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of sustaining themselves while they do so. to public competition instead of being deThese distinguished alumni should be re- termined by political partisanship. quired to pursue special lines of study or

VI. SHOULD THERE BE UNIVERSITY EXto travel; and might be encouraged to pro

TENSION ? duce the results in brief courses of lectures, delivered under the sanction of the College, This is a question, which requires to be and sure to be appreciated by the students. agitated in some parts of Europe. The

There is another way in which the inter- German speaking nations, with their fiftyests of education have been much promoted eight universities and nineteen thousand both in Prussia and Great Britain, and that students, do not seem to stand in need of is by Government patronage bestowed on such extension; nor does Scotland, with its those who succeed at public examinations. four old efficient universities; nor Ireland In Prussia, young men

enter the with its two universities, and its four statelearned professions of law, medicine, and endowed and its various denominational the church only through the Universities Colleges. But England certainly has and an examination. Not only so, but in much need of the establishment of new order to entrance on the civil service of the Colleges, especially in its great centres of country, an attendance at a gymnasium or wealth and population, such as London, University, followed by a rigid examina- and Manchester, and Bristol, and Newtion, is required. In Great Britain, all castle. young men entering the public service, Every friend of education and of manmilitary, medical, or civil, down to tide- kind will rejoice to see Colleges extending waiters and office porters, must submit to all over this country; from the Atlantic to a literary examination. In many, offices the Pacific, from Maine to New Mexico; such as the Royal Engineers and the Medi- advancing with the population of the councal and Civil Service of India are to be try, refining its energy, and purifying its had in this way and in no other. Some of wealth. But we have a right to ask that, the most valuable public offices in the world while new Universities are encouraged, the are gained in this way, such as the civil of- old be not discouraged. I believe that exfices of India, which begin with £400 or cessive multiplication of small and ill-sus£500 a year, and speedily rise to £1000, tained Colleges in a district may be or possibly £1500, open to all young men. enormous evil. In these days of rapid loI am far from saying that this mode of ap- comotion it is of little moment to a student, pointment to Government employment is whether he have to go ten or twenty miles not liable to theoretical objections; but to a College, one hundred miles or five practically it is found to be vastly prefer- hundred. I believe that there is always able to the old method, which proceeded more of stimulus, more of success, more of by nepotism, or by political partisanship, life, less of conceit, less of narrowness, of in which the Member of Parliament was sectarianism, of knottiness, in large classes obliged to recommend the youth, who was and large Colleges than in small ones. pressed upon him by his supporters in his Care should certainly be taken that, in the county or borough. There is, of course, excessive competition, the food do not bealways a risk of failure in the case of the come adulterated; that the new Colleges appointment of untried young men; but do not drag down the old till all sink to a when it depends on the success at a severe Dead Sea level. We should rather strive competitive trial in the higher branches, that the old be bringing up the new to a there is a security that the youth must pos- higher standard; and that we have a numsess good abilities; that he has a power of ber of Colleges thoroughly equipped by application and perseverance; and that he able men, by extensive apparatus, and by bas not spent his time in indolence or vice chairs for teaching every high branch of

- which last capacity or incapacity was literature and science. We must not yield sometimes reckoned as constituting his ap- to the temptation, to which we are exposed, titude for the situation — those, unfit for of sending unripe fruit into the market: or, anything else, being often foisted into a gov- to vary the metaphor, of resting contented ernment office, when their friends happened with lumber fabrics. In new and waste counto have influence with the dominant party. tries they must be satisfied, and we do not It is surely worthy of consideration, whether blame them, with the log cabin ; but then they the offices in this country, requiring to be rise as speedily as possible to the frame filled by young men, might not with ad-house; and as the country becomes older vantage to the community, and to the great they wcald have the more solid brick and encouragement of learning, be thrown open the stone; and now not only your capitols,

an

but not a few of your private dwellings, ries of our hard-working and under-paid are of marble. There ought to be such an professors, who should be set free from ascension in your Colleges as the country drudgery and worldly anxieties to give a grows older and richur: in the far West portion of their energy to the furtherance they inay start with little better than our of learning and science; a second, by proHigh Schools; but in the older East we viding further accommodation for our stumust not rest satisfied till we have institu- dents, that we may receive and house comtions to rival the grand old Universities of fortably all who apply; a third by erecting Europe, such as Oxford, and Cambridge, a gymnasium for the bracing of the bodily and Berlin, and Edinburgh.

