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things sometimes takes such hold, like the Jesse before as ye'd think better on it, and ivy, as ye can tear 'um to bits afore ye give o'er wi' they violent men — 'tis no looses them. Ye dunnot know what's good strivin' agin what can't be. Little women-nayther their strength nor their things and big 'uns comes from the Lord; weakness."
| 'would be easier to thee once thou could'st “I never set my mind to a thing but I think this, too, come from His hand. Think won it yet," said Caleb, darkening.
better of going now, my lad. "Twill on'y "Don't ye talk like that, Caleb: pride mar and not mend thy matter," she engoes afore a fall. Don't ye set yer mind treated. on what ye can't mend nor make: things! He strode out of the house without anmay be soft and have a will o' their own; swering, and down to the boat which was just look at the water, and yet ye couldn't waiting for him. Mary stood and watched turn the tide not an inch."
him anxiously from the little terrace. His “I shall be off wi' the fair traders to- heart seemed to misgive him for leaving her night, and I don't care how soon I get without a word, and he turned and waved knocked o' the head by them gaugers," re- his hand to her, but he went on all the plied he, sadly.
same. The wind was fair, and the fishing* Don't ye go to break our hearts like boat was hoisting its little brown sails, like that, Caleb,” said Mrs. Jesse, with the a bird spreading its wings. tears in her eyes. “Ye know ye telled
CAN A CHIMNEY-SWEEP CLAIM TO BE CAR- CHARLES DICKENS, for his farewell readings RIED AS A PASSENGER ? - At the Sheriff's Court (which are, it is said, to extend over the United in Glasgow recently, this question was raised. Kingdom to one hundred nights,) is to receive The pursuer, named Broadfoot, sued the defend- £10,000 from Mr. Chappell, ers, omnibus proprietors, for damages in respect that, being common carriers of passengers between Govan and Glasgow, they had upon vari. We are requested to state that the beautifullyous days in October last refused to carry him, painted window of the Kirke White memorial in although there was sufficient accommodation on Wilford Church, near Nottingham, mentioned in their 'bus, and he was ready to pay his fare. our last week's issue, was executed by Messrs. The defence was an admission of the refusal to O'Connor, of Berners-street, London. carry, and a justification on the ground of nuisance. The defenders had no personal objection to Mr. Broadfoot as Mr. Broadfoot, but objected! THE silver plate belonging to the Duke of Norto him as a chimney-sweep in his working and folk, which, according to a contemporary had sooty clothes. They refused to carry him in his been locked up in Messrs. Smith & Payne's bank sooty dress, because this was not consistent with since the death of the late duke, has been once a due regard to the other passengers, to the clean- more taken from its concealment to adorn the liness of the 'bus, and their own interest as com
table of the baronial hall. The plate is said to mon carriers. The Sheriff held that the defenders weigh a ton and a half, and is valued at £50,must justify the refusal. Mr. Wilson adduced 000 two of the 'bus guards, Mr. Hinshelwood, and Mr. Watson, a passenger, in support of the defence. The Sheriff having heard them, sustained Kangas prints its governor's messages in three the defence. He said the defenders did not ob- languages, in the proportion of four-sevenths of ject to carry the pursuer. They objected to carry the whole number in English, two-sevenths in him in his gooty clothes. They were not bound German, and one-seventh in Swedish. Wisconto carry him in his working clothes, for these sin adds to its English edition one thousand copwere offensive to the other passengers and inju- ies each in German and Norwegian, and five rious to the general traffic.“ The defenders were hundred each in Welsh, Bohemian and Dutch. accordingly assoilzied. It was intimated by the Sheriff during the course of the debate that the same rule would be applied to bakers in their The first of a series of ten bells and hour-bell working clothes.
for Worcester Cathedral has been deposited in the College Green.' The new peal is to cost £3,
000, and this sum has been subscribed in honour TENNYSON is said to have granted to Messrs. of the dean (the late Sir Robert Peel's brother), Strahan & Co. a right of publication of his po- as a testimony to whose virtues the bells are to ems for two years for £8,000.
