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philosophy, which are citizens not of one ing erudition by mere lectures, and have country but of the world; and above all by introduced more of the tutorial and examthe attractive power of religion, which is a ination system. * Even in Germany some citizen of heaven come down to spread are becoming sick of their drill system and peace among men.
dry routine, and are longing for an infusion The question for me to answer is, what of the more fresh and manly training of can I do for you now that I am among you ? Great Britain. This discontent with the The reply to this question in all its width present is stirring up a strong desire to immust be found in what I do the remainder prove for the future: and out of the disof my life. But there is a narrower and cussions will arise, I am satisfied, great immore immediate inquiry, what can I do this provements in the Universities of the old day in response to the generous reception world. I am in this lecture to carry you you have given me ? All that I can offer into the very heart of these discussions. is to give some information derived from It is to be understood that in doing this the experience through which I have passed. I have no design, avowed or secret, to rev
It so happens that I have a considerable olutionize your American colleges or to reacquaintance with the universities of the old construct them after a European model. I world. I have attended two of the Scottish take up this subject because it is one comUniversities, and I believe I am a graduate petent to me, and because it enables me to of three of them. I have visited Oxford unfold what I believe to be the proper naand Cambridge, and lived within their walls ture of collegiate instruction, without comwith some of their most distinguished men. mitting myself prematurely to American In Ireland I was officially connected with questions, in regard to which I am seeking the latest established university in the Three information. It fortunately so happens Kingdoms, the Queen's University; and I that I have also visited upward of a dozen had incidentally means of being acquainted colleges and theological seminaries in the with Dublin University. I have visited United States; and I have seen enough of some half dozen colleges in Germany and them to become convinced that they are several in Switzerland and Holland. I feel not rashly to be meddled with. They are therefore that I ought to know.something the spontaneous outgrowth of your position of academic teaching in Europe. And then and your intelligence; they are associated it also happens that the question of what with your history and have become adjusted academic education ought to be, is being to your wants; and whatever improvements keenly discussed in Germany and in England, they admit of must be built on the old Scotland and Ireland by some of the most foundation. Still the circumstance that you thoughtful men in those countries, such as Dællinger, Pattison, Mathew Arnold, See
* But there is a risk that certain dispensers of ley, Farrar, Lowe, Grant Duff, J. S. Mill
, patronage, by preferring candidates trained at the
English Universities, most of whom have abandoned Tyndall, H. Spencer, Huxley, Lorimer, Presbyterianism, bring the Colleges into collision Cairnes, and many others. The younger
with the religious convictions of the people. There
is another danger : by aping Oxford and Cambridge, moving spirits in the old colleges are alive without
equalling them in their own line; and by to the evils which have become encrusted glorying in the fact, that their best pupils leave them round the venerable structures to which to get prizes at the English Universities, they may they are attached, and are bent on having search for which the Scottish Colleges have been
lose that independence of thought and scientific rethem removed. The more enlightened mous. There are Englishmen who see this. Profes. teachers in Oxford and Cambridge are be- sor Seeley says: "If we take the vinglo department coming ashamed of the exclusive study of of philosophy, is it not evident that if the English
system had been followed in the Scottish Universi. Latin and Greek, or Mathematics, very ties, there would have been no Scotch school of specially of their exaction of verse-making philosophy.” Mr. Johnson: "It is to Edinburgh -as Milton expressed it long ago:
men more than to any pubiic school or Oxford or
Cambridge men (unless Oxford and Westminster and verses wrung from poor striplings like take credit for Bentham), that we owe the enlightblood out of the nose, or the plucking of ened legislators and the righteous government of the
last forty years." “If we ever had an educator, it untimely fruit.” In Scotland they have be
was Dugald Stewart." — See Essays on Liberal Ed. come fully aware of the futility of impart-ucation, pp. 117, 353.
