gitimately as silencing a doubt.

would think the religion of the age much risk pain to do right, you do not play any better than it is, if it were less merely amiatricks with yourself; you know that you ble, and had more of the zeal and fear are incurring a risk of suffering, and prefer which, in excess, give rise to bigotry and to do it for the sake of the motive. But to superstition, than it bas. The truth is that risk error, in order to believe right, is a Dr. Newman has no sympathy at all with contradiction in terms. You cannot be that latitudinarianism which arises from a lieve right unless you open your mind fully genuinely scientific spirit of doubt carried to all the risks of error, and look your un- into the region of ecclesiastical authority. certainties, your insoluble ditliculties, in He may be quite right in saying that the the face as fully as your certainties. Dr. study of the material universe can never Newman seems to us to make obedience the teach man his duty, but it can teach man root, not only of moral and religious action, his ignorance and the mistakes of intellectbut of moral and religious thought. But in ual theory to which his intellect is liable. order to do so, he has to assume that we It is the spirit of science much more than all have an intellectual authority over us as the spirit of selfishness and self-will that clear and articulate as the moral authority has made it impossible to the present age which speaks to our conscience. He speaks to accept the intellectual autbority of any of dissent* as necessarily sin, though not church organization. We know that in always conscious sin. He speaks of the point of fact the principle of “ obedience” right to differ from the Church as very to such authorities has led the intellect into much the same as the right “ to damn your- all sorts of pitfalls. We know that we are self"; he identifies the submission to Church on the track of physical laws which are inauthority with the submission to God's consistent not only with the physical asvoice, and even makes the reliance on the sumptions of Churches, but with the physisacrament of ordination a duty of the same cal assumptions of many of the writers of order, and resting upon the same sort of revelation. We ought not to accept a mere foundation, as the duty of prayer. In intellectual guess out of obedience to anyother words, he sets out with a complicated body. Obedience is no duty except in reChurch organization as set over the con- lation to a moral claim. An intellectual science in the same sense as God's moral conviction may come through obedience to law, and assumes that a churchman may a moral claim, but it cannot come from any verify for himself the moral validity of act of intellectual obedience, for the words apostolical succession just as truly as an or- have no meaning: You may feel confident dinary soul may verify for itself the value that a special authority on intellectual subof prayer, or as a chemist may verify for jects is right, through having usually found bimself the significance and value of the bim right, but you cannot obey bim intellaws of chemical affinity. † All this network lectually, you can only be convinced and of assumptions strikes us as having its root persuaded by him. This assumption of in the notion that obedience is even more Dr. Newman's, that obedience is at the root the root of our intellectual than of our of our intellectual faith, seems to us what moral life, — since Dr. Newman would not vitiates a wide vein of reasoning in his serask us to obey any moral command which mons, and what has led him into the Roman does not appeal to our conscience, whereas Church, where there is at least an authority he imposes on our intellects a ready-made with some intellectual prestige to obey. ecclesiastical system of the most complex We have said nothing of the exquisite kind, which it is quite impossible for any manner of these sermons, the manner of a *Vol. III. pp. 203, 217.

mind at once tender and holy, at once | Vol. III. p. 195.

I loving and austere, at once real and dramatic, at once full of insight into human | no depreciation of the result. Indeed, the nature and full of the humility which springs deliberate scrappiness of the book is not a from a higher source; but the following bad idea on the part of the author. There touching and musical passage will say more being no continuity of subject, the reader for Dr. Newman's manner than any words can dispense with continuity of effort in of ours.

It is from a sermon called " Christ reading it; he can take it at odd scraps of Manifested in Remembrance”:

time, until all the paragraphs are consumed, “ Let a person who trusts he is on the whole though the probability is that he will read it serving God acceptably look back upon his past

at two or three sittings. A preliminary life, and he will find how critical were moments question for us to consider is, whether Mr. and acts which at the time seemed the most in- Zincke has brought home anything new. different: as, for instance, the school he was As it would have been a miracle if he had, sent to as a child, the occasion of his falling in it can hardly be a demerit that he has not, with those persons who have most benefited him, so that such a fact cannot altogether deterithe accidents which determined his calling or orate the interest of his volume. One prospects, whatever they were. God's hand is thing in favour of Mr. Zincke, and of all ever over His own, and He leads them forward tourists who venture to select America by a way they know not of. The utmost they wherein to spend a lengthened holiday, is can do is to believe, what they cannot see now, the comparative freshness of the country as what they shall see hereafter; and as believing, a field of observation. Europe, with perto act together with God towards it. And hence haps the exception of Russia, is an old perchance it is, that years that are past bear in retrospect so much of fragrance with them, story - old and furrowed with wrinkles of though at the time perhaps we saw little in them every imaginable kind of glory. America to take pleasure in; or rather we did not, could may be said to be acting only the prologue not realize that we were receiving pleasure, to her story, the substantial body of the though we received it. We received pleasure, play being still in vulcano-artistic preparabecause we were in the presence of God, but we tion behind innumerable unlifted curtains. knew it not; we knew not what we received; we She has a magnificent stage, on which tbe did not bring home to ourselves or reflect upon furies of civil strife have already torn each the pleasure we were receiving; but afterwards, other in tragic conflict, and on which she is when enjoyment is past, retlection comes in. now busy practising the arts of peace, and, We feel at the time; we recognize and.reason after- so to speak, mending the shattered pillars wards. Such, I say, is the sweetness and soft- of the State. Talking of this subject reness with which days long passed away fall upon minds us that Mr. Zincke bas several dethe memory, and strike us. The most ordinary tached paragraphs regarding the effects of years, when we seemed to be living for nothing, the late war. Sitting at table in Richmond these shine forth to us in their very regularity with two Virginians, one of them, knowing and orderly course.

What was sameness at the time, is now stability; what was dullness, is our author to be an Englishman, said now a soothing calm; what seemed unprofitable, “Sir, you have come to a God-forsaken has now its treasure in itself; what was but mo- country. Those who lately had riches are notony, is now harmony; all is pleasing and now in want; and the whites are now ruled comfortable, and we regard it all with affection.” by the blacks.” Another gentleman said

to him that he and “

many others wished that they were living under a king of the English royal family; and that Vir

ginians deeply regretted that they had AMERICAN SCRAPS.*

ever separated from England.” Others We have here a mass of table-talk; and “ were so stung by the sense of defeat that as that kind of thing consists of bits of they were even wishing themselves 'dead.” conversations, we may say that Mr. Zincke But,” says the tourist, “I never heard has simply given us his American scrap- from their lips one word of disloyalty to the book. That is truly the fact of the matter. Union, to which they bave returned in perThe volume is divided into twenty-three fect good faith. Their bitterness was only chapters; each chapter is made up of sev- for those trading politicians who, being, as eral paragraphs; and each paragraph treats they thought, incapable of understanding of a different subject. That is the author's honourable men, bad sent a Freedman's adopted plan, to describe which can imply Bureau and an army of occupation to op

* Last Winter in the United States. Being Table press and torment those who were now talk collected during a Tour through the late south- quite as loyal to the Union as themselves, ern Confederation, the Far West, the Rocky Moun- and if they were not, yet were utterly incatains, &c. By F. Barham Zincke, Vicar of Wherstead, and Chaplain in Ordiuary to the Queen.

pable of moving a finger against it.” There . London: John Álurray.

lis, no doubt, a great deal of distress in the

From The London Review.

« FöregåendeFortsätt »