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meet the Countess Wolfsgarten, and yet expression, as if her eyes had been permaevery one was a little vexed that she could nently arrested in the midst of a killingly not be the first in dress and appearance.

affectionate glance. Ah, such a coffee-party of the fair sex! Here is the wife of the cement-manufac

There are some things, institutions, and turer, a tall and stately woman, never arrangements, that have received a bad laughing, always inexpressibly serious, as name, and cannot get rid of it again; that if she carried about with her some great seis the case with this fine institution of cof-cret; she has no secret to impart, except fee-drinking. As soon as any favorable that she has nothing to say. mention is made of it, every hearer and Here sits the bandsome wife of the reader is convinced that is only downright school-director, a little too portly perhaps, irony, or a good-bumored jest; for it has nicknamed the lay-figure because she is been settled, once for all, that this coffee- always dressed so finely; she has a perpetdrinking of the ladies is only a hoax, and a ual smile upon her face, and one might pretence of kindly intercourse, with the almost imagine that she would still smile participants. And yet this institution is a and show her beautiful teeth, even if she very excellent one, except when cards are were to be the bearer or hearer of the introduced, and they carry it so far as to tidings of death. get up a regular gambling-party, as do the Here is the wife of the steamboat agent, ladies at the small capitals, who have a a very fine looking woman, the mother of handsome book with black morocco-bind- eleven children. The whole company are ing, lettered on the back, “ Hours of Med- quite provoked with the little, plump, good itation,” but containing inside only blank woman, who never lets her cup stand on leaves on which to mark down the points, the table, but holds it up in her left hand, and enter the score. But that is only in and repeatedly dips into it her biscuit, nodthe smaller capitals; here in our sociable ding assent to every one's remark, and sellittle town, civilization has not advanced dom giving her own opinion, or when she so far. Cards are not yet the book of sal- does, speaking with her mouth so full, that vation from all the evil of ennui; bere they nobody understands her. rely upon their own resources, the best way Here are the two Englishwomen who rethey can. And why should they not talk side in the town; they were plain citizens, of persons, and occasionally say something much beloved, without any title of lady, but pretty severe? What do other people, were truly lady-like in appearance, for the yes, even the men, in higher spheres, and reason that they needed no rank to set at the tankard? Do they converse always them off. They passed their time at home, about abstractions ?

did not depend upon visiting, and were like To be sure, there is talk here of town their own island, which produces all that news, and whoever takes no part in this, man requires. Whenever the two ladies holding himself aloof, does nothing for the went into society they were always fresh, town, nothing for his neighbor. And these and were very cordially welcomed; and the ladies, who here have something to say amiable, awkward way in which they spoke about the so-called higher dignitaries, as German, and made use of strange conwell as the so-called inferior people, they structions, served to increase the general are the same ladies who have established kindliness. Bella was especially friendly benevolent reunions, and behave in a toward the Englishwomen. The ladies strictly proper manner. So let us be pleas- conversation was all intermingled together, ant and well-disposed guests, without any like the singing of birds in the woods. tendency to find fault, at this coffee-drinking Each one sivgs its own song, then polishes of the fair sex.

its own bill, and has no concern about the Here coines Frau White. She is called rest,-hardly hears them. Only two remarks Frau Coal behind her back, for she is the were generally listened to and repeated; wife of a wood and coal-dealer. She has once, when Frau White made the happy black locks and dark complexion, which observation that one would be aware of looks as if she had never washed herself Count Clodwig's many badges of distinction, thoroughly; and since the good woman is even if he did not wear any, which the Jusaware of her being nicknamed Mrs. Coal, tice's wife took occasion to report to Della; she always dresses herself in dead-white and again, when they came upon the subcolors, which are not very becoming to her ject, no one could tell how, whether the dark hair and coinplexion by bright day- inen's smoking was agreeable or disagreelight, but by lamp-light she is very charm- able, Frau Lay-figure said that her good ing to look at. Unfortunately she has the man often expressed the wish that he could defect of squinting, and with so sweet an be passionately fond of smoking, so as to wean himself from being so fond of her. in society, sing in the musical festivals an Frau Bella had that perpetual complaisant oratorio of Händel, Haydn, Bach, and this smile which is so cold, and yet so fascinat- vexed Bella; these people are convinced ing

that they know something. If she had had The conversation only grazed Herr Son- power, she would have bad the police put a nenkamp lightly. It remained fixed upon stop to these meetings. For this reason, Eric, and why should it not? Here in the Frau Bella had a special spite against the summer time, thousands frequent the little oratorio, but she only said, “I have no town, and swarm on the road leading to the appreciation of it;” and inasmuch as she old castle and to the other objects of in- said, “I have no appreciation of it," this terest for sight-seers, but when had there ought to be ample evidence that there is been a person who remained among them, nothing in it to be appreciated. and such a noteworthy personage too ? She was exceeding!y gracious and conEric was a strange bird 'who wanted to take descending. She said that she did not refuge in the mysterious house of Sonnen- question the merits of the German masters kamp; they will do him no harm, ruffle not in oratorio. The truth is that it was exone of his feathers, but each one wishes to tremely repugnant to her to have the Jushave her say concerning where he comestice's wife, the wife of the school-director, from, and how he looks.