frame; * a fourth, by enlarging our library What makes Oxford and Cambridge have or scientific apparatus; a filth, by founding such an influence on those who live within a scholarship, or junior fellowship for the their walls, and which is sensibly felt even encouragement of letters and high merit by those who pay them only a passing among students; and a sixth, by founding visit? The great men who have been a new chair required by the progress of there, and who still seem to look down knowledge: we have scope here for every upon us; the living men, not unworthy of man's tastes and predilections. them, and who are pointed out to us, as Speaking of the desirableness of elevatthey walk through the courts; the talk of ing the learning in our higher institutions, the tripos and the first class, and the double I have somotimes thought that, as Oxford first and the wranglerships; the quiet life University combines some twenty-two Colin the Colleges, and the active life in the leges, and Cambridge eighteen, so there examination halls, in the societies and the might in this country be a combination of great University meetings; the manu- Colleges in one University. Let every scripts, the old books, the museums, all State have one University to unite all its these create an academic atmosphere, in Colleges, and appointing examiners and which it is bracing to breathe, and is felt to bestowing honors of considerable pecuniary be more stimulating than all the excellent value on more deserving students. Some teaching of the tutors. Will our numer- such combination as this, while it would ons friends not join with the professors promote a wholesome rivalry among the and students in striving to create such an Colleges, would, at the same time, keep up atmosphere bere in Princeton, where we the standard of erudition. Another benefit have grand names in the past, and need would arise: the examination of the canonly like men in the present: by accessions didates being conducted not by those wbo to our apparatus and our library, and en- taught them, but by elected 'examiners, couragements to the students to go on to would give a high and catholic tone to the the higher learning; and by the founding teaching in the Colleges. I throw out the of new chairs of literature and science to idea that thinking men may ponder it. make our College as adapted to these times But returning to ourselves. New Jeras our forefathers made it suitable to their sey College has a great prestige, second, I day?

believe, to no other in the United States. For the handsome and considerate kind- But we cannot live on our past reputation ness shown by those who have so endeared

- any more than our frames can be susthemselves to me, as well as benefited this tained on the food which we have partaken College, by endowing the presidential of days ago. In these times, when it is known fice, and furnishing me with a comfortable that all things move, earth and sun, stars home, I here give public and hearty thanks. and constellations, we cannot stop or reMy personal comforts being provided for, main stationary, except at the risk of beI am free to look to other interests.

or ing thrown out of our sphere, without the late years, certain generous benefactors power of returning to it. In this new have endowed chairs in the College, and country, we have to look to our children now we have a princely merchant devoting more than our fathers, and instead of the a large sum to its extension generally, and fathers shall be the children." You will a well-known friend of science aims at plac- have seen from the whole train of these ing on our height, with its wide horizon, observations, that I aim at keeping up the the finest observatory in the world. They academic standard at Princeton. I have will be followed, I trust, by others. The not torn myself from my native land and friends of Princeton must come forward at friends to be the mere head of a Mechanthis time to uphold her, and make her ics’ Institute; I would rather you should worthy of her ancient reputation, and enable her to advance with the times: one

• Immediately after the Inauguration, two gentle wbom God has blessed, increasing the sala- mensubscribed $10,000 each, for the erection of a

VII.

