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South, but all the States which were in se- seems so reasonable that one wonders why cession were not equally affected by the war, any other definition of it has ever prevailed. and several are rapidly recovering from the In our own country the practice proceeds shock. Of Virginia the author has great on precisely the reverse tack.

We pay our hopes; but for South Carolina, throughout clergymen, if we pay them at all, not to enwhich the most abject poverty reigns pre- courage them to think and say exactly what cisely where formerly there was the nost they think, but in intellectual form and abundant wealth, there appears to be no substance to walk in the footsteps of their resurrection, except in some new order of predecessors — that is, to suppress all indithings, under which a new set of propri- vidual thought. If they dare to think, or etors will occupy the land, and cultivate it at least venture to enunciate what they with Northern capital, and somewhat in the think, either in the pulpit or in books, we Northern fashion.” Things are only a little persecute by prosecuting them, make their less gloomy in Louisiana and Mississippi, lives miserable, and do all in our power to in the latter of which States the plantations ruin them by damaging their clerical repuremain uncultivated from want of capital tation. Regarding the American practice, which nobody will lend the planters, re- Mr. Zincke remarks that “ this broad conmembering the act of repudiation which struction of the duty of a clergyman, as a Mississippi perpetrated at the instigation religious teacher, coincides very much with of Mr. Jefferson Davis. Mr. Zincke hav- what I was frequently told, that the broad ing a rather low opinion of the negro race, way of thinking was becoming the common does not think them capable of intelligently way of thinking in almost all the American wielding the franchise; appears to think Churches. “ With such a religious atmosthat the Freedman's Bureau committed a phere, existing as a daily condition, it was mistake in undertaking to educate the ne- quite natural that Mr. Zincke should hear gro; and expresses the opinion that the even from feminine lips in a mixed comSouthern planters ought to have been al- pany where every one heard the expreslowed to settle with the negroes themselves sion, that “ every thinking American was the labour-and-wages contract, and how it of opinion that religion, if not in conformwas to be worked. Perhaps so; but with ity with the knowledge and sentiments of a good memory for the past, it is difficult to the times, was a dead thing." Some opiniinagine the negro getting justice in such a ions of an American bishop regarding the

Some apprehension appears to have Episcopal Church in the New World are been felt at the South as to the probability also carefully reported. This dignitary, of a war of races. This our author thinks writes Mr. Zincke, thought that “the Episinprobable, but seems to hold the opinion copal Church in America was the natural, that the eventual extermination of the ne- or at all events now the chief, bond of groes, " by moral and economical causes, union between the old country and the is inevitable.” To this also we say, Per- United States.” That is surely a big as haps ; and simply add that, as the compar- well as a bold statement even for a bishop ative durability of races is by no means a to make. The Episcopalians, it seems, settled question, the doomed negro may cherish the recollections of the old country slightly outlive the date of the doom so pro- most fondly; while the Churches wbich are phetically assigned him.

connected with English dissent “are more One is curious to know what Mr. Zincke, or less actuated by feelings, if not of anibeing himself a Churchman, bas to say mosity, yet certainly of coldness towards about the Churches in America. He refers the old country.” Such a statement might to the subject in many of his paragraphs, have been more true had it been less sweepbut in the first place quotes a remark made ing — the long bow is drawn too close to by an American gentleman which we in this the ear. We are now quite prepared to country might be the better for studying. hear that the Episcopal Church in the New “ The way," says this American, in which World is so much respected and so powerwe deal with the clergy here, is to pay ful that it is “more influential in forming them well, and to encourage them to say and guiding public opinion than even the exactly what they think. What we pay Government and Legislature.” Of course, them for is not other people's ideas and the members of this powerful Church comopinions — these we can find in books — prise the great bulk of “the most refined but their own. We expect them to devote and educated class in the country; a reasonable portion of their time, and all those of that class who join it, do so the mental powers they possess, to theo- because “they regard Romanism as logical study, and then give us the result.” religion not for man, but only for women This definition of the duty of a clergyman and children, while they look upon other