From The Spectator, 2 Jan. to an external command, that the third is THE PROPOSED CONFERENCE. a formal surrender of the right of asylum, We wonder if anybody thought the that the fourth would compel the Greek Athenians excessively impertinent for risk- Ministry to punish men instigated by their ing Marathon. The Times would have own agents, and that the fifth is a formal done so if it had existed in that day, and confession by an independent State that so we fancy would the British public, only she has broken international law, — these it happened just shen to consist of tattooed terms appear, to say the least, sufficiently pagans, instead of Philistines in broadcloth. severe. We should be sorry to guarantee Greece is small, nearly as small as she was the head of a Premier who proposed them when she hurled Asia back from Europe; to Great Britain under any circumstances and being small, she cannot pay her debts, whatever; but then, of course, the people - which might be paid in five years, were of little States have no right to national Thessaly and Epirus added to her domin- pride, even if they did found literature, ion, and consequently she has no right politics, and art in Europe, and evolve to fight, or to make treaties, or to sympa- from themselves all the thoughts which still thize with insurgents of her own blood, make statesmen wise. These “ points" creed, and language, even when they are and no others are to be considered and being tortured by African mercenaries carried, — so far as Napoleon may choose. bired by the power which for centuries en- The Powers concerned are Turkey, wbo slaved herself. We lent Garibaldi ships, will vote for all the points ; England and and sent munitions of war by thousands Austria, who will support the Sultan; Rusof tons to the South, and fêted Kossuth, sia and Prussia, who will favour Greece; and aided the American rebels against Italy, who will side with Bismarck or NaSpain to the utmost of our means; but poleon as she sees best for her own interthen Britain is a strong power, and does est; and Napoleon, who in any case will pay her debts, and only destroys Mussul- possess the casting-vote. It is rumoured man empires — sending their Emperors into that the Emperor of the French, not liking penal servitude - in the “ interests of to appear an enemy of the nationalities, or Christianity and civilization.” Consequent- to affront the Reds, who throughout Euly, we are right, and Greece is wrong, and rope are on the side of civilization, will try is “insolent," and " reckless," and "trou- to induce Turkey to remain content with blesome," and all manner of bad things three of her five demands. Perhaps she besides, — things most obnoxious to a meek will, perhaps she will not, - for all in Turrace like our own, — and Lord Clarendon, key depends on the Sultan's digestion, as all the world says, is going to take part but suppose she does, what is next to be in a Conference, to be assembled next attempted? Are the Powers who have reweek, in Paris, of all places on earth, to sisted each other in Congress to combine settle how the Christian may best be com- to coerce Greece, or are the friends of pelled to abstain from defending himself Turkey to act while the friends of Greece against the Caliph. To make the gro- sit still, or are the two sides to clash at tesquerie of the affair complete, the ques-once, and so begin the general war which tion of Crete, on which the dispute has everybody is trying to avoid ? Greece of arisen, is not to be so much as mentioned, course may yield, but we do not see why and Greece herself is not to be adınitted she should until the combined fleets are off to a seat at the board which will decide her the Piræus, or have occupied Athens, for destinies. The tribunal is summoned to the conferring Governments will neither hear the claimant, but the claiin is not to annex, nor tax her, nor pillage her, and it be discussed, and the defendant is ex- is, on the whole, more honourable to yield pressly prohibited from putting in any de- to actual force than to menaced force, to a fence. The Conference is to be rigidly knock-down blow than to a threat of kickconfined to the “Five Points" of the ing. Suppose Greece to resist thus far, Turkish ultimatum - namely, that Greece what will Mr. Gladstone, as one of the condisperse her voluuteers; that she disarm the ferring Powers, actually do? Will he, of Enosis, Crete, and Panhellenicon ; that she all men, cominit an act wbich will termi" allow" Cretan emigrants to return home; nate the independence of Greece, dethrone that she punish all persons guilty of ag- King George, who reigns as representative gressions against Turks, and compensate of the “Great Idea," drive Mr. Bright out the sufferers; and that she promise to ad- of the Cabinet, and irritate every Radical here for the future to international law. in the kingdom? The "integrity of TurConsidering that the first point involves key," of which so much is made, is not the passing of an internal law in deference guaranteed against Greece, any more than
against revolt in Turkey itself; and if we in ironclads; but they are obliged to hire come to guarantees, that of Greek indepen- an Admiral and engineers from England, dence is at least the first in order. We and have no maritime population which can utterly refuse to believe that the Cabinet compare with the sailors of the islands. will sanction any action of the kind, and Greece is poor, no doubt, though if ironif it is not prepared for this course, what clads owned by Greeks do not make their is the use of entering into a Conference appearance a week after war is declared, prohibited from considering any reasonable we shall be greatly surprised; but Greece compromise, -- such, for example, as the has enough for rifles, and since when has one proposed by the protecting Powers Turkey been rich, or how much would it two years ago — the erection of Candia cost the Fanar to bring her credit crashing into a hereditary Pashalic, with a Christian to the ground, so turning all Bourses into Pasha, - a Conference which can only her irreconcilable enemies? The Greeks choose one of two alternatives, the coer- do not believe in the least that they can be cion of Turkey into a surrender of her de- conquered, and do believe that they can mands, or a coercion of Greece into an give the signal for insurrection throughout acceptance of them.