WHAT PLACE SHOULD RELIGION

send me back to my old country at once which the students reside. And in regard than make me and your College submit to to religious truth, there will be no uncersuch humiliation. This College will repay tain sound uttered within these walls. the debt which it owes to the country not What is proclaimed here will be the old in a depreciated currency, but in the gen- truth which has been from the beginning: uine coin, with the flying eagle upon it and which was shown in shadow in the Old the golden ring. Parents and guardians Testament; which was exhibited fully in sending their sons to this venerable institu- the New Testament as in a glass; which tion must have a security that they will re- has been retained by the one Catholic ceive as high an education as any College Church in the darkest ages; which was in this country — as any College in any long buried, but rose again at the Reformacountry can furnish.

tion; which was maintained by the grand old theologians of Germany, Switzerland,

England, and Scotland; and is being deHAVE IN OUR COLLEGES ?

fended with great logical power in the faIn Scotland the Established Church long mous Theological Seminary with which this claimed an authority over the Colleges, College is so closely associated. But over and over all their teaching, and provided a this massive and clearly-defined old form form of religio... I can testify that it was of sound words, I would place no theologlittle more than a form, and this not al- ical doctor, not Augustine, not Luther, not ways the form of sound words. For years Calvin, not Edwards, but another and far past the control of the Church of Scotland fairer face lifted up that it may draw all over anything but the theological professors eyes towards it — * Jesus at once the auhas been taken away, and with it all that thor and the finisher of our faith.” A reremained of the form has disappeared : and ligion of a neutral tint has nothing in it to now the Scottish Colleges profess to give attract the eye or the heart of the young or nothing more than secular instruction, men the old. I believe that the religion which of piety always seeking to imbue their can have any power in moving the minds whole teaching with a religious spirit. The and moulding the character of students or keen battle being at present fought in Eng- of others, must be the pure evangel of land is likely to terminate in the same issue. Jesus Christ. But good men concerned about the religion But you will expect of one descended and morality of young men cannot allow from the old Covenanting stock, who fought things to continue in that state. How, so resolutely for the rights of conscience, then, is religion to be grafted ro State and whose blood dyed the heather hills of Colleges open to all whatever their reli- Scotland ; from one who was brought up in gious profession? I have thought much on a district where there are martyrs' tombs this subject, and labored with some success in every church-yard; from one who was to realize my idea in Belfast. * Let the connected for so many years with the Irish State provide the secular instruction and system of national education, which allows the churches provide the religious training' no one to tamper with the religious conin the homes in which the students reside. victions of pupils, that he shall take care

But, passing from foreign topics, this that every one here shall have full freedom College has had a religious character in time of thought: that whatever be his religious past, and it will be my endeavor to see creed or political party, be he from the that it has the same in time to coine. Re- North, or be he from the South, be he of a ligion should burn in the hearts, and shine, white or a dark color, he shall have free though they wis it not, from the face of access to all the benefits which this college the teachers; and it should have a living can bestow; and that a minority, nay, even power in our meetings for worship, and a single conscientious individual, shall be should sanctify the air of the rooms in protected from the tyranny of the majority,

and encouraged to pursue his studies withThe Methodist body has spent £24,000 in erect; ont molestation, provided always that not of Queen's College, Belfast. The studeuts take the being interfered with himself, he does not ordinary academic branches in Queen's College, and interfere with others. receivespecially religious and theological instruction in their own Collego. The Irish Presbyterians have

You have called me to the highest office, subscribed £3,000 for the erection of students' cham- so I esteem it, which your great country bers attached to their Theological College, and open could place at my disposal. But if I know in the Queen's College or the Theological College. my own heart, I am not vain, I am not I am convinced that it is in some such way as this even proud, as I might be, of the distincthat the churches are to provide religious instruction tion conferred upon me. I am rather in connection with the State Colleges of Great Britain.

