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question nature by both observation and cold on their bodies. In case XV., a genexperiment:

tleman, who had promised to apply the ice

to his own back and report the effect, called “ These pre-eminently scientific physicians afterwards to say that he had applied it to will demonstrate in the most approved scientific his wife's back. Fiat experimentum, etc. language that ice applied along the spine cannot But, of course, this may have been an inpossibly affect the spinal cord ; and their demon- stance of self-sacrifice on the husband's stration is so complete in itself that it needs no confirmation by the simple expedient of applying

part. a spinal ice-bag along the spine of a living man afresh divided into two classes — those who

To be quite serious, mankind may be or woman, and noting the results.”

are sick at sea and those who are not. Nor is this deeply-interesting pamphlet And again, they may be divided into those without its points of humour. °Case XIV. who know what bilious sickness is and

A third of one's fellowinevitably provokes a smile. On the 23rd those who do not. of May, 1864, Dr. Chapman, being in the creatures go through life without having tidal train that had left Boulogne for Paris ever been really sick; for that easy einptyvolunteered to apply the ice-bag to the ing of the stomach which occurs, upon spine of a gentleman who, having just casual provocation, to some people is as crossed the Channel, complained of nausea. nothing compared with the suffering enThe doctor took an ice-bag out of his plaid, dured in sick-headache proper. Even this, and placed it along the whole length of the however, must, we suppose, sink into ingentleman's back. The latter felt much significance by the side of bad sea-sickness. better, and " begged to be allowed, if pos- complaint that gives an idea of bad sea;

As far as we can judge, the only pure land sible, to possess himself of the ice-bag. Having obtained my assent, he promised sickness is what is called “ water-brash.” to write to me a report of his further experi- Most persons have had some opportunity ence in using the bag; but up to the pres

of observing this peculiar form of human ent time this promise remains unfulfilled.” misery; and we refer to it for the sake Now, even without assuming, what seems

of helping the imaginations of those who probable, that this gentleman carried off think, because we laugh at sea-sickness, it one of Dr. Chapman's ice-bags without is in itself laughable. It is, on the conpaying for it, this is melancholy, and if the trary, one of the most horrible kinds of hugentleman is still living and if this should man suffering; and even if Dr. Chapman meet his eye, it is to be hoped for the had only made out his case empirically up credit of human nature, that he will redesm to the lowest point allowed in his favour bis four-year-old promise. The following by hostile criticism he would be a public is not bad in another way:

benefactor. But we think intelligent read

ers of his book will incline to the opinion “In October, 1867, a gentleman supplied an that, even if Dr. Chapman's scientific geneice-bag to a lady who was about to go abroad. ralizations should hereafter be reduced to Recently I wrote to him to inquire whether she some still lower terms, they must take rank used the bag, and if so, with what result. as true discoveries. He replied, “My young lady friend sailed to Referring our readers to Dr. Chapman's Santa Martha in South America, and was pamphlet, which is so plainly written that awfully ill ; but the doctor on board advised the least accustomed reader will understand against trying the ice! Case of donkey!”

and follow him with ease in the two sections

entitled "General Principles of NeuroSydney Smith said that the reason the Jew- therapeutics” and “The Physiology of ish religion made so few converts was that the Vomiting," we will venture upon an extract rites of admission began with a surgical ope- or two, which will afford a glimpse of the ration, and Dr. Chapman seems to have a rationale which he alleges for his treatment sufficient idea of the dread most people have of sea-sickness by the application of iceof anything cold applied to the exterior bags to the back: skin. A fine lady who will fearlessly swallow an ice to the injury of her digestion will Alinch from the idea of a cold bath, as if it Harvey as an adequate explanation of the cir

“If we confine ourselves to the doctrine of were sure to be mortal. Dr. Chapman culation of the blood, we shall indeed find it ex. prudently writes a whole section containing ceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to under** evidence that ice along the spine is agree- stand how cold along the spine can increase, and able;" but one of his * cases”

appears to how heat along the spine can decrease the show, in a really hunourous light, the ex- general circulation. The conviction, however, treme reluctance people have to anything has been deepening of late years that a variety

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of phenomena observable even in man and the improve vision to a very remarkable extent by higher animals — phenomena in the production acting on the spine ; and in October, 1864, of which the movement of the blood is chiefly having accidentally met at the Turkish bath Mr. concerned — are not accounted for by the hy- Ernest Hart, whom I knew to be devoting himpothesis of Harvey ; and, in proportion as we self especially to diseases of the eye, I communidescend the animal scale, this hypothesis be cated to him the result of my observations, and comes more and more inadequate as an explana- begged him to give the subject of the influence tion of the movement of the blood. Blushing, of cold and heat when applied to the cilio-spinal sudden paleness of the face, flushings and chill. region on the circulation in the eye his special ness of the whole body, frequently occur with attention. He kindly promised to do so ; and, out any corresponding disturbance or modifica- in the Lancet of January 7th, 1865, he pubtion of the heart's action.”

