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dressed do not really belong. To address , have seen, it is felt as an insult by a man a mixed assembly as “ Gentlemen" is in it- of any rank to be told that he is not a genself as absurd as to address them as Knights, tleman. This shows that the word “genEarls, or Princes; it is far more absurd tleman” has gained a secondary meaning than the conventional self-abasement of ad- quite different from its original meaning. dressing them as “ Masters" or “MesAnd the fact that it should have acquired sieurs." But usage calls for it, and it is such a secondary meaning may perhaps be not difficult to see the origin of this usage explained by the general facts of English and of several usages closely connected history. In England the rank of gentleman with it.
was social and conventional, not legal; it We will not go about to undertake any was an affair for the herald and not for the task so perilous as that of defining a gentle- lawyer. Deeply aristocratic as have been man. Perhaps, speaking roughly, it may many of our customs and some of our statbe understood to mean that a man holds a utes, the Common Law of England has certain position in society and that he at ever been democratic.
As Hallam says, the same time behaves as a man holding "it has never recognized gentlemen.” that position in society ought to behave. There are only two orders of Englishmen, This last qualification, or something like it, the Peer and the Commoner; a Nobility, in is certainly implied in the modern use of the Continental sense of the word, we never the word. But it is very remarkable that had. Whatever might be the fancies of it should be so. In itself the word “Gen- heralds, there never was at any time in tleman” simply implies a certain rank, England the same barrier between class just as the word “Nobleman " implies a and class which in France distinguished the certain higher rank. But the word “Noble-' gentilhomme" from the “roturier.” And man" is applied to a man quite irrespect for the cause of this, as of every other fact irely of his character. If the conduct of a in our history, we must go back to the nobleman be in any marked way ignoble, earliest time. When the hereditary nobilthe contrast between name and nature may ity of the Eorls, in whatever that nobility add point to a sarcasm, but the fact that consisted, gave way to the official nobility he is a nobleman is not denied. But if of the Thegns, the thing was done, once the conduct of a man in the rank of a gen- and for ever. The Ceorl had always tleman is unworthy of his rank, we do not the chance of becoming a Thegn, and he scruple to say expressly that he is not a bas kept it ever since. The backward gentleman. Nay, we may say of the no- change which happened in Normandy and bleman, of the prince, whose conduct is ig- other continental countries never happened noble or unprincely, that he is not a gen- in England; possibly the Norman Conquest tleman. And, more curiously still, there itself did something to hinder it from hapis hardly any one in any class who would pening. The shuffle of landed property not look upon it as an insult to be told ex- which followed on the Conquest — which pressly that he was not a gentleman. A rather perhaps was the Conquest
- the continker would perhaps hardly say in so many fiscations, the grants, the exchanges, unwords, “ I am a gentleman”; but he would doubtedly placed a powerful aristocracy of certainly resent being told that he was no foreign birth in the highest rank of all. gentleman.” And an assembly of tinkers But in the secondary classes, the smaller would certainly expect to be addressed, landowners, the burghers, the inferior not as -- Tinkers" but as “Gentlemen ”; clergy, they had the effect of jumbling toand there are cases in which it would be gether people of all kinds of origins, noble expedient to apply the words “this gentle- and ignoble, native and foreign. This fact man" even to the individual tinker.
has probably had a good deal to do with There is something odd about this, some- hindering the formation of any such impassthing even more odd than those usages in able barrier as separated the “ gentilother tongues by which some extravagant homme" from the - roturier" in France. title, Excellency or the like, is lavished The law never drew any marked distinction upon everybody. In itself to say that a between the gentleman and the ordinary man is not a gentleman is simply to state freeholder. As the gentleman had no legal the fact that he does not belong to a certain privilege, there was nothing to binder a rank in society, just like saying that he is man of one class from rising gradually into not a nobleman. No one would count it the other. We remember being struck as an insult to be told that he is not a no- years ago with the gradual rise of a Northbleman, or rather the remark would be so amptonshire family in the fifteenth and wholly void of point that no one would sixteenth centuries. The parish church make it by way of an insult. Yet, as we contains the tombs of four generations, de
scribed in order of succession as
But from this there has come a curions cator, - Generosus," Armiger," and reaction. It is said tliat in some parts of
“ Miles.” The family is that of Andrews America the word “gentleman” is so uniof Charwelton, one of whose members had versally applied to everybody that the word the honour or dishonour of attending as
is beginning to have the distincSheriff of his county at the beheading of tive sense of gentleman.” And someQueen Mary Stuart.