and the two daughters of the head-forester, The Justice's wife remarked that she and even perbaps the tailor's and cobbler's would have liked to invite the Major to the daughters, presuming to be interested in coffee-drinking, for he could tell the most high art, when not one of them could sound about the captain-doctor.

a single true note. The ladies were busy, of course, with Lina now acquired a new importance, for their crochet, embroidery and sewing; but there was a general expression of desire to these are only make-believe labors, for one hear her sing. The English ladies asked must not seem to be wholly idle.

very pressingly for a German song, but When they understood that Eric's mother Lina, who usually was not backward, to-day was a lady of unimpeachable nobility, each was not willing to comply. Her mother's one wanted to make out that she had per- eyes flashed, but Frau Bella placed her ceived that in him at once, it was something hand upon the arm of the angry mother, and that could not be concealed. Bella accord- an unheard of event happened ; saying ed to this remark one of her most friendly that she did not blame Lina for not being looks of general approval.

willing to begin to sing abruptly, without When the Justice himself now came, for any preparation, she arose, went to the a little quarter of an hour, to join the com-grand piano, preluded, and then played a pany, Bella requested him to take a chair sonata of Mozart in masterly style. AN by her; she declared that they were very were happy, and the Justice's house highly happy in this harmless circle, and she de- exalted, for none could boast, except the sired that no disturbing element should Castle Wolfsgarten and the castles of the ever enter, to have only a decomposing in- nobility, that Bella had ever touched a key fluence upon it.

in any other than her own house. The Justice looked at her with his good- Bella received overwhelming laudation, natured eyes, wholly at a loss to know what but sbe rejected it, and in a half serious, she meant, and stroked his obstinate whis- half contemptuous way, maintainel that kers; he could not imagine that this was in every one who wore long dresses wanted to tended to prepare the way for what his wife play the piano. Bella was a genuine sister was to impart to him. Ile excused himself of her brother; she could be happy a whole and soon went away; his wife informed them day if she succeeded in uttering one pointed that Lina had joined the Liederkranz of speech, and she took great deligh: now in the town; they were practising now for the saying, great musical festival which was to be held “ Every girl, now-a-days, thinks she must in the neighboring city, and to Lina would learn to knit a musical stocking." undoubtedly be assigned a solo-piece. She continued to repeat these words,

Frau Bella spoke very advisingly, and at musical stocking, in a measure of threethe same time very discouragingly. She fourths time. Every one laughed, the Engexpressed her dislike of musical festivals, lish ladies looked up in surprise, and Bella being convinced in her own mind that she was glad to explain to them what she meant alone understands music, and that the mu- by these words, adding, sic which she fancies is the only genuine Yes, they knit a stocking out of notes, music. In these days, hundreds of young and the great thing with them is, not to people of both sexes, of ordinary standing | drop a single stitch. I truly believe that


the good children consider the four move- ! if the court had withdrawn; they drew near ments of the sonata to be the four parts of to each other in a more confidential way,

the stocking; the top is the first movement, and had for the first time a really easy and * the leg is the adagio, the heel is the scherzo, home-like feeling.

the toe is the finale. Only one who has a The English ladies were the first to take real talent for it ought to be allowed to their departure; the rest would not be less learn music."

genteel than they, and in a short time the This was generally agreed to, and they parents and the child were by themselves. spoke of the amount of time spent upon the

The wife took her husband into an adpiano in youth, and that after marriage joining room, and impressed upon him very was given up.

earnestly, that it was the duty of a Justice The Justice's wife had been appealed to, to keep his district clean. and if there can be a higher heaven in The Justice was faithful in bis office, and heaven itself, it was opened when Frau whoever spoke of him would always affirm Bella praised Lina's singing, which she had that he was the best man in the world. heard, and requested that Lina might make But he had no particular zeal for his callher a visit of some weeks, when she could, ing; he was in the habit of saying, – Why perhaps, give her some instruction. The am I mixed up with the affairs of other glance which the Justice's wife cast to her people? If I were a man of property, I husband was inexpressibly joyful; and how would have nothing to do with the quarrels delightful it is to bave the ladies ear-wit- of other persons, but live quietly and connesses of all this ! It seemed to her that tentedly to myself. But inasmuch as he she was very good-natured and very con- had been inducted into the office, he descending, to be still friendly and affable formed its duties with fidelity. He was with the doctor's wife, and also, indeed, very reluctant to come to the determination with Frau Coal and the merchants' wives. to interfere in the matter of Eric, and he