lished a very remarkable case entitled, “On a

case of Amaurosis from progressive Atrophy of This is a familiar topic; and Dr. Chapman the Optic Nerve with Epileptic Complications refers to other instances in which the local treated successfully by the application of Ice to afflux of blood is so extreme - and so sud- the Spine.' Her sight gradually declined; den both in its commencement and its ces-and,' says Mr. Hart, when she came to me sation — as to be totally inexplicable upon Teulon's type. The ophthalmoscope showed

she could with difficulty, read No. 10 of Giraudthe hypothesis of Harvey. Of this fact there can be no doubt whatever. The palpable whiteness of the optic dises in both most violent conceivable afflux will occa- did not contract fully under ophthalmoscopic

eyes. The pupils were semi-dilated, and sionally begin and cease in a few seconds,

examination, I could give no hope of without any of the other phenomena re- cure. However, after a fortnight of temporizquired by the doctrine of Harvey, and, as ing without benefit I resolved to employ for her far as

common eyes can decide, certainly treatment the application of ice to the lower from causes which are usually classed as cervical and upper dorsal regions of the spine. “ nervous." Now let us pick out a link or which has been. recommended by Dr. two from Dr. Chapman's catena of consecu- John Chapman as a means of increasing the tive propositions on pages 22 and 23 :

afflux of blood through the agency of the sym

pathetic.' The ice-bag was applied during five “That when the spinal cord is in a state of hy- weeks, generally three times a day, and for percemia, cramps or the involuntary muscles about half an hour each time. She had only surrounding the alimentary tube, cramps, or three fits during this period, and they were comeven convulsions of the voluntary muscles, an ex- paratively slight. The remainder of the access of glandular activity and an excess of sen- count I give in Mr. Hart's own words. That sibility (hyperästhesia) are likely to ensue. which most nearly touches the subject of my

" That cold applied along the spine will sub-paper, however, is the great improvement which due cramps, or excessive tension, of both volun- has occurred in her visual power. At the betary and involuntary muscles, will lessen sensi- ginning of the treatment she could read no type bility, will increase secretion, and will lessen the smaller than No. 10 of Giraud-Teulon ; she now general circulation and bodily heat.”

reads No. 4 with ease. The pupils are no longer

dilated, although they act sluggishly. . But a The reader has now some idea of what point of great interest is that the discs are now Dr. Chapman's theory, is in its bearing of a tint which may be pronounced natural ;

From a physiupon sea-sickness, and its treatment by the they are palely roseate. application of cold to the back. Perhaps it ological point of view, this is remarkable as an will do more than a thousand set arguments

example of visible regeneration, so to speak, of to suggest to the general reader that the nutrition. Nothing else than the ophtalmoscope

a nerve in process of wasting from disordered theory is at all events not absurd, to re- could have shown it; and nowhere but in the mind him of what takes place when he sits eye could it have been seen, for nowhere else is with his back to the fire. But an indica- a living nerve subject to observation.' ” tion is all we have space for. We cannot follow Dr. Chapman into the application It was not in Dr. Chapman's power, within of heat to the spine, or quote his numerous the limits of his pamphlet, to apply this cases,

but one of them, in which Mr. Ernest Hart is concerned, we will abbre- case to all the purposes of corroboration viate, and we think its deep interest will which it really seems to suggest ; but it apjustify us :

pears to us to be one of the very utmost

weight and significance. We only advise One of the most interesting proofs yet ad- readers who suffer at sea to get the little duced of the power of the spinal ice-bag to in- book, to give it a thorough, attentive readcrease the peripheral circulation is that afforded ing, and, with such precautions and instrucin the shape of its indisputable effects on the tions as Dr. Chapman will give them, to eye. I have been able in several instances to try the ice-bag.