thing like this may be seen among ourAll this has probably something to do selves. Men who have an undoubted right with our English laxity in the use of the to the title of gentleman seldom apply the word “gentleman." It is an insult to re-word to one another. If an undoubted fuse to a man, in any pointed way, a title gentleman uses the word “gentleman ” of to which he may not have attained, but to one of his own class, it is most commonly which he conceivably may attain. It is an by way of special praise or blame, by way insult to refuse to him a title to which we of asserting or denying that he is a gentlemay fancy that he has no claim, but to man in the highest sense. Otherwise, in which he 'may himself lancy that he has a speaking simply of A or B, he will comclaim. It would be absurd to call a man a monly use the word “ man."
But the moDuke who is not a Duke, because the rank ment he gets among people of a somewhat .of Duke is strictly defined, and there is no lower grade than himself, he is forced to doubt who are Dukes and who are not. But have the word “gentleman” every moment the rank of gentleman is not defined, and on his lips. He uses it if he speaks to an where the thing is possibly doubtful, each inferior of one of his own rank; he applies man takes to himself the benefit of the doubt. it to all those among his inferiors to whom We therefore, when people are to be pleased, he wishes to be civil. In short, to speak especially when votes are to be gained by it, of a man as a gentleman is speedily becomnot only distinctly refuse the title of gentle-ing a sign that you really hold that the man to no man, but even directly allow it person to whom or of whom you are speakto men of all conditions.
ing is not a gentleman.
MONTESPAN — MAINTENON. — The two chief | the slightest degree. The book now before us f:svourites of Louis XIV. - Madame de Montes- sufficiently proves that, whatever may have been pan and Madame de Maintenon — had agreed the King's resolution, he did not uniformly adduring the period of their intimacy, if we may here to it, and certainly the political history of believe Voltaire, to write, independently of each France during the seventeenth century could other, memoirs in which they were to jot down not be studied apart from the life of Madame de every fict of interest connected with the Court Maintenon or Madame de Montespan. Boileau of Versailles. It appears that this idea, though Despréaux, the stern moralist, used to laugh at never fully carried out, actually led to the com- Colbert, who could not bear to bear any one position of a few preliminary pages, and that speak favourably of Suetonius. What! admire Madame de Montespan used to read to her friends, a writer who has taken pains to collect all the during the last years of her life, some fragments scandalous anecdotes about the Roman Empeof the autobiography she had attempted to write. rors ? Why, those are the very points, remarks It is a matter of regret that no trace should have Boileau, which render Suetonius so valuable. In come down to us of those souvenirs to which the the lives of public men even minutiæ are interproverbial esprit des Mortemarts must have im- esting. M. Pierre Clément, adopting this view, parted a peculiar value; but the Duke d’Antin, has, without however allowing anything to scanthe legitimate son of Madame de Montespan, took dal, given a very full biography of Madame de care to suppress every atom of evidence which Montespan. His collection of pièces justificacould give fresh notoriety to his mother's scan- tives, which is both rich and varied, contains dalous life, and the autobiographical notes were letters from the Duke d’Antin, Vivonne, Huet, carefully destroyed. Many documents, however, Gaignières, and other personages of the time. still remain which serve to throw abundant light Louis XIV. also appears in this part of the volon the history of Quanto, as Madame de Sévigné ume, but the character he assumes is a most reused to call the fair and frail lady, and M. Pierre pulsive one, for we find him writing to Colbert Clément has worked up these documents into a in order either that the unfortunate Marquis de volume which is of considerable interest * be- Montespan may be closely watched, or that the cause it is really a chapter of the grand mon- extravagant whims of the haughty Marchioness arque's reign. Louis XIV. used to boast that may be immediately complied with. No writer not one of his mistresses ever distracted him can make Madame de Montespan attractive, but from his duties, or influenced his decisions in M. Pierre Clément has certainly succeeded in * Madame de Montespan et Louis XIV.: Etudes dex terminates the volume.
interesting us about her history. A copious inhistoriques. Pår Pierre Clément, de l'Institut. Pa
Saturday Review. ris : Didier.