the Sultan's dominions, - a signal which But, say the makers of paragraphs, the will be heard in Asia as well as Europe, Powers may inform Greece that unless she and will throw the Orthodox from Odessa yields, their protection will be withdrawn, to St. Petersburg into a fever of excitement. and Turkey must work her will, even if a The Greeks may be utterly wrong, may be State is blotted out from Europe. That hot-headed fanatics, victims of an idea, or sounds very solemn, and will read very anything else, but as long as they do not well in a despatch; but then, unfortunately, think so they will fight; and the solemn that is precisely what the Greek nation de diplomatic threats of leaving them to their sires, is the very determination which will fate will be met with the ridicule they deproduce war. People in the City who can serve, and the war the Conference is to not imagine how Timour conquered Asia prevent will rage all the more fiercely, bewithout raising loans, or how the Sepovs cause it will have inspired in the Greeks a could defend Delhi without issuing incon- just belief that diplomatists would like to vertible paper, will have it that as Greece condemn them unheard. If the Conference does not pay her debts, Turkey will con- will produce peace, well and good; we can quer her is in a few days." Why has she understand, though we heartily dislike the not conquered Crete in two years of inces- policy of peace at any price; but it seems sant warfare? She has troops enough, and to us much more likely to land us in a posibullets enough, and English capital enough tion from which we must either retreat with to have done the work ten times over; but more or less of opprobrium, or coerce a she has not done it, because every Cretan free State in Turkish interests, or allow knows by experience, as every Greek knows ourselves to be drasred into a very serious by tradition, that it is easier when attacked war, waged to compel unwilling populations by Turks to die fighting than to die by the to remain submissive to Ottoman rule. tortures, mental and bodily, the victors will inflict. Grant that all the evidence of Turkish atrocities is false, or exaggerated till it becomes false, and that immense concession will still have no influence on the
From The Spectator 2 Jan. result. The Greeks believe those stories,
A LION'S IDEAS ON MAN. and will fight as, when pressed too far, TAE Times of Tuesday, the 29th ult., they have always fought, like rats, who will contained a very singular paper, a paper fly if they can; but who, if they fasten, which, if not unique, is, we believe, very can never be dislodged. Omar Pasha may nearly unique in English literature. It is a be all his friends believe; but before he report certainly authentic, and probably litcan march from Thessaly to Athens he will eral, of a conversation between Sindhia, the have had to kill a nation of riflemen, posted Sovereign of Gwalior, the first Marhatta on mountains, in ravines, and by passes as State, and Colonel Daly, English diplomawild as those of Abyssinia. We English tist of ability and tact, upon the merits and are decent soldiers in our way: but we do demerits of British rule in India, a convernot find the conquest of Afghanistan easy, sation during which the Prince forgot for and the Indian Viceroy is as much stronger once both his personal caution and his Inthan the Sultan as the Greeks are stronger | dian reserve, and spoke out with trustful than the Afghans. At sea the Turks are smiles and confidential laughter what it was said to be “very strong," and so they are in him to say — the real thought in his head - the very thing one can so seldom induce and other entrancing subjects, just to cona Hindoo to betray. The thought is a re- sider what this particular lion really did markable one considered merely as a poli- mean.. Clearly he had an idea of some kind, tical utterance. We do not suppose, for ex-1-that much may be allowed even to an Inample, that any Englishman of cultivation dian Prince talking transcendental politics, who reads the conversation will ever again and was not that an idea this? European believe that Sindhia is a savage, a sort of observers are accustomed to say that the Ashantee king, a barbarian on whom polit- / first distinction between man and the brute ical argument would be thrown away,-a is the want in the latter of the accumulachange of opinion which is in itself a great