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history, in fact, the more impossible such a that which he did discover, South America reinodelling must be. It is perhaps difficult might have been colonized by the Spaniards with to rate a book more highly than its author all the vigour that belonged to their great efforts himself rates it, but in this case we are at colonization, and, being a continent, might bound to say, in justice to Mr. Helps's work, not afterwards have been so easily wrested from that it is far too good a history to lend it their sway by the maritime nations. On the self efficiently to the scissors with which he other hand, had some breeze, big with the fate proposes to snip this series of biographies would hardly have been left for the English more
of nations, carried Columbus northward, it out of it. There is, indeed, a peculiar than a century afterwards to found those colonies difficulty in the case of the Spanish Con- which have proved to be the seeds of the greatest quest. Few histories have less of the bio- nation that the world is likely to behold. graphical or narrative element in them; its aim, which is very inadequately represented A tone of mind such as this, which has its by its title, is a purely philosophical aim; grandeur on the large canvas of a history, and the discovery and conquest of the New is necessarily fatal to the interest of inWorld is treated throughout simply as a dividual biography. Columbus dwindles framework for the study of the origins of when his greatness hangs on the unshipmodern slavery. A yet greater difficulty ping of a rudder or the change of a wind. in the way of such biographical experiments
But there is another characteristic of Mr. as the present is offered by the very temper Helps's mind which tells even more directly of Mr. Helps's mind. To be a good bio-against his biographical attempts. Sympagrapher a man must have the largest and thy is the first requisite of a biographer, boldest faith in the powers of individual and the intellectual temper which exercises man and in his superiority to the influences, so marked an influence over the form of all either moral or physical, around him; in a his works is only feebly sympathetic. In word, he must to a certain degree be a hero- this case of Columbus one feels that the worshipper. Now, what is most character- writer is looking at him in a very shrewd istic in Mr. Helps's writings is the curiously and just and even good-humoured way, but vivid way in which he realizes the overpow- that he is holding him at arm's length from ering weight of these very influences, in himself to get this look at him. Mr. Helps which he subordinates men and events to treats his hero with all tenderness and rethe general fortunes of the race and the spect, but with just that sort of tenderness gradual development of human ideas, in and respect with which one would treat a which he sometimes seems tempted to re- delicate marble statuette of him, taking gard individuals as mere puppets moved over him up at one time for a bit of genial narthe stage of his history by the larger natu- rative, and laying him down at another for ral forces which assume such names as a bit of reflection or chat about some side" chance providence." Take, for question wbich he has suggested, but always instance, such a characteristic passage as treating him in a purely objective and ex. this from the preface to his present work :- ternal way. Of course there is throughout
It has always been a favourite speculation with a real interest in his hero; at certain points historians, and indeed with all thinking men, to
of his story he is even a little amused with consider what would have happened from a slight him, or angry at him, or grieved about him; change of circumstances in the course of things but he is never absorbed or enthusiastic or which led to great events. This may be an idle and one with him. It is curious how this way a useless speculation, but it is an inevitable one. of looking at Columbus insensibly communiNever was there such a field for this kind of cates itself to the reader. One is so gratespeculation as in the voyages, especially the first ful for the constant ripple of pleasant sideone, of Columbus. The first point of land which talk which goes on from page to page, for he saw and touched at is as nearly as possible the the quaint suggestive comments, the
preg. central point of what must once have been the nant littie gnomes on men and manners united continent of North and South America. which lie scattered along the story, that the The least change of circumstances might have reader hardly realizes till he closes the book made an immense difference in the result. The how completely its tone has become his going to sleep of the helmsman, the unshipping of the rudder (which did occur in the case of the own, how far his hero has receded out of Pinzon), the smallest mistake in taking an ob- the circle of personal interest, and how servation, might have made, and probably did little a part alter all the great discoverer make, considerable change in the event.