Bella extolled now, in the warmest terms, consented only when his wife told bin in the delicious, spicy cakes which the Jus- so many words, that the countess Bella had tice’s wife knew how to make so excellently expressed the wish that he should. well; she would like to know the ingre- They had come to the best understanddients. The Justice's wife said that she ing, when suddenly a slam, crash, and had a particular way of giving them their shriek were heard.' Lina had let fall a Hlavor by putting into them a certain quan- whole tray full of cups. tity of bitter almonds; and she promised to The Justice's wife could not give a more write out the receipt for her, but she re- satisfactory evidence of her serene content, solved in her own mind never to remember than by saying, as she did, to Lina, to do it.

Be quiet, dear child. The mischief is They had hardly tasted of the May-bowl, done; it's of no sort of account. Cheer up, and declared that no one else knew how to you've looked so blooming, and now you're mix it so well, before the Justice was in- so pale. I could almost thank God for formed that Herr von Pranken had arrived. sending us this trifling mishap, for in every The Justice went down, his wife detained joy there must be some little sorrow interBella, and Lina, looking out of the window, mingled." saw th it Pranken decidedly refused to come Lina was quiet, for she could not tell in for il moment. Bella now drove away, what she was thinking of when the coffeeafter taking a very hasty leave.

tray fell out of her hands. When she had gone, it seemed to all as

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From The Spectator. erating completely the later phase. It is THE MAN WITH TWO MEMORIES.

quite conceivable, then, that George NickThe curious, though by no means unex- ern may some day suddenly recover the ampled case of George Niekern, a German, memory of the first twenty years of his life, of New Orleans, who, after being all but and at the same moment lose that of the inkilled by a fall trom a platform some months terval between the end of his twentieth year ago, and for many weeks entirely deprived and the date at which this second solution of the use of every sense as well as of con- of continuity might take place. These sciousness, has recovered his health com- curious phenomena suggest very forcibly pletely and his powers of mind, - his mem- the question, what relation memory has to ory excepted, which at present dates en- the personal life of men. They force upon tirely from the beginning of his recovery, us the impression that, though Plato's noand is a complite blank as to all and every tion of the pre-existence of the soul during one,

- persons, words, things, — his knowl- one or perbaps more than one all but utteredge of which had been acquired before the ly forgotten terms of life and experience, fall, cannot but suggest the question what the faint shadows of which sometimes flit relation memory really has to the personal obscurely before the startled mind, may be, identity of man. The lad to whom we have and probably is, a mere dream, - yet ibere referred seems to have been for a month at is, at least, no sort of impossibility, no sort least in a condition of complete detachment of contradictiou to the ascertained possibilifrom the outer world, without any power of ties of life, in the conception. George sight, or hearing, or speecb; at the end of Nickern is a living example of a man who seven weeks he had recovered these senses has pre-existed for twenty years on this and could use his tongue freely, but he earth before bis own memory can authentiretained no glimmer of recollection of any cate for him any one act of his life. In his word, either of his native German or of case we happen to have plenty of witnesses English, which he had known before the of what he was and what he did, before bis accident, and his own mother and other new term of life began; and we only wish, friends were to him entirely new acquaint- by the way, that the New Orleans physiances, whom he bad to learn to know cians would publish an accurate and authenafresh. He had to begin acquiring the tic account of all the discontinuities and language of those around him as if he had continuities between his pre-existent life and been an infant, and his progress was almost character and his present life and character. as slow. Still, all his faculties seemed acute It is not enough to know that he has to and bright, and, dating from the origin of begin learning everything, afresh. We his new memory, he seemed to retain iin- want to know whether his character is mapressions well. His case is not a unique terially changed, and in what direction, one. It is not impossible, if we may judge whether, baving been, for instance, cautious by some similar cases, that he should sud- or rash, he is now the same, or of an oppodenly recover some day the whole of his site disposition, — whether, having been sudden y extinguished stock of knowledge. kind or inconsiderate, he has altered or not There is an old case commonly cited in in that respect, - whether his moral and works on Psychology, of a student of Phila- religious nature shows any sort of close delphia whose memory was suddenly anni- analogy to what it was before, or any very bilated by a fever. He began painfully marked contrast, whether, having been learning everything afresh, and had got as selfish, for instance, he has become disinfar as Latin and just mastered the Latin terested, or having been disinterested, he grammar, when his whole stock of previous has become selfish, — whether his tastes are knowledge returned as suddenly as it left materially altered or not by the great severhim. Nay, it is even quite possible that this ance of the thread of his recollection, — in New Orleans lad might, it' he had a fever, a word, in what respects he reminds those or a fresh fall, or any new disturbance of who knew him of what he was before the the brain, recover bis old memory, and lose accident, and in what respects, besides his his new one, i. e., recover the recollection memory, he is changed. The New Orleans of all that he knew before the accident, and physicians ought to carefully investigate lose the memory of all that he has acquired and record these things, as it will be obvisince. Cases are on record of this sort of ous to every one that they are of the highalternating memory, due to some fever, the est psychological interest. But, to return first attack of wbich modified seriously, we to the reflections which his case suggests, suppose, the condition of the nervous sys- it is perfectly clear that what has happened, tem, and the second attack of which rein- in consequence of a special event in his duced the old condition of the brain, oblit-case, might have happened in the case of