awed at the thought of the responsibility lying upon me. I come here, I find, amid and my spirit mount to pure and eternal high expectations, and how am I ever to communion with them in heaven. I feel come up to them? I get this College with that the labor meanwhile will be congenial a high reputation, and what if its lustre to me; my whole past life as a student, should diminish? My name is this day as a minister, and as a professor, should added to the roll which begins with Dick- prepare me for it. My tastes have ever enson and Aaron Burr, embraces Jonathan led me towards intercourse with young men. Edwards, Davies, Finley, Witherspoon, I have the same estimate of youth that the Smith, Green, Carnahan, who have left Spartans had, when Antipater demanded of their impress not only on this College, but them fifty youths as hostages; they anon their country and times, and comes to swered, they would rather give twice the one, who for long years felt so deep an in- number of grown men. I rejoice that my terest in the welfare of the students, who lot calls me to labor among young men. I was able to teach nearly every department wish to enter into their feelings, to sympain the institution over which he presided, thize with them in their difficulties — with and whom we will all delight to honor as their doubts in these days of criticism, to

passes his remaining days in peace help them in their fights, and rejoice with among us. Of a king in Israel it is said, them in their triumphs. And so I devote that they buried him in the city," but they my life, any gifts which God has given me, brought him not into the sepulchres of the my experience as a minister of religion in a kings of Israel.” I confess I should like, great era in the history of Scotland, my exwhen my work is finished, to be buried perience as a professor in a young and livamong these kings in the realms of thought, ing College, under God to you and your that my dust may mingle with their dust, service.

he

The Patriarch of Constantinople appears to be and the emissaries of the Pope carried back the an able and intelligent man. On receiving the unopened letter.

Spectator, 2 Jan. summons from the Pope to the so-called Ecumenical Council of next December, he stated to the Pope's messenger that he knew its substance from having read it in the newspapers, and that, The Pope appears to deplore the movement for being what it was, he must decline to receive it. the education of girls heartily. He evidently If the Pope, he said, had really wished to re- holds that if the girls of Europe are to be edustore union, his course should have been not to cated, the women of Europe will cease to be summon his equals, the various Eastern Patri- Roman Catholics ; and if the women of Europe archs, but to apply to them to know on what cease to be Roman Catholics, it is all over with terms an agreement to summon such a Council the Pope. The particular occasion of his anxicould be arrived at, and then summon such an ety is the foundation of a college for women at assembly in concert. As it was, the Pope's Montpelier, which has been supported and patmere modus operandi assumed the whole point ronized by a “highly pious princess,” but which in dispute. Moreover, he thought for himself the Pope thinks will « inflate” women's minds that the only mode of recovering unity would with “ the pride of a vain and impotent science,' be for all parties to go back ten centuries to the instead of fitting them to be good mothers and creed and practice of the Church before the useful members of society. It is curious to see time of the rupture, and strike off anything even the Pope compelled to encounter the modern added, or add anything lost, by every one of spirit on its own ground and not on his own. the branches since that date. As for the Coun- If he said what he evidently in his heart desires, cil of Florence, which had overruled the Eastern it would be that schools and colleges for men and views, it was an “ assembly collected on political women alike should be abolished, as tending to grounds, on grounds of pure worldly interest, inflate the mind with “ the pride of a vain and which ended in a decision imposed for a time on impotent science,” but he is compelled to take some few of our Church by dint of starvation, the weaker ground of denouncing education for and every kind of violence and threat by him women only. For the ignorance of men it is no who was then Pope. Such an assembly is not longer possible to contend. The ignorance of oven worthy of the sacred name of council.'” women is still the stronghold of the Papacy ; In a word, the Patriarch of Constantinople ap- but would it not be better policy to resist it by peared to understand the situation in every secret organization, than thus openly to blurt sense, – political, ecclesiastical, theological,

out the facts ?

Spectator, 26 Dec.