EXPORT AND IMPORT OF BOOKS. - In the NEW METAL FOR Rails. — An improved year 1867 hooks weighing 49,814 cwt., and of metal for the manufacture of rails bas ken prothe value of £610,538, were exported from the posed, consisting, observes the Mining würnal, United Kingdom. The export to the United of iron, with an admixture of chrome ore. It States amounted to £160,311. The export to has long been known that an alloy of about 40 British North America was £52,673; to the per cent. of iron and 60 per cent. of chromium West Indies and British Guiana, £11,861; to scratches glass almost as deeply as the diamond; Australia, £113,816; to British India, £43,639; and Fremy has stated that an alloy of iron and to Egypt, £65,127; and to South Africa, chromium may be formed by heating in the £20,865. The export to the continent of Europe blast-furnace oxide of chromium and metallic includes — France, £43,535; Hamburg, £13,- iron. It resembles cast-iron, and scratches the 160; Holland, £10,710; Italy, £21,879. The hardest bodies, even hardened steel. Experiexport of English books has increased much of ments are now being made at four of the largest late. The export to France in 1864 reached only rail mills in the United States, in order to test £11,357. The entire export of books from this the value of an alloy of chrome ore and mangacountry was then only 34,087 cwt, of the value of nese, with the iron in the puddling-furnace, for £466,485. At that time the American demand hardening rail heads, and with every prospect had fallen below half that of 1867. The export of of a successful result. Other experiments are books from the United Kingdom was 30,501cwt being made to test the talue of the process for in 1857, and almost precisely the same in 1861; the purpose of hardening plough castings, railit was 32,892 cwt. in 1863; in 1865 it was 39,- road car wheels, and other articles of iron fab528 cwt.; in 1866, 48,581 cwt.; and in 1867, rication, where there is great wear from friction 49,814 cwt. Our import of books is very much and requiring to be made very hard. As there smaller than our export. In 1860 the quantity has long been much difficulty in obtaining a imported was only 6,517cwt.; in 1863, 6,924 market for much of the chrome ore raised in cwt. ; in 1864, 8,089 cwt.; in 1866, 8,789 cwt.; Great Britain and her colonies, the proposition in 1867, 10,272 cwt., of the value of £122,717, is regarded with great interest. Public Opinion. or one-fifth of the export. The chief import is from France, from whence we received in 1867

MR. CARLYLE AND THE UNIVERSITY OF EDbooks of the value of £19,245. So long ago as 1859 our import of books from France exceeded University of Edinburgh, having been asked to

INBURGH. — Mr. Carlyle, ex-Lord Rector of the £33,000 in value, then subject to an import deliver a valedictory address to the students, has duty of above £1,700. The import from Holland has risen from £7,000 in 1859 to £10,740 president of the committee for his election :

sent the following letter to Mr. Robertson, vicein 1867; from Hamburg it has advanced from - Chelsea, December 6, 1868. Dear Sir, - I £20,455 to £31,199; Belgium, £5,150 to £8,7 much regret that a valedictory speech from me, 065. The import of books from the United in present circumstances, is a thing I must not States is returned at £12,203 in 1859, and only think of. Be pleased to advise the young gentle£7,618 in 1866, and £7,552 in 1867.

Public Opinion.

men who were so friendly towards me that I have already sent them, in silence, but with emotions deep enough, perhaps too deep, my lov

ing farewell, and that ingratituile or want of Some odd proposals have been made from time regard is by no menns among the causes that to time about the erection of monuments to cer- keep me absent. With a fine youthful enthusitain distinguished individuals ; but who ever thought of one for Robinson Crusoe ? The of- me that bit of honor, loyally all they had; and

asm, beautiful to look upon, they bestowed on ficers of one of her Majesty's ships, however, it has now, for reasons one and another, become have resolved to place a tablet on the Island of touchingly memorable to me – touchingļy, and Juan Fernandez, bearing the following inscrip- even grandly and tragically — never to be for

gotten for the remainder of my life. Bid them,

in my name, if they still love me, fight the good ALEXANDER SELKIRK,

fight, and quit themselves like men in the war

fare to which they are as if conscript and conseMARINER,

crated, and which lies ahead. Tell them to conA native of Largo, in the county of Fife, Scotland, sult the eternal oracles (not yet inaudible, nor

Who iived on this island, in complete ever to become so, when worthily inquired of); solitude, for four years and four months.

and to disregard, nearly altogether, in comparHe was landed from the Cinque Ports galley, 96 tons, liriums. May they love wisdom, as wisdom, if

ison, the temporary noises, menacings, and de18 guns, A.D. 1704, and was taken off in the Duke privateer, 12th February,

she is to yield her treasures, must be loved,

piously, valiantly, humbly, beyond life itself, He died Lieutenant of H. M. S. Weymouth, or the prizes of life, with all one's heart and all A. D. 1723, aged 47 years.

one's soul. In that case (I will say again), and This tablet is erected near Selkirk's look-out

not in any other case, it shall be well with them. By COMMODORE POWELL and the OFFICERS

Adieu, my young friends, a long adieu. Yours of H. M. S. Topaze, A. D. 1868.

with great sincerity, T. CARLYLE.”




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No. 1287. - January 30, 1869.

259 262 264 266 270 273

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Saturday Review, 6. HELPS'S LIFE OF COLUMBUS,

Saturday Review, 7. The Country-House on the Rhine. Part XI. By

Berthold Auerbach. Translated from the German
for the “ Living Age,”




Saturday Review, 11. MR. Bright AS AN OLD TESTAMENT WORTHY, Spectator, 12. MR. BROWNING's New POEM,


Spectator, 14. ALASKA, .