every man, supposing that all our minds the different conditions under which I live · had had a previous existence, and that the them. Nothing is more certain than that in

embodiment of them in our present organi- this life we are influenced by perceptions, zations which becomes complete at birth and sensations, and even, odd as it sounds had a universal tendency to snap the chain to say so, by ideas, of which we are not of memory, just as George Nickern's mem

That which is, by itself, invisiory has been snapped by his fall.

orble, - too minute to be visible, — yet course this is quite unfounded hypothesis. clearly makes some impression on our orBut it is at least a possible hypothesis. If gans of sight, and may, therefore, be said one man can lead two lives without any ray to be seen, - for it is only an aggregate of of recollection of his first life entering into magnitudes too small to be seen which conhis second life, we may all do so, if there stitutes every magnitude which we do see. were any general cause operating on all of And so, too, it is certain that there are, so us, at all similar to the special cause which to say, subterranean counections between we see operating on him now. Nay, in the links of many chains of association, some sense we do all lead two lives, of one which carry on our mind from one term of of which we have no record or memory, conscious thought to another, without restand of the other of which we have, - the ing even for an instant on the intermediate life of sleep and the life of waking. The link which really binds the two together, life of sleep, — which Jouffroy has very and without giving us even the chance of ably showu to be in all probability one of remembering what it was. And if this be continuous intellectual activity, one of con- so, — as it certainly is, there is certainly tinuous dream, though nine-tenths of what nothing inconceivable in the notion that each we dream we immediately and utterly forget, of us may be living two or three simultaneis, as far as we know, not one of any cohe- ous lives, under different conditions in difrence, still·less of progress, but of utterly ferent worlds, - though, of course, there is incoherent imagery, in which we accumulate not the smallest reason to suppose that it is no experience, have no communion with any so. reality outside ourselves, and are incapable We have put these somewhat paradoxical even of self-knowledge or self-study. 'But hypotheses only to give still more definitenot the less is it a life, though it be a mere ness to our view, that none of them would kaleidoscope of immediately forgotten pic-touch in the least, nay, that all of them tures, and a life which, though under very assume and presuppose, - a real personal different conditions, is our own life, and no identity, uniting the dissevered and fragone else's. Well, if everybody lives two mentary lives, which we have shown or aslives, one of which is usually bound together sumed to be broken into two or more by a chain of more or less continuous memory parts, either by some failure of memory in and recollection, and one not, — and if now time, or by some cleavage of it into paraland then we find an individual living two lel and uncommunicating planes. George lives, both of which are coherent in them-Nickern has already had two lives, two disselves, though they are, as regards memory, tinct reaches of consciousness, utterly exmutually exclusive, it seems quite certain clusive of each other. In what sense, that the personal self, the 'I,' is something then, is he still the same man that he was absolutely independent of memory, some before the accident? We should say in thing which might become as independent this, that, though no obligation incurof memory as Plato suggested when he sup- red, no affection formed, no hope indulged, posed that each individual soul was sub- no fear entertained, before his accident, jected to a whole series of lives, all of them remains to him now in the form of conseparate wholes without conscious reference scious experience, yet his character is to each other, yet all of them united by doubtless still that which his previous life, some continuity of will and character which together with his recent sufferings and new makes the discipline of the one supplemen- experience, have made it,

that even the tary to the discipline of the other. Nay, it obliterated experience, though it does not is even quite conceivable that the same act consciously upon him, acts upon him mind should be leading simultaneously dif- unconsciously through the character it ferent lives under different forms of organi- helped to form, that what he now is, as a zation in a number of different worlds, moral being, depends in all probability that I may, at the moment I write, be, with- much more on his own acts during the first out knowing it as an inhabitant of this plan- twenty years of his life, of which he can et, living a distinct life and career in Mars recollect nothing, than on the few acts of and Jupiter and Saturn,

in all of which lives his second infancy which have accumulated there is a principle of identity, in spite of only during two or three months.


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