1. WHAT IS
have called me from a foreign country is a | end: but he has not made them perfect ; he proof that you are anxious to receive sup- bas left room for growth and progress; and posed good from any and from every quár- it is a task laid on his intelligent creatures ter. A composite nation like yours, draw- to be fellow-workers with him in finishing ing its population from all regions, will be that work which he has left incomplete, ready to take knowledge from all lands. In merely that they may have honorable emregard to elementary schools Europe has ployment in completing it. Education more need to look to you than you bave to ought to be a gymnastic to all our powers, look to Europe: but possibly in regard to not overlooking those of the body; that universities America may advantageously every muscle may be braced to its manly look to the old colleges of Europe, even as use; that our students may be able to asthese are anxiously looking to each other. sume the natural posture, and make proper This is one of the European wars in which use of their arms and limbs, which so many I would have the United States to take their of our best scholars feel, in their public appart. I certainly do not ask you to adopt pearances, to be inconvenient appendages. any European method because it is Euro- It should seek specially to stimulate, and pean, or on any other ground than that it strengthen by exercising, the intellectual can stand a sifting examination on its own powers : such as the generalizing or classilerits: and of this I am sure that whatever fying, by wbich we arrange the things that matter your country receives from others, present themselves into groups, ordinate it will put upon it, as it has done upon the and co-ordinate; and the abstracting, ana- 1 divers people who have come within its lyzing capacities by which we reduce the wide territories, a stamp and a character of complexities that meet us to a few compre
hensible and manageable elements; and the
reasoning faculty by which we rise from the THE IDEA OR FINAL CAUSE known and the present to the unknown OF UNIVERSITY TEACHING P
and remote. The studies of a university On this point, which settles every other, should be organized towards this end, and there is no agreement theoretically or prac- all its apparatus of languages, sciences, tically. A large and growing number, we physical and mental, and mathematical exmay call them the realists, evidently think ercises, should be means to accomplish it. that the téłos, or end of a university, is to But then man has other endowments than impart knowledge, some would say mere the understanding, in the narrow sense of physical knowledge; to fit students for the the term : he has a fancy capable of preprofessions, or prepare them for the busi- senting brighter pictures than any reality; ness of life. Others, whom we may call an imagination which will not be confined the idealists, embracing the more elevated within the limits of time and this world; minds, deem this a low and unworthy aim and a taste and sensibility which can apprefor the highest educational institutions of a ciate beauty and sublimity in earth and sky; country to set before them; and maintain and these ought to be called forth and culthat it should be the ambition of a univer- tivated in our academic groves, by youth sity to improve the faculties of the mind, being made to know, and led to relish, our to refine the taste, and to elevate the coun- finest literature, ancient and modern, in try by raising up an educated body of men, prose and poetry, - I add, though in doing who draw up all who are under their influ- so, I may seem to be placing the ideal too ence to a higher level, where they will high, by having in museums and art gallerbreathe a purer atmosphere. Let us en- ies the means of displaying the esthetic deavor to cut a clear path rough the qualities of the creature, inanimate and anthicket of this controversy.