From The Saturday Review.
very deep. Still one may find an hour's THE NOTE-BOOKS OF NATHANIEL HAW. amusement in watching the author's method THORNE.*
of accumulating material, and thoughtless
folk may be made to see how much care, For people who care to see the nature of thought, observation, and quiet labour go the raw material of novels and descriptive to the composition of novels which they deessays, these two volumes of Hawthorne's spatch in a short afternoon, and often never remaius will possess plenty of attractions; think about again. but for others without this analytic and
Hawthorne was evidently a painstaking curious taste they a-, hardly likely to be observer of everything that passed under worth more attention than is involved in a his eye, and he took the further pains, rather hasty turning over of the leaves. which is too mechanical and drudge-like for In the case of a consummate master, every most men, of diligently recording it, just rudest sketch and outline may well deserve
as a painter diligently sketches any figure to be treasured up and examined with a care only less than that which is given to his or landscape or bit that strikes him, and
puts it by; perhaps to be used, and perhaps greatest pieces. When the picture is su- to be laid aside and forgotten. This is premely good, the sketches which were made perhaps an illustration of the fact that, ex, in its preparation are justly treated with all
cept in the case of consummate natural possible reverence. But is this the case gifts, it is the quality of taking pains which with artists who are of lower rank, because makes the difference between fine producof humbler aim ? Will contemporaries tive talent and the cleverness which never preserve and posterity scrutinize the sketches ripens into fruit-bearing. Hawthorne's of the artists who are painting pictures by keen interest in the people he met and the the yard for the walls of Lancashire draw
scenes that passed before him, in the loafers ing-rooms ? Probably not; and we doubt
round a tavern bar, in a vagrant on the whether, on the whole, a very large public highway, in the constant changes of sky will be much interested in the preliminary and foliage and wind, is a frequent, if not a strokes and outlines by which minor novel- downright common, faculty in men who ists made ready for their more deliberate tasks. Hawthorne's genius was of peculiar
never produced even the infinitesimalest savour, and, however it may have been de- product, as Mr. Carlyle says. Intense
sympathy with all forms of human character ficient in vigour, and in airiness and freedom, and life, and with the ever-m
-moving face of it was eminently removed from anything inanimate nature, is assuredly a more genlike vulgarity or commonplace. Yet he was eral emotion than is usually supposed; for unquestionably of the second order, and the it is to this that all the most popular art world is too busy and life too short for us the drama and painting, for instance to give much heed to the preparatory flour- spicuously appeals. But, of course, the ishes and exercises of any but the greatest. majority are too busy tighting the wolf at Indeed, are there not some who venture to the door to be able to take much trouble to question whether even the finished products concentrate and incorporate this kind of of secondary talent in fiction, verse; or painting, are worthy of much study or at- sympathy, while those who have leisure are
as often as not ruined by that very leisure, tention? The true answer to the question and drawn aside from laborious nabit. It is that these secondary works give great is no easy ing for a man to get into the pleasure to natures of corresponding cali
way of recording at night or the next mornbre, for whom masterpieces are too great ; ing, in plain black and white, anything that and that if the end of art be to give pleas- may have struck him during the day; and
the fact that the pleasure is not the it was just because Hawthorne had got into highest attainable absolutely, but the high- this way that he was able to outstrip men est of which a given nature is capable, is of similar sympathies and equal powers of ample justification of the work. . And just observation, who had not the finishing talas there is no sort of production which ent of taking trouble. There is not so very does not hit some mark, which does not much mediocrity in the world which does please some natures, so it is possible that not come of indolence; or, in other words, there are people whom Mr. Hawthorne's the reason why most mediocre people are rough outlines and preparatory observa- what they are is in their lack of will, rather tions will interest; but they cannot be than of capacity, to be soi
something other very many, nor is their interest likely to be than mediocre. It may be said that the
addition of willingness to take pains, to • Passages from the American Note-Books of Na- an observant and interested temper, is a thaniel Hawthorne, 2 vols. London: Smith, Elder,
proof that the temper is more intense, and
& Co. 1868.