Dur- has played in his thoughts as he read about ing that meinorable first voyage of Columbus, bim. Now Columbus is one of a class of the gentlest breeze carried with it the destinies men who require for the understanding of of future empires. Had he made his first dis- them precisely this sympathy which Mr. covery of land at a point much southward of Helps wants." We hardly know a better
instance of the biographic results which (and who are not usually much loved by them. follow from any attempt to sketch such Sanchez did not see the light at first, because, as characters without it than the instance of Columbus says, he did not stand in the place George Fox, As Lord Macaulay has where it could be seen ; but at last even he sees drawn his portrait it is a simple caricature. it, and it may now be considered to have been But it is a caricature which only leaves seen officially, “ It appeared like a candle that its victim more unintelligible than he was
up and down, and Don Christopher did not
doubt before. We quite see why the parish land ; and so it proved, as it came from people
was a true light, and that it was on constables should have dieted this noisy passing with lights from one cottage to another." brawler in leathern breeches on bread and Their highnesses had promised a pension of ten water; but Lord Macaulay does not help thousand maravedis to the fortunate man who us to see just the one point which we should see land first. The Pinta was the forewanted to see - why this noisy ranter be- most vessel ; and it was from her deck at two came the spiritual regenerator of his time, o'clock in the morning that land was first seen and how it was that men like Penn and by Rodrigo de Triana. We cannot but be sorry Barclay licked all this.", portentous non- for this poor common sailor, who got no reward,
" into shape. Michelet's treatment and of whom they tell a story that, in sadness of Joan of Arc, on the other hand, is one and despite, he passed into Africa, after his reof the finest instances which history has turn to Spain, and became a Mahommedan. ever given us of the force of poetic sympa- The pension was adjudged to the Admiral ; it thy in rendering a very peculiar character bles of Seville, and was paid him to the day of
was charged somewhat ominously on the shamintelligible. By the sheer insight which
his death. faith in a great nature alone can give, the historian shows the oneness of that life of It is odd to see how in a passage of this. a peasant girl as it grew through vision sort it is not the great discoverer but the and effort, through its strange alternations cheated sailor who enlists our sympathy, of poetry and prose, into the life of a great and how all the poetry of the
true light national deliverer. And Columbus, though ceases when the sight of it is associated his character stands on a far lower level, with that charge on the shambles of Seville. was an enthusiast of the same stamp with In this way, too, all sublimity fades away Joan of Arc. It is easy, either in Lord from the one event of the life which Mr. Macaulay's epigrammatic fashion or in Mr. Helps is sketching; for Columbus is an inHelps's cooler contemplative way, to paint stance of the strange law which seems to him as a mere bundle of anomalies and sum up some men's greatness in a single contradictions, a strange amalgam of great- event, to lift them up in the light of it for ness and meanness, at once dreamer and a moment, and then to let them fall back shrewd man of business, an ardent crusader again into their former littleness. His life (rossed with the inodern man of science, began when the Pinta sailed past the Bar credulous and sceptical, a saint, over whose of Saltes; its greatness ends when Rodcanonization the Church is said now to be rigo cries" land” from the Pinta's deck. meditating, forcing cargoes of human flesh It is curious to remark how the sympaand blood on a struggling Isabella. Mr. thy which Mr. Helps denies to Columbus is Helps has certainly not the mere vulgar to a certain extent elicited by the two figdelight in building up a great character by a ures which he has placed beside him on the series of antitheses which “smart” writers canvas, Isabella and Henry of Portugal. seem to find in that process, but his humour To the patient student of modern science las a way of thinking second thoughts the voyage of Columbus is a mere lucky which produces much the same effect. The hazard, whose justification is simply to be life of Columbus, for instance, culminates in found in its success. But the prince who, the great moment of his discovery and in a from his promontory of Sagres, directs for petty act of dishonesty:
half a century the maritime advance of