Saturday Review, 15. CON AMORE,

Spectator, 16. The Sıx Little NighT-CAPS,








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valuable sketches of Queen Caroline, Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Chesterfield, Lady Mary Wortley Montague, The Young Chevalier, Pope, John Wesley, and other celebrated characters of the time of George II., several of which have already appeared in the LIVING AGE, reprinted

from Blackwood's Magazine, will be issued from this office, in book form, as soon as completed. A HOUSE OF CARDS. LETTICE LISLE.



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually for. warded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor where we have to pay commission for forwarding the money.

Price of the First Series, in Cloth, 36 volumes, 90 dollars.
Second “


50 Third


80 The Complete Work,


240 Any Volume Bound, 3 dollars ; Unbound, 2 dollars. The sets, or volumes, will be sent at the expense of the publishers.

PREMIUMS FOR CLUBS. For 5 new subscribers ($40.), a sixth copy; or a set of HORNE'S INTRODUCTION TO THE BIBLE, unabridged, in 4 large volumes, cloth, price $10 ; or any 5 of the back volumes of the LIVING AGE, in numbers, price $10.

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Then I knew that, though dim, not unlovely to

him I saw where a-dying the Old Year was lying, And the weight at his heart mocked the green

Was the face of that presence, nor threatening at his door : He heard pauper-voices, for bread hoarsely cry- And that under that veil was no aspect more ing,

grim He heard soldiers' tramp, and low thunders of

For the Year I saw born than the Year I saw

die. There were no friends to cheer him, and small | And I woke as from clouds rose the sun's crimcomfort near him,

son rim, And his life's lamp burnt low, and his breath And the fair light of morning enkindled the laboured sore.


Punch. Yet, unloved as he ended, his deathbed was

tended A cloaked shadow sat in the sick nurse's room, Nor speaking nor sighing, like the dead by the

TURKEY AND GREASE. dying, That mute, muffled shade seemed to deepen

(A SONG OF THE SEASON.) the gloom :

Roast Turkey is a standing dish Did it bring mirth or mourning, come for sorrow For festive Christmas season; or scorning ?

Is oftener served than most folks wish, Was't veiled spirit of light, or cowled angel Punch thinks beyond all reason of gloom?

Though to receive it with a "pish,” As midnight was nearing, the presence uprearing

To Christmas were high treason. To its height, lowly bent by the dying one's No wonder, if Yule fires aglow

bed, And a hand from the folds of its mantle appear- Into the dripping-pan below,

Make Turkey drop its juices
ing -

To hold in Grease its use is.
Who could say if to bless or to ban was out- But, ií Grease catches fire, we know

Did the shudder that crept through the Year ere

Its blaze the very deuce is. he slept,

To keep this Turkey and that Grease Speak of horror or hope, from that hand o'er From coming to a flare-up, his head ?

Which might to such wide blaze increase, Even thus the last stroke of December outspoke,

As must stir common care up, – And I knew with the sound the Old Year was And, breaking Europe's Christmas peace, no more,

Bid her big engines tear up, And I saw where from darkness the Young Year awoke,

The cooks of Europe, her Great Powers And heard its clear pipe and light step at the

(Cooks are great powers, we know)

Spend anxious and laborious hours, And the great shadow gathered the folds of its

And their best squirts bestow ; cloak,

Diplomacy's cold douche in showers And stood by the bed, muffled, mute, as be

On this hot Grease to throw. fore.

BRITANNIA, cook-maid fat and fair, Then I knew 'twas the shade of the Future, ar- Though fain to stand aloof, rayed

And see to her own bill-of-fare, By the Dead Year with new might to bless or Must rouse, on BULL's behoof: to ban ;

That blaze, once lit, she feels might flare, But the darkness upon the cowled features that And catch her master's roof.

played, Still baffled the effort their promise to scan.

French cook and Russ, Pruss, Austrian — each
And I waited the Young Year's encounter to see

Has his own cause of fear.
With that awful presence past reading of man. Who knows where fire, once raised, might reach,

With so much loose straw near?
With his childish laugh ringing like silver bells all with one voice “cold water” preach-

Let's hope all are sincere !
Came the Year to his heritage frolic and free,
Nor shrank as its broad shadow over him iling- Meanwhile the Turkey spits and spumes,

Grease frizzles and fumes high, That dark presence fronted the child in its And fitful flashes light the glooms, glee:

Are quenched, and, sputtering, die ;
No fear froze the joy of the jubilant boy And the Cooks' Conference foredooms
As he faced the cowled features, and climbed “No blaze — till by-and-by.”
the veiled knee.



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