9 and

" The

Churches as having little devotion and less shown enterprise which astonishes even stability.” Then we are told that "the nat- Americans themselves." Speaking of the ural and only aristocracy" are the clergy people as a whole, Mr. Zincke says, of the different Churches, " but more par- fact is, the Americans are the most reasonticularly of the Episcopal Church," the law- able and teachable people in the world.” yers coming next, and the politicians being An Englishman will defy all evidence, and nowhere. Another statement is curious cling to his mistake; but “

prove to the and interesting. It appears that “the five Americans that they are wrong, and the Yankee States, with the exception of Con- whole people will, as if they were one man, necticut, which is the most Episcopal State readily abandon their mistake." Being in the Union, are rapidly becoming Uni- thus open to conviction, “they would tarian and Universalist. This in some never go to war with us knowing themdegree accounts for the equivocal charac- selves to be in the wrong.” There is ter of their acuteness, and for their sin- therefore hope that Anglo-Saxon blood will gular want of magnanimity.” To account never be spilt by Anglo-Saxon swords. for these views, it is sufficient to remind With this remark we must commend Mr. the reader that they are the opinions of Zincke's interesting book to the general an American bishop, not of Mr. Zincke, reader, for whose information on innumerthough the latter gentleman has of course able American subjects it is admirably much pleasure in recording them among adapted. Many interesting remarks on the his paragraphs.

subject of education occur throughout the Mr. Zincke writes conscientiously; he is volume, which concludes with an excellent not a caricaturist; and, accepting his state- chapter on the common schools of America. ments as simply authentic, one cannot avoid the impression that Americans have passed utterly beyond the pictures of them that travellers were wont veraciously to paint.

From The Spectator. They do not scramble at dinner at the hotels. A hundred may sit at table, but

THE POSSIBILITIES OF ACCUMULATION, each guest is served separately; they do The Parisian papers have been amusing not eat rapidly; they are the reverse of themselves by speculations as to the wealth talkative; they are not inquisitive; “they of the late Baron James Rothschild, which are far more civil and helpful to one an- they estimate variously at sums ranging from other and to strangers than Englishmen £52,000,000 to £80,000,000 sterling. All are;” and those of them who belong to these speculations are probably alike incorgood society " are in a very high degree rect, as in the case of a fortune so vast, inquiet anà unassuming.” Mr. Zincke never vested in so many countries, and dependheard an American use the word “siree" ent on the stability of so many Governfor sir; never heard any one guess; nor ments, even the Legacy Duty Office must was he ever asked to liquor."

Such and remain content with an approximation to a hundred other things may once have the truth. The rumours, however, are calbeen American practices; but they have culated to set men thinking as to the possinow been utterly abandoned. The people bilities of accumulation which have opened are well clothed, well fed, well educated, out of late years, the extent to which it and they speak the English language more might be carried, and the social danger or purely than the English people do at home. benefit of very extreme cases. We doubt For California and its people our author has if the world is quite aware how very great great admiration, and his impression seems the possible accumulations of a single famto be that if Americans are an advanced ily, or, indeed, of a single individual, might and an advancing people, the Californians be. It looks very absurd to most men to are in advance of their countrymen gener- say that a man might accumulate £80,000:ally. “One cannot,” he says, “ become 000, but such a concentration of wealth is acquainted with half a dozen Californians by no means beyond the range of ordinary without seeing that man himself has been possibilities. Our own impression is very improved in this wonder-working region - strong that such things have occurred, that the finest, not only that the Anglo-Saxon some of the Roman nobles can be shown to race, but that any race of man has ever in- have possessed fortunes which represented habited. There is a quickness and deter- as much either of labour or goods as that mination of mind, and a calmness of man- immense sum would now; but that is a ner, a quickness of eye and a cleanness of speculation too deep for this article. We limb about a Californian that you cannot turn to more practical and every-day illusbut notice. They have in a thousand ways Itrations. It is certain there bave recently