thus forces the man to produce; the will. do if he were compelled to live always in ingness to labour is not an ultimate fact, the sultry heat of society, and could never but must be connected with extraordinary better himself in cool solitude ?" It is no and special aptitudes for the given field. shame to a man that commonplaces of this There is some truth in this, and in many stamp come to him along with choicer cases we may leave it an open question things, or that he should on the spur of the whether it was unusual intensity of feeling moment, mistaking them for something betwhich vitalized the artist into productive- ter than they are, give them a refuge in his ness — a phrase of Coleridge's by the way note-books; but we have a little right to - or whether it was some pressure of outer claim their expungement by editorial discircumstances that stirred his energies. In cretion. Hawthorne's case we should be inclined to We get, however, along with many things think that it was, in the first instance at all of this kind, glimpses of those out-of-theevents, the outer necessity of producing way paths in which Hawthorne's mind was which made him laborious and productive. always inclined to travel. He realized to a Throughout these note-books we see many peculiar degree what vast differences are signs of this. They are examples of the made in life, what enormous varieties of efmanner in which an author builds up a fab- fect are produced by the slenderest deviatic that he has been set by outer fate rather tion out of habits, sights, or usages, to than by inward propulsion to build up. As which the ordinary experience of life has a collection of materials they are very curi- accustomed us. In this respect his noteous; all is fish that comes to the net, and books only confirm what his stories show. the author seems to have got into the liter- In his stories it is astonishing by what ary man's characteristic habit of looking at slight touches he charges a scene or an incieverything he read and everything he saw dent with a half-weird freshness — with from the point of view of the use which it what a seemingly slender supply of mamight one day subserve in his writing. chinery he procures such impressive results. Hence the most incongruous jottings. Thus, There is something instructive of his method side by side, we read that “some chimneys in the paragraph about the "young man of ancient halls used to be swept by having and girị meeting together, each in search a culverin fired
at Leith, of a person to be known by some particular in 1711, a glass bottle was blown of the sign; they watch and wait a great while for capacity of two English busbels"; and that that person to pass; at last some casual * anciently, when long-buried bodies were circumstance discloses that each is the one found undecayed in the grave, a species of that the other is waiting for.” This idea sanctity was attributed to them." Anybody must have taken full possession of hiyn as can perceive how immensely useful a muse- one out of which something might be made, um of observations such as these would be for we find it repeated. We see an outline to the author of the House of the Seven again, in the " person with the ice-cold Gables, or the Scarlet Letter. The pointed hand — his right hand, which people ever illustration, quaint aside, and felicitous à afterwards remember when once they have propos, which strikes the careless reader as grasped it.” Among other characteristic the happy inspiration of the moment, are in quaintnesses, is the question, standing untruth the labour of years in one sense, and accountable in its isolated state, “ What is this a sense which is highly creditable to the the price of a day's labour in Lapland, author. The repute of impromptu is a where the sun never sets for six months ? great deal higher among uncritical people The next jotting after this tells its own tale; than it has any right to be. Hawthorne's it is simply Miss Asphyxia Davis." In preparatory thoughts and observations are another place, we find memoranda of names of very various degrees of merit. Some- for people in stories, as “ Miss Polly Syllatimes they are excellent, as when he jots ble a schoolmistress," " Flesh and Blood down the hint for the “punishment of a - a firm of butchers." There is something, miser to pay the drafts of his heir in his too, very characteristic in the suggestion of tomb," or the comparison of moonlight to “ A Coroner's Inquest on a murdered man, sculpture, of sunlight to painting. At other the gathering of the jury to be described, times they are poor or commonplace, as and the character of its members - some when he likens a character whom a satirist with secret guilt upon their souls." One like Swift has handled to a parched spot on rather remarkable memorandum illustrates which the devil may be supposed to have curiously Hawthorne's readiness to see mysspit; or when he reflects that “no fountain tery. He watched “a ground-sparrow's so small but that heaven may be imaged in nest in the slope of a bank, brought to view its bosom”; or asks, “ what would å man by mowing the grass, but still sheltered and