tive faculty. Rover the retriever learns gain; but that is not our point just now. many things, but Rover's heir is the wiser Sindhia, wbo occupies among Indian princes for very few of those things and Rover's very much the position of a Bonaparte among grandson perhaps for none of them, except European sovereigns, not exactly a new man, the one or two which have become caste pebut still a man necessarily at war with the culiarities, - exceptional faculty, for examold world, a Prince without a pedigree, ple, of bringing back dead birds without who asked, for example, when the Mutiny eating them. Speculative persons marking broke out why on earth he was expected to this have questioned, cautiously, as becomes support the Indian Bourbon, the heir of persons building a great theory on very Timour,— has been thinking hard over a imperfect data, whether it may not be possiproblem which every now and then disturbs ble that there is in each race some sort of a all studious politicians. What is the essen- limit to the faculty of accumulation, a limit tial difference between an Oriental and a either of power or of will which it cannot or Western European? Why are a few thou- will not overpass, which once reached, that sand white boors, never a hundred thousand race begins to stereotype itself. Is there in all, led by a few hundred white gentle- not, in Sindhia's language, a point at which men, never thirty hundred in all, able to men cease to “ husband their experience," coerce two hundred millions of slightly being, it may be, content with what they darker persons, of whom the majority are have acquired, — as Chinese, for example, as brave as the said boors, nearly or quite who think they have attained perfection; or as intelligent as the gentlemen, and decid- unwilling to labour more, like most priestedly better mannered than both? Why, in boods; or lacking storehouses in which to short, is society in Asia stereotyped; why store up the new accumulations, like people cannot this very Sindhia, who, if he lifted who cannot write ? Most thoughtful men, his standard and won a battle would have we conceive, without directly answering in all India at his back, kick us out into outer the affirmative, would consider the proposidarkness, as any Western prince ruling tion worth at least some minutes' reflection, Western subjects under the same circum- if only because it would be so unspeakably stances infallibly would do? Sindhia has pleasant to see a conceivable possibility of thought that out, he says, for many years, breaking the spell. Just imagine the feel“I have watched it and thought of it long,"ing of the man who found, as the late Dr.
- has driven about on mail carts incognito, Ballantyne of Benares fancied that he had like a modern Haroun al Rashid, seeking found the talisman, that he could melt the light upon that point within British domin- ice and set all Asiatic waters flowing, that ion, and not being the fool a person with he could give the shove which should set the golden bronze tinge ought to be, has Chinaman and Hindoo and Arab all in moarrived at a definite conclusion. You En- tion spinning “ down," or up, the “ringing glish, he says, and “ to me it is the most grooves of change" and progress towards striking thing of all you do, husband your an independent but indefinitely advancing experience in a careful way."
civilization. Life would be worth having to Let us consider that opinion a little. It that man, even if he had gout. We ouris a very foolish one no doubt, for Sindhia selves have repeatedly tried to show that the has the golden bronze tinge, was when this first proposition is the true one; that a race: writer saw him fourteen years ago very ceases to accumulate whenever it is content; nearly light copper-coloured, and a person that the people who believe their social orso dark must talk nonsense, but still there der divine do not and cannot attempt to is intellectual interest in watching even a advance, lest movement should break up a poor picture of man painted by a lion, and divinely established organization.' The Hinwe may therefore be forgiven for a moment- doo Brahmins are in that stage, and the ary neglect of the compound householder, Ultramontane clergy of Europe. No, says and the best means of suppressing the Brit- Sindhia, as we understand him, that is not ish rough, and the ideas of M. Deleyyani, I the true proposition; the third is the truer.