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been individuals among us, like the late that great fortunes, startling fortunes, are
Mr. Morrison, Mr. Thornton, or Mr. made, the only difference being that as they
Crawshay, possessed of from three to seven are usually accumulated by the men who.
millions realizable in cash and liable to tax- found them, the process of accumulation only
ation, and there is now living at least one becomes geometric when the City man is too
whose possessions, if “sold up,” would old to reap the full benefit of his world-wide
yield ten. Suppose, what has never actu- knowledge. Be it remembered we started
ally occurred, we believe, but what it from a figure lower than we need have
very easy to conceive occurring, wealth to done, for there are men worth more, and
the amount of, say, six millions descending we have imagined but one man continuously
to a young man trained to business, in- applying himself to a task such as thou-
clined for business, and as competent to sands of men apply themselves to every
manage business as, say, the Manager- day- a task quite as enticing as most of
General of the Westminster Bank. He those to which men devote themselves,
could, if he liked to occupy his whole time quite as alluring, for example, as that of
and tax his whole energies in accumulation, managing the statistics of any ordinary
employ his capital_throughout Europe as kingdom, or keeping down expenditure in
that bank does in England, at an average, a hostile House of Commons.
say, of about fifteen per cent., or if a very What could that man's heir do with that
able man, as apt at great averages as Mr. accumulation ? The philosophers all say
Thornton was, at an even higher figure." Nothing at all,” but we doubt very much
Give him, however, only ten per cent. as a whether they are right, any more than the
fair, steady rate of gain at 30, and at 40 he novelists, several of whom have touched
would have, if he spent his compound in- upon the theme. Godwin wrote a long and
terest on bis own living, £12,000,000, at somewhat tedious story to prove that he
50 £24,000,000, at 60 £48,000,000, and at could accomplish nothing but mischief, but
70 £96,000,000. It may be said even ten his hero, Leon, was rather a goose, and
per cent. is too much, but the fact is Godwin wanted to prove some economic
that the whole amount might be lent with theories. Edgar Poe imagined such a man
out much exertion to Governments and deliberately surrounding himself with un-
great traders at that rate with security imaginable luxury, in very despair of doing
quite good enough for one man's life, and anything else more practical; but Edgar
under a system of nearly complete insur- Poe always forgot some of the conditions
ance against everything but a general cata- of his problem, and in this story he has over-
clysm. No doubt, in practice the grand looked the impossibility of purchasing com-
check upon him would be the difficulty of plete pleasure. If Adam ever had toothache,
investing his enormous wealth as it ac- Eden wearied him till it was over, and to men
crued, a difficulty which would demand an with nothing to achieve ennui is mental tooth-
agency as widely spread as that of a consid-ache. A writer whose story we have not
erable government, an agency dealing in seen for twenty years, but whose name was,
money in almost every capital of the globe. we think, Urquhart, tried to explain how
Americans say that this difficulty worries enormous wealth might be turned into
Mr. Astor till he has been heard to say he power; but he assumed impossible condi-
is nothing but Inspector-General of his own tions, such as that mankind had accepted
fortunes. Very good agents can, however, the sacredness of property as an article in
be secured by very rich men, the amount their creed, an idea which man has as yet
of brain required to govern them would be shown little disposition to adopt. If we
hardly greater than that demanded in a mistake not, his hero, old “ Crabs," be-
good Finance Minister, and what with came Premier of federated Europe, by art-
house property in great capitals, banks, fully using, yet concealing, his wealth; his
and mortgages outside Europe, where the son turned tyrant and was destroyed, with his
secure interest runs high, even that vast army, by a new discovery in electricity.
sum might be invested. That a religious These are dreams to divines and philoso-
society like that of Jesus could form such a phers, but they, though wiser than the novel-
fund we have no doubt, though as it could ists, limit the action of the rich man too much
not directly trade, it would have to content by presupposing that he would wish to be hap-
itself with lower interest; but the effort py, and talking about apples turning to ashes
would not be wholly beyond the power of in his mouth. Very likely he might not wish
a man with the head and constitution of, to be happy, and might consider ashes tooth-
say, Mr. Vanderbilt, or the late King Leo- powder. Men want to fill their lives rather
pold, - a splendid accumulator, in his way, than to make them happy, and from the

or many a less known City man the time of Socrates downwards have found in world sees every day. Indeed, it is thus the greatness of their work quite sufficient