comfortably hidden by a blackberry vine | back from their graves and trying to make trailing over it. At first four brown-speck- a fire with this mossy fuel." led eggs, then two little bare young ones, Among the remains in the present volwhich, on the slightest noise, lift their umes are clever and minute accounts of all heads, and open wide mouths for food, im- sorts of men whom the writer met on his mediately dropping their heads after a broad rambles, excellently done, and such as gape. The action looks as if they were would come in admirably amid the action making a most earnest, agonized petition.” of a story; but, as it is, without a setting In another egg, as in a coffin, he could dis- of this kind, we confess to finding them
“the quiet death-like form of the little rather too numerous. They grow a shade bird. The whole thing had something awful wearisome, or, if that be too harsh a way and mysterious about it." Here we see of putting it, at any rate they fail to kindle Hawtborne's most striking peculiarity in a a continuous interest. The pictures of curiously marked form. Not many men Hawthorne's domestic life both before and would discern anything awful or mysterious after his marriage are charming; some of in a nest full of callow young. Yet it must the passages being idyls of the best and be said that Hawthorne's strong, simplicity most delightful quality. Yet even here, and minuteness of record awaken in the after a little while, we become conscious of reader a depth of impression corresponding the need of some more deliberately framed to that which the sight made upon himself. setting. In a word, they are graceful
The note-books contain ample record of sketches, full of promise which was amply the close observation which Hawthorne paid redeemed, and it is because we have the to incidents in the landscape, atmosphere, fulfilment that one may be excused for a sky, vegetation, and the like. So minute a little indifference about the raw material. care can only have come from a proportion. Those, for instance, who have read the ately intense feeling for nature. Jottings on Blithedale Romance may be allowed to skip points of this kind take a place in Haw- the pages in the note-books which describe thorne's note-books which in the diary of a the author's life at Brook Farm. man of another sort would be given to the state of the writer's own sensations and physical impressions. Many days he appears to have thought nothing worthy of no
From The London Review. tice or record except these natural occurren
DR. CHAPMAN'S REMEDY FOR SEA-SICKces. What passes unobserved or unanalysed
NESS.* by the mass is to him worthy of all manner of careful statement; "a windy day," for On board a steamboat, in rough weather, example, “ with wind north-west, and with we once saw a newly-married couple, one a prevalence of dull grey clouds over the of whom, the lady, was fearfully and wonsky, but with lively, quick glimpses of sun- derfully sick. There was not anything unshine.” An adjacent mountain, clad with common in the fact, but there was in the manthe foliage in its autumn hues, “ looked like ner in which her infatuated husband (a a headless Sphinx, wrapped in a rich Per- young clergyman), who was evidently, as sian shawl; yesterday, through a diffused Michelet phrases it, avide d'elle, watched mist, with the sun shining on it, had the as- her with eager eyes, even in the paroxysms pect of burnished copper.". And so on, of her illness. It is curious what love in often for day after day, as if he had been a the usual sense can do, but the love of scilandscape-painter, taking his sketches in ence, with the desire to lessen human sufferwords, instead of with pencil and brush. ing, can do much also, and Dr. Chapman Sometimes a weird thought throws strange has been as intent as the young husband figures into the landscape. In his rambles upon the phenomena of sea-sickness. he comes across a pile of logs in a wood, "Numerous observations of persons vomitcut so long ago that the moss had accumu- ing" (p. 51) have formed a necessary part lated on them, “and leaves falling over of his study of the subject, and he rebukes, them from year to year and decaying, a kind with felicitous irony, those who will not of soil had quite covered them, although the softened outline of the wood-pile was Sea-Sickness, and How to Prevent it; an experceptible in the green mound.” Forth- planation of its Nature and Successful Treatment, with the writer falls to work, imagining Means of the Spinal Ice-bag. With an Introduction “ the long-dead woodman, and his long-dead on the General Principles of Neuro-Therapeutics. wife and family, and the old man who was Physician to the Earringdon Dispensary. London: a little child when the wood was cut, coming Trubner & Co.