My people are stereotyped because they it that all mankind, or a large section of have reached the limit of their mechanical mankind, should benefit by it. We might resources for accumulation, have reached describe the theory of spectrum analysis on the margin of their mechanical or moral stone, as a Chinese would do, but how many power of “ husbanding their experience." would see it? And why should the discova
. To me the most striking is the careful orer make his knowledge common? The way in which you husband your experience. Hindoo world, which in this respect is the Your records are so preserved that in al- whole Asiatic world, has as yet few records ; most all the positions filled by your officers those are scarce, costly, and confined by an the current of business is little affected by etiquette as strong as a law to comparativethe men themselves. With a Native Gov- ly few. families. No secular book other ernment it is entirely otherwise ; its servants than an almanack, and, we believe, a transpay no deference to the records of their pre- lation of Robinson Crusoe, has ever attained decessors to follow them — if such can be a circulation in India which would fairly pay said to exist — rather the reverse. The expenses, and no manuscript, not more or incumbent of the office probably strives to less religious, can be said to be popularly undo what bas been done." The mere known. No experience is really husbanded keeping of records, it will be seen, -of except by tradition, and verbal tradition is those "writings " which most Anglo-Indians liable to sudden gaps, while nothing which condemn, - strikes Sindhia as a source of is so transmitted can, if lost, be recovered. power, of an incessant increase of force, of Entire arts have, in this way, been lost in å growth, to put it in one word, wanting in India by the extinction of the castes who the native society of which he is the repre- keep the tradition. It is very difficult, or, sentative. In other words, the quasi-me- say impossible, to hand down history tbus chanical habit of keeping the information - ask the sons of English soldiers about one has got, and giving it to the next man Waterloo - and nearly as difficult to prewho wants it, makes the whole difference serve political ideas, or any but the most between progress and stagnation, between elementary social laws. Question a country Western Europe and the Eastern World. squire whose grandfather would have died
It is clearly a balf-truth that, but may for Pitt as to Pitt's ideas, or ask the new not even a half-truth if it be a real half-truth generation to explain any change - like the be of importance, when, if it were a wbole change in the criminal law – which occurred truth, it would change the face of the world between the time when their school books as undoubtedly this one would ? The mere end and their personal experience begins. mechanical faculty, or rather habit, of rec- Naturally a race aware that every idea or ord, of stowing up knowledge in a granary, rule is liable to be falsified, recurs perpetuis one which can be communicated, which ally to the past in order to prevent falsificamay as easily be acquired by a race like, fortion, protects itself by prohibiting change in instance, the Hindoos, as by a class like, the few good laws it has acquired, and for instance, the hereditary labourers of guards a social order it approves by declarYorkshire. We know that education, much ing it beyond change, and thus makes proif not all of which is intended to teach the gress impossible to itself, except as the reYorkshire lads to study recorded experi- sult of foreign conquest, or of a social cataence, has changed them, and why should it clysm. Sindhia directly applies his thought not also change the natives of India, or only to the domain of political administraEgypt, or Thibet ? Access to such records tion, being interested mainly in that ; but it did once change Europe. The origin of the is clear from the context that he thought Renaissance, the great movement which this husbanding of experience the source of founded modern society, was just that, - that social peculiarity which strikes all naaccess, through the fall of Constantinople, tives of India with wonder — the perfect to the husbanded and recorded experience reliance of the English upon each other of the ancient world, and more especially to the suppression among them of the individits granary of ideas. The Italians read the ual will, which natives with no vast granary manuscripts the flying Greeks carried with of experience cultivate till, as Sindhia says, them, and added their experience to their every man, unless prevented by religious own, and the Old World slowly melted tradition, upsets every other's work. And away. We all acknowledge in words the is not the existence of law, and particularly power of the printing-press, but we scarcely secular law, as a system of thought controlunderstand, as Sindhia from his experience ling individual will, wholly dependent upon understands, what its absence would mean, this power of husbanding experience, of how difficult it would be without it to “hus- recording the knowledge acquired by longLand experience," or rather so to husband continued dealing with mankind? Of course