compensation for the absence of pleasure. There are fifty-two counties in England. People are very bad, no doubt; but we It would not take two years' income of back ourselves to find a hundred men in a such a fortune as we have hinted at to day who, if certain of thereby extinguish- found a University like that of Edinburgh ing pauperism in England, would endure in every county, with all tuition absolutely gout till they died. Our own impression is gratuitous; and three years of it would add that a man thus wealthy, who set himself the needful succedaneum, eight hundred one great but mensurable task, would bursaries sufficient with rigid economy to really accomplish it, and make himself keep a student alive. Just think for an decently happy life into the bargain. He instant if there were such Universities how would be worried and pestered, no doubt, in a generation the tone of Englishmen but he would not be more worried and pes- would be changed. A great fortune, not tered than most Prime Ministers; he could greater than many which exist, would keep keep secretaries for his letters, and admit the House of Commons pure by supplying no one unscrutinised within his park gates. funds for every prosecution, would estabThus protected, he could venture on really lish free libraries in every town, would big things of very varied kinds. We will carry out sanitary arrangements in half the say nothing of political power, though he minor boroughs, would render all local hoscould gain that, because political power ac- pitals adequate to the popular need. There quired by money is almost invariably mis- is hardly a limit to the work a really giganused. Still, we should like to ask the suc- tic fortune such as may yet appear among cessor to Mr. Coppock, whoever he is, us could not effect, and that through enterwhether such a man could not by paying prises which would interest able men more the expenses, say, of two hundred working than luxury, or splendour, or the pursuit of candidates, have altered the face of this women, or art, or any of the occupations, Election ? whether any man who would bad or indifferent, on which most of the subscribe £2,000 to each county election in makers of money waste their lives. Great Britain, claiming only a veto on can- The power for evil of such a fortune would didates, would not hold enormous political be at least equally great, and in the bands of power? whether finance ministers would a capricious, tyrannical, or secretly insane not quake before a man who could increase man might demand the interference of the or decrease the Bank's Reserve by ten mil- State. We have, for example personally lions at will? Let us confine ourselves to known an instance of very considerable more beneficial uses of wealth. A man as means steadily devoted to the purpose of wealthy as Earl Grosvenor might become ruining a thriving town, each house being could rebuild East London, for instance, bought as it came into the market and rerebuild it on a sound plan, without enor- duced to a ruin, but fortunately such cases mous difficulty, for long before he was half- are within the easy control of the commuway through the Legislature would sweep nity. It would not be necessary to raise legal difficulties from before his path. The the general question of the sacredness of man or government who pulled down East property, but only to pass an Act declaring London, block by block, rebuilt each block that the deliberate use of great wealth on an intelligent plan, and sold each block against the community should be considwith a Parliamentary title, would certainly ered prima facie evidence of lunacy, and not lose more than double the sum Hauss- that the property so used should pass to mann's enemies say he has lost for Paris, trustees for the benefit mainly of the lunanamely, twenty millions, – which Paris and tic's successors. It is in this form, howthe State will, they say, have one day to ever, that the right of accumulation will pay. We doubt ourselves if it is half as probably one day come up for judgment, much, but we may let that pass till we es- and in England the resolve of Parliament tablish an Ædile with a seat in the Cabi- is sufficiently shown in the celebrated Thelnet, when the Parisian Improvement Fund lusson Act, the only direct blow ever lev. may possibly become a matter of vital polit- elled at accumulation, but a very effectual ical interest. Most men, again, have some one. No attempt of the kind has ever, we interest in provincial cities, interest of believe, been made since, and no family habitation, or neighbourhood, or repre- has had the resolution to do what is still sentation, or family connection. Well, legal — form a reserve fund to accumulate there is not a city in Great Britain, Glas- for a century at compound interest. It is gow included, which the expenditure of ten only necessary that three generations millions or so, directed by a single mind, should persist in such a course, would not turn into a model muncipality, dence has kindly decreed that even three worthy to be lived in as well as visited generations should rarely pass among tbe Or take another great object, Education. wealthy without the birth of a fool.

but Provi


No. 1286.- January 23, 1869.





Fraser's Magazine,

195 2. Peel. By Goldwin Smith,

Macmillan's Magazine,

• 200 3. A HOUSE OF CARDS. Part XI.,

Tinsley's Magazine,


Macmillan's Magazine, 227

Berthold Auerbach. Translated from the German
for the “Living Age,”

Die Presse,








Saturday Review,


Saturday Review,


London Review,











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From Robert Carter & Brothers, New York.
The following works of Rev. Dr. McCosh, President of the College of New Jersey :



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