imate, in art and nature. It is a favorite (1). I do hold it to be the highest end idea of Sir Charles Bell's, that the ancient of a university to educate ; that is, draw Greeks reached such incomparable excelout and improve the faculties which God lence in their statuary by aiming to produce has given. Our Creator, no doubt, means figures as far removed from the brute form all things in our world to be perfect in the as possible : certainly it should be the aim
of academic teaching to give a form to the a means of ascending to their elevated mind high above the brute shape -- high spheres. I hold that there are other means above the sordid and earthly manifestations besides the natural sciences of educating of humanity. And surely our universities, even the faculties of comparison and causalwhich are to fashion the ruling minds of the ity: that these may be called into exercise country, are never to forget that man has quite as effectively by the thoughts and high emotional susceptibilities which should sentiments embodied in a cultivated lanbe evoked by narratives, loq oce, by guage; by the stu of the noblest part of incidents presented in history, in literature, God's workmanship in this lower world, the and in art; and that, as the crown upon his human mind, whether of its laws, as unbrow placed there by his Maker, he has a folded by mental science, or in the concrete moral and spiritual nature, which is to be exhibition of human nature, in its fears and developed and purified by the contempla- hopes, its joys and sorrows, its struggles tion of a holy law, and of a holy God em- and its triumphs, in countries remote and bodying that law, and of a God incarnate pear, in ages past and present, as detailed and with creature sympathies, inducing us in travel, in history, and biography, or by to draw nigh when otherwise we should be representations in poetry, in eloquence, in driven back by a consciousness of guilt on the tine arts, and most truthfully of all, in the one hand, and a view of the dazzling the inspired records. purity of the Fountain of Light on the other. But then it should be frankly acknowl
Now, at this entrance examination, every edged and publicly proclaimed, that science, study seeking admission into the curriculum that is, observational science, that the of a college should be made to appear. In knowledge of nature, that is, of the works order to matriculation, it must show that it of God, is an important means of cultivating is fitted to refine and purify the noble fac- those powers with which the God of nature ulties which God has given us.
has endowed us; for they show us how to (2). Under this, it should be the aim of observe and how to arrange the objects a university to impart knowledge. I say with which we are surrounded, and as we under this, in order to impose the proper do so, we come to see properties and beaulimit on the principle held by so many in ties before overlooked, and becoine more the present day, that a college should give interested in them, and acquire a friendship itself mainly, not to languages, and least of for them. They show us how to gather the all dead languages; not to metaphysical law from the scattered particulars that prepursuits, which move in circles without ad- sent themselves; how, by the necessary vancing; not to such old studies which are rejections and exclusions," as Bacon says, leading a sort of doomed existence, like to draw out the essential from the indifthat of flies in autumn; but to real knowl- ferent; how to reach the truth and consisedge, to practical knowledge, by which tency among discordant and apparently it turns out that they mean the various contradictory appearances ;. when to lay branches of physics, or quite as likely one aside prepossessions and anticipations; and or two favorite departments of natural how to make an inquisition of nature, science. Now I hold that even for practi- to catch her when Proteus-like she is anxcal utility, for mere happiness' sake, there ious to escape, and make her reveal her may be a higher end than the attainment secrets. These are not only the true means of knowledge, and that is the improving of of acquiring knowledge, but the fittest for those heaven-bestowed powers which ac- exercising and giving energy to the faculquire knowledge, but acquire many other ties, and of acquiring intellectual habits of things of value; I maintain that there may patience and penetration, useful in every be other knowledge valuable as well as kind of inquiry, speculative and practical. scientific information; and I utterly deny The old schoolmaster adage, that it is of no that the acquisition of knowledge, certainly consequence what the faculties be employed not of the material world, is the only means about, provided they are employed, and of training the nobler parts of humanity. thereby disciplined, is a false one. Some The child prefers nursery rhymes and Rob- have gone so far as to say, that no matter inson Crusoe to science made easy. Some whether the knowledge thus acquired, say of the greatest minds that shine as stars the writing of Latin verses, be of any use above our world knew little of physical in the future life or no; no matter how dull science, such as Homer, and Socrates, and and crabbed the work, how harsh the grindPlato, and Dante, and Shakespeare, and stone on wbich the mind is ground, proMilton, and Edwards, and Burke, and vided thereby the faculties are sharpened Wordsworth, and