From The Saturday Review. free and cheerful will at the service of an SPEDDING'S LIFE AND LETTERS OF LORD extreme policy of prerogative, which we BACON..

see now to have been a fatal one, and BEOOND NOTICE.

which we read of with indignation and Mr. SPEDDING, in interpreting the indica- shame. The broad fact hardly admits of tions which remain of Bacon's motives and debate. But at the same time it is quite conduct, finds nothing but what might be- open for any one to urge that all this, which come a wise man to attempt, and a good is so clear to us, was by no means so clear man to wish for and avow. In Bacon's un- then. We come to the history of Bacon's disguised purpose to prove himself of ser- times with impressions and experience device to the Crown in Parliament, in his rived from results which were to him what suggestions of a Government policy to baffle the state of the world in the year 2000 is to the rising power of the House of Commons, us, and of which not the wildest or most in the part which he took in pushing so high daring imagination or the deepest prudence the King's prerogative, Mr. Spedding ar- could have made the faintest forecast. It gues with great earnestness and ingenuity is true and fair to say that to defend prethat he was justified by the circumstances rogative in James's reign was not the saine of the time, that his views were large, far- thing as it inevitably appears to us who sighted, and public-spirited, and that he know certainly what it must come to. It never passed the limits of honesty and right. was the way, the accepted way, with wise James's policy was not perhaps more arbi- and good men as well as with scoundrels trary in its acts than Elizabeth's had been; and tyrants, to what wise and good mon but it aimed more distinctly at a theory - saw to be supremely necessary — a strong admitted in words, and argued out into Government. We may call it part of the propositions, by judges and Parliaments — infelicity of their times, but they found it of absolute royalty. Elizabeth was despotic hard, and it was hard, to reconcile with the by genius and by popularity; James was power to keep down anarchy the undefined despotic by legal inventions and interpreta- claims and often the threatening aspects of tions, as his son was by an unhappy mixture rising liberty. That Bacon sought to serve of audacity and finesse. His aim was to the King, and served him according to the place his Government, like the chief Conti- fashion of the time, may be entirely comnental monarchies, above inconvenient in- patible both with his honesty, his public terference and control, above the Parlia- spirit, and — making allowances for the ment, above the judges, above the law. finite nature, which we are so apt to forget, His simple plan of administrative service of the range of human powers with his was that a king ought to have, first, his wisdom. It is perfectly capable of a faconfidential favourites, and then bis obedi-vourable interpretation, even if we can see ent and subservient instruments; and he now that he was mistaken, and on the wrong sought to manage men, in emulation of the side. vaunted prudence of the great foreign mas- But to say that it is capable of a favouraters of statecraft, by imposing and awful ble interpretation is not necessarily to say pretensions, and by dexterous humouring; that it deserves it. That must depend on by playing off one part of their nature, or the merits of the case. Mr. Spedding has one set of objects demands, an- examined Bacon's course with the utmost other. He was partly successful; but if care 'and leisurely deliberation. And on he had been as successful as he tried to be, his mind the result of this prolonged inquiry we suppose that the history of England has left an impression entirely favourable to would have been much more like that of Bacon. Step by step, as the things come France or Spain than any one now can up which are supposed to make against him. wish it to bave been. Of this policy Bacon Mr. Spedding sifts the charge or the suswas a forward and able champion. With picion, and if we adopt his conclusions we those who see, or believe that they see, shall say that they rest on worthless eviwhat this policy would have led to, this is a dence, or on evident misunderstanding and point aguinst him hard to be got over. His misrepresentation. He finds no traces of a immense powers, his inexhaustible fertility temper servile to power, or of an unworthy of exposition and argument, bis keen and readiness to be its servant and instrument. delicate perception of the springs of action Bacon, of course, cannot be thought of as and the weaknesses of men, were used an enthusiast for absolute royalty, as peragainst the side of liberty, were laid with haps James was; but there is nothing to

make us think that Bacon's zeal in furnishThe Letters and the Life of Francis Bacon. Edited by James Spedding. Vols. 111, and iv. alon: ing the King with legal grounds in pushing don: Longmans & Co. 1868.

his prerogative to extreme lengths wore the

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