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No. 1290.– February 20, 1869.

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CONTENTS. 1. SPAIN UNDER CHARLES II.,

Edinburgh Review,

451 2. THE NEW MOVEMENT IN IRELAND, .

Spectator,

472 3. THE COUNTRY-HOUSE ON THE Rhine. Part' xiv.

By Berthold Auerbach. Translated from the Ger-
man for the “ Living Age,”

Die Presse,

474 4. THE CONFERENCE,

Spectator,

495 5. MR. GLADSTONE'S POLITICAL HUMILITY,

Spectator,

496 6. THE EMPEROR'S SPEECH,

Spectator,

498 7. CAST AWAY IN THE COLD,

Spectator,

500 8. THE PARAGUAYANS,

Spectator,

502 9. DISCONNECTED MEMORIES,

Spectator,

505 10. JOHN NEWTON,

Atheneum,

610 SHORT ARTICLES. WAGNER'S OPERA, . 450 | MR. GLADSTONE'S HUMILITY,

471 A RIDE IN CALIFORNIA, : 471 | A LIFE OF BENTLEY,

512 POETRY. HONORABLE AND RIGHT HONORABLE, 480 | Punch PHILHELLENE PAILOISIN HELLESIN, 480

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From A. D. F. Randolph & Co., New York. HYMNS FOR THE CHURCH ON EARTH. Selected and Arranged by the Rev. J. C. Ryle. THE SHADOW OF THE ROCK, and other Religious Poems, THE LADY OF LA GRANGE, by the Hon. Mrs. Norton.

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the big gun

the pence.

scores:

your doors.

From Punch.

Need I tell you the tale how, when once dwarf HONORABLE AND RIGHT HONORABLE.

and giant

Went to make joint-stock war on the world, “ The Right Hon. John Bright arrived at 0sborne on a visit to her Majesty.

Thrust the small one in front, till the dwarf, too The Right Hon. John Bright dined with compliant, her Majesty.

Found that he dropp'd a limb every battle they

won. “ The Right Hon. John Bright took his leave of her Majesty.

If the Great Eastern question so presses for Court Circular.

oping, AND SO “ the whirligig of time

Let those who will profit by't stand the exBrings its revenges round!”

pense. Is it the ground has changed