Schiller, who yet found for use. These persons do not see that the in our world sources of high enjoyment and mental powers are not healthily exercised, and are not likely to be invigorated and re- the elevation of the faculties, they never freshed when engaged in unprofitable work, will be improved by what is įe itself useas it were, inounting the steps of a tread- less, or found to be profitless in the future mill, or doing the whole in a close medie- lile. And I am prepared to show that the val atmosphere, which, in fact wastes the sciences, physical and moral, not only supstrength, and gives a sallow complexion to ply nutriment and strength to the intellect, the countenance. Do you not see the ter- they give life to it. It has been proved by rible risk of wearying and disgusting the recent science, that the food we eat, got mind, when it is making its first and most from the animal and the plant, not only hopeful efforts, and giving it ever after, by gives nourishment to the frame, but by the the laws of mental association, a distaste force derived from that great source of for severe studies ? True, the exercise of force, the sun, furnishes the heat which the mind, like that of the body, is its own keeps the body warm and vital; so knowlreward; but both are most apt to be un- edge, which is power derived from the Divine dertaken when there is some otherwise source of all power, not only communicates pleasant or profitable object in view, and strength to the mind, but imparts fire to most likely to be repeated when we have a kindle a noble enthusiasm, and motive to sense of gratitude for the good we have re- set us forth in our pursuits, when we know ceived. If, after we have walked so hard, that we shall in no wise lose our reward. we see and find nothing of value, if we are Science discloses not only a utility, but a required to labor for that which profiteth beauty in objects which, to the vulgar, apnot, to fight as one that beateth the air, the pear dull and debasing; shows that there is issue is not likely to be refreshing, and life, à loveliness in every work that God has and hope, but ennui, and unconquerable made, even in the skeleton of rattling aversion to exertion. I hold that every bones, from which the uninitiated shrink; study should, as far as possible, leave not even in the insects crawling in the clay from a distaste, but a relish on the palate of the which they fee – a beauty fitted to call young, so that they may be inclined to re-forth admiration and love, and in the hearts turn to it.* However it may have been in of the pious adoration and praise. the dark, or rather, as I would call them, (3). It may be the aiın of a University the twilight ages, when only a few de- to give professional instruction. This, inpartments of real knowledge could be dis- deed, should always be esteeined a lower cerned, and men had to make the best end, not indeed an unworthy, but still an of the available material, it is not impera- inferior end, that is, subordinate to the imtive now to resort to profitless studies when provement of the mind; and if we make it such rich and fertile fields are evidently supreme, we are turning things upside lying all around us. Our Lord's test ap- down, and putting uppermost the limbs, plied to religion admits of an application to instead of the head which ought to subordistudy, namely, that it brings forth fruits. nate and guide the whole. It is certainly Faith may often be more valuable than not the function of a University to make its works, but it is by works it is to be tried to students artizans, or inerchants, or manusee if it is genuine, and by works faith is facturers, or farmers, or shipowners; the made perfect : so it is by profitable work practical knowledge required by such may that the faculties are called forth and ele- best be got from practical men in shops, vated. Bacon adopted our Lord's distinc- and fields, and warerooms, and offices. tion, and applied it to science; not holding Still, as science aids art and perfects it, so (as those who do not understand religion a College by teaching the sciences may fit misunderstand him) that practical fruits are its students, not, it may be, for the orbetter than knowledge, but that knowledge dinary avocations of their employments, cannot be genuine when it does not yield but for inventing new instruments, and such fruits. So, using the same distinction, finding improvements; and, by its whole I hold that in study, while the true end is training, it lays up enjoyments denied to
the uneducated. But, in order to accom* Plato says, Rep. VII. 15, that instruction should be so given that it may be learned without compul- plish even such ends as these, a College
Τι δή; "Οτι, ήν δ' εγώ, ούδεν μάθημα μετά should never come down from its high poδουλείας τον ελεύθερος χηή μανθάνειν. οι μεν γάρ του sition to be a mere instructor in the meSTEP, a Cortai, yuxñ de Biawn oud v čuuuror på nua. chanical arts, or in shop and office work. "Αλήθη, έφη. Μη τοίνυν βια είπον, ώ άριστη, τους | Whatever branches it teaches, it should πείοις εν τοις μαθήμασιν αλλά παίζοντας τοεφε. Some of his statements go too far. Quinctilian's caution teach as sciences, and in a literary academie is judicious: Nam id in primis cavere oportebit, ne spirit, so as to impart to those members of studia qui amare nondum potest, oderit, et amaritu. those professions, who come within our dinem semel perceptam etiam ultra rudes annos re furmidat.