Portugal along the African coast, groundThe sun went down upon the same weary ing himself at every step on mathematical round of waters which for so long a time their and geographical reasons, feeling his way eyes had ached to see beyond, when at ten o'clock in a sort of inductive fashion froin cape to Columbus, standing on the poop of his vessel, saw a light, and called to him privately Pedro cape and headland to headland for 6,000 Gutierrez, a groom of the king's chamber, who miles, and dying only six years before his saw it also. Then they called Rodrigo Sanchez, labours were crowned by the discovery of who had been sent their highnesses as over the Cape of Good Hope, is far more to the looker. I imagine him to have been a cold and taste of to-day. Isabella, too, profits by cautivus man, of the kind that are sent by je:l- the same nineteenth-century wave of feelous States to accompany and curb great generals, ing.' The joy and excitement of the dis
covery of a larger world, so predominant | Henry V., and yet Agincourt is nothing to till a hundred years ago, has, now that the the moral revolution which was wrought by career of discovery is at an end and the the first cargo of Moorish slaves in 1441. world is known, faded pretty much away. The voyage of Sebastian Cabot is glanced The moral interest, the importance to the at in a line, when the imposture of a Perkin world and its destinies, on the other hand, Warbeck covers page upon page; or, to is nowadays appreciated more and more; take perhaps the strongest instance we reand Mr. Helps is only reflecting the sen- member, M. Guizot devotes a chapter to timent of his day when he tells coldly the three first Parliaments of King Charles, the tale of American discovery, and grows and not a word to the great emigration of warm over the protests and efforts of Isa- the eleven years of his tyranny which carbella against the system of “repartemen- ried 20,000 Puritans to New England, and, tos " and slavery. A thought which abides in founding its greatness, changed the forwith one in reading books like these is that tunes of mankind. A day may perhaps of the strange delusion which still prevails come when Parliaments and drums and as to what is the true history of the world. trumpets will be rated by the historian at In common historic writing, a figure like their true level, but till that day comes we that of Prince Henry is hardly seen in the cannot wonder at what is sometimes called blaze of such a person as our contemporary “our English indifference to history."
From The Church of England Magazine. And tell the tired boy of that bright land
Where, this long journey past, they longed to
dwell. “ THE loved and lost!” why do we call them lost?
Because we miss them from our onward road? When lo ! the Lord, who many mansions had, God's unseen angel o'er our pathway crost, Drew near and looked upon the suffering twain, Looked on us all, and loving them the most, Then pitying, spake, “ Give me the little lad; Straightway relieved them from life's weary In strength renewed, and glorious beauty clad, load.
I'll bring him with me when I come again. They are not lost ; they are within the door
Did she make answer selfishly and wrongThat shuts out loss and every hurtful thing
“ Nay, but the woes I feel he too must share !” With angels bright, and loved ones gone before, Or, rather, bursting into grateful song, In their Redeemer's presence evermore,
She went her way rejoicing, and made strong And God himself their Lord, and Judge, and
To struggle on, since he was free from care. King.
We will do likewise. Death hath made no breach And this we call a loss! O selfish sorrow
In love and sympathy, in hope and trust; Of selfish hearts! O we of little faith !
No outward sigh or sound our ears can reach, Let us look round, some argument to borrow, But there's an inward, spiritual speech, Why we in patience should await the morrow,
That greets us still, though mortal tongues be That surely must succeed this night of death. dust. Aye, look upon this dreary, desert path, It bids us do the work that they laid down The thorns and thistles wheresoe'er we turn;
Take up the song where they broke off the What trials and what tears, what wrongs and
strain ; wrath,
So journeying till we reach the heavenly town, What struggles and what strife the journey hath! Where are laid up our treasures and our crown, They have escaped from these ; and lo! we
And our lost loved ones will be found again.
Ask the poor sailor, when the wreck is done,
To see his loved ones landed on the beach?
A little child, had halted by the well
MESSRS. ROUTLEDGE reprint The Works of Laurence Sterne in an octavo of between six and seven hundred pages. If purchasers are found for these volumes, and from the rapidity with which they appear it seems certain that they are found, the English classic authors must be finding a larger public now than they did in their own day.
A DOUBLE RESCUE.
She went to meet her husband, and he turned his steps towards her. Clodwig
seated himself under a fine cedar, where It happened, as if by accident, that Eric pretty rustic chairs were placed; Eric and and Frau Bella walked together, and Bella Bella stood before him. And now Clodwig tried a little experiment to see in what di-explained his whole plan, painting so atrection it would be safe to venture, by re-tractively the pleasantly busy life which marking that she was surprised at Eric's they would lead together, that Eric's cheeks understanding her good husband so thorough- glowed. In a voice full of emotion he exly, for it was not so easy to live with him pressed his gratitude, and said that he felt as it seemed. She said this very warily, bound by duty to the decision which his and it might be taken for simple praise. heart had made. Eric replied:
Bella rested one hand on Clodwig's chair, • The world is so much the more indebted and Eric went on to say that he rejoiced to you, gracious lady, for the count has that anything so attractive had been offered gained new youth through you.
him, because he derived thence an assurBella nodded. Eric had quietly and se ance that he had chosen the right course, curely taken the first step toward a good that which accorded with his duty. A great understanding; to recognize her sacrifice and difficult task was laid upon him in Rowas a delicate politeness on his part. She land's education, and the very fact, that so went on to speak very enthusiastically of different and charming a life was Clodwig, and of her happiness in being able opened to him, made him happy by renewto do anything towards cherishing a pure ing and confirming his confidence in his spirit, without making any demand for her- decision; and the offered alternative helped self. It was so beautiful to sacrifice one's him to recognize his choice as a real duty. self, to serve quietly, unrecognized and un- For a while Clodwig looked down, and noticed; and here there came in a word Bella, taking her hand from his chair, stood about the childlike mind, so placed that suddenly erect. Then, as Eric represented Eric could apply all she had said to his vo- bis delight in Roland, and the mysterious, cation as a teacher.
happy attraction which he felt towards him, Eric expressed his agreement with her, even towards his faults, Clodwig smiled, as simply and without einbarrassment, and he looked up into the branches, for just as Frau Bella could not tell whether he had Eric felt drawn to Roland with enthusiastic really not understood her, or whether he love, he was drawn to Eric; the sentiments chose to seem not to understand. She were exactly analogous. Yet he was unknew how to intimate with delicacy how willing to give Eric up, and pointed out to difficult it was to deal with just such a man him again that he could not cut off all other as Clodwig, though he seemed so unexact- influences in educating Roland, but that he ing and so yielding; she begged Eric to help would have to contend with elements which her in making the evening of his days com- perhaps he could never conquer. pletely happy; she said all this with a tone “Ah, there comes the doctor," he interof feeling which was not to be mistaken. rupted himself; are you willing to call in
Eric expressed his doubt whether it a third person to the decision ? would be well disturb so peaceful a life “No one but myself can make the deby the introduction of a third person; he cision,” answered Eric,“ however difficult acknowledged that he was still wanting in it may be; but I have not the least objectact, was capricious, and passionate. tion to entrust the office of umpire to our
" You are so sincere that you have no friend." need of being diffident,” answered Bella. This was done; but, to the surprise of
She looked searchingly at Eric; her fan all, the physician decided against both parfell, and as he picked it up she gave him ties; he expressed his wish that some one her hand in thanks. With much tact and would enable Eric to see Italy and Greece. elegance of expression, but with emotion Before Clodwig could answer, Eric interwhich made her breast heave, she extolled posed, saying that he was bent on finding the good fortune which allowed her to de- some employment, so that he could support vote herself to a noble man, and to have a himself and his mother from his own means. friend who thoroughly understood her. Rising with difficulty, Clodwig said, Eric could not tell whether the latter part Young friend, give me your arm.” He of her remark applied to him or to Clodwig. stood erect, and turned toward Eric, on
“There he comes ! ” cried Bella sudden- whose arm his hand lay heavy and trembly. "See, it is a peculiarity of his never ling. to carry a cane, though he needs it." * I don't know,” said he, “ I should not
were your own.
think I was the man who had been through don't be anxious, it will not be for a long such hard experience as I have; I am to- time yet. There, now sit down by me. day undergoing a bitter experience. Is it Where is my wife?" old
age which makes it so difficult for me Eric went to call her, and she entered, to give up a desire ? I have learned to do with the physician and Sonnenkamp. so before now. Yes, yes; a man. becomes The doctor was not only willing, but childish - childish; a child cannot give up." | expressly desired that Bella and Clodwig
He leaned heavily on Eric, who was should return directly to Wolfsgarten. shaken to the depth of his soul by the Sonnenkamp raised various objections, emotion of the noble man. He did not know wishing to keep his noble guests with him, what to reply, and Clodwig continued : and saying with great hospitality,
“I feel as if I knew not where I am. “ Consider my house exactly as if it Do you not think it is very close ?" “ No. Will you not sit down ? "
“Will you permit Herr Dournay to acHastily loosing his hold of Eric's arm to company us? " asked Clodwig. pass his hand over his face, Clodwig said, - Sonnenkamp started as he answered “My young friend, when I die
quickly, Hardly had he uttered the word, when he “I have no permission to give the cap, sank down; Eric caught him in his arms. tain, but if you are determined to go, I Bella, who was walking behind with the would ask him as a favor to accompany physician, uttered a cry; the physician hur- you, with a promise of returning to us. ried to the spot; Eric stooped, raised Clod- “ You will go with us also ?” begged wig in his arms like a child — all this was Bella of the physician, who assented. the work of a moment.
So the four drove off through the mild Clodwig was carried into the great draw- spring night; little was said, though once ing-room, and laid upon a sofa. Bella Clodwig seized Eric's hand, with the words, sobbed aloud, but the doctor soothed her. “ You are very strong." He had a remedy with him which soon re- Eric and the doctor spent the night at stored Clodwig to consciousness; he begged Wolfsgarten. In the early morning, the Eric and Bella to leave the room as soon as physician prepared for departure while the count had spoken.
Eric. was still sleeping soundly; he woke Outside, Bella threw herself on Eric's him and said, breast, and he trembled as he felt her “ Doctor, remain here to-day, but no breath on his face, and a thrill ran through longer." him as the beautiful woman leaned upon
Eric stared at him. him in such passionate and unrestrained
understand me?" excitement.
6. Yes.'' “ You are our helper, our friend in “Now, good-bye." need! O my friend, my friend ! "
Again Eric spent a whole day at WolfsSonnenkamp entered hastily, and Bella, garten. Clodwig was as cheerful and serene standing erect, with wonderful composure as ever; Bella's bearing toward Eric was addressed him, saying,
shy, almost timid. “ Herr Sonnenkamp, our mutual friend, In the evening Sonnenkamp and Roland Captain Dournay, is a blessing to us all; rode over, and Eric returned with them to with the strength of a giant he carried my Villa Eden. Sonnenkamp was in very husband. Thank him with me."
good spirits, and the blood mounted to Eric was astonished at this rapid recov- Eric's face as he said, looking sharply at ery of self-control.
him, The physician came out, and Sonaen- " Countess Bella will make a beautiful kamp asked anxiously,
widow." “How is he? how is he?"
On the evening of the following day the His mind was set at rest by the doctor's physician appeared again at Villa Eden; declaration that it had been a very slight he had been at Wolfsgarten and brought attack, which would have no bad conse- a good report. He took Eric aside, and quences. Clodwig requested that Eric said, would come to him.
“ You have confided to me that you Eric entered the drawing-room. Clodwig neither expect, nor will accept in a persitting upright held out his hand to Eric, sonal interview, a decisive answer from saying, with a wonderfully bright smile, – Herr Sonnenkamp. I approve of that; it
" I must finish my sentence; I was going can be much better settled by letter. You to say: When I die, my young friend, I will see more clearly, away from him, and should like to have you near me, But 'so will he. So I advise you to leave the