precincts, a thoroughly scientific acquaintance with their subjects, so that they may those who are placed in the offices of a improve the trades and increase their re- University should aim at something more sources, while they carry with them an ele- than being merely the teachers of a revation of tone which will keep the meanest stricted body of young men. The youths work in which they require to engage from who are under them and who look up to being felt to be a degradation. And then them will be greatly stimulated to study by there are walks of life, such as the learned the very circumstance that their professor profession, those preparing for which re- is a man of wide sympathies and connecquire to know literature and science, and tions with the literature or science of the certainly to these the instruction given country generally, or of other countries. should be of a philosophic character, to fit It was thus that the Scottish professors of them for entering in an intelligent manner, the last century, such as Adam Smith, and and with a rich furniture of fundamental Reid, and Stewart, and Black, and Mudro, and established principles, upon their pro- and Playfair, did so much to promote their fessional studies. But the different branches favorite departments, in political economy admitted into the University being so taught, and inental philosophy, and certain branches it may be allowable for the student to give of physics. It was thus that Newton, Lua preference to those which may assist him casian Professor of Mathematics at Camin his professional pursuits. Thus, those bridge, published the Principia, and made who are intended for theology, might legit- bis University and his College famous for imately and properly show a partiality for all time. It is thus that in our day in Gerthe language of the New Testament, or for many every professor labors to bring forth mental science which brings them into such every year or two the product of his studies intimate connection with the great truths in a work which may add to the permanent of religion; and a medical student might knowledge of mankind in some department, draw lovingly towards chemistry or physi- wide or narrow. The applications of sciology; while the lawyer might give less ence and the good uses of literature may attention to other subjects, to undertake a be found elsewhere in our workshops, and more special study of political econoiny. schools, and lighter literature, but where All this is in entire harmony with the idea should we expect to find our highest scholof a University, whose office it is to train arship and profoundest science but in our the powers, but which may do so by any Colleges with their leisure, their independthing which is fitted to elevate and refine ence, and the great stimulus which they the mind.
furnish. (4). It should be the aiin of a Uni- And then the glory of every Alma Mater versity to promote literature and science, consists in her children, “as arrows in the and by these and by its pupils to raise the hand of a mighty man;" "happy is be, whole community. The Rev. Mr. Pattison that hath his quiver full of them; they shall of Oxford would have his University look not be ashamed, but they shall speak with on the teaching vocation as a subordinate the enemies in the gate." It should be the one, and devote its splendid revenues to ainbition of every College to send forth a make its Colleges houses for a profes- body of educated men who, as ministers, sional class of learned and scientific men;" as lawyers, as physicians, as private gentle. “ homes for the life study of the highest men, or in the public service, or as engaged and most abstruse parts of knowledge." in business which their character and retine'Phis is carrying an idea, which has some ments elevate, are spreading around them, truth in it, too far. I am not sure that the consciously or unconsciously, a civilizing healthiest scholarship or highest science and bumanizing influence; making learning would be promoted by the men who might respected because respectable, and spreadbe selected, no matter on what principle ing' a thirst for culture. Such a radiating of candidature and election, to these offices power is especially needed in our day, when of leisure and emolument, which would there is such a devotedness to the practical tend, I fear, to become places of ease and and money-making pursuits — to what Sir laziness, possibly of obstruction to activity W. Hamilton translating a German phrase, and independence of thought; or whether calls the “bread and butter sciences; the men would best accomplish the end by and we need it to counteract the coarsebeing formed into an exclusive community. ness, the earthliness, the clayeyness, thus Of this I am sure, that the people of this engendered, and to set before ihe country country and of every country will insist on higher and
God its Universities being primarily the edu- shows in all his works that he sets a value cators of its more promising youths, des- not only on bare utility but on beauty and tined for the higher walks of life. Still lornament, — you see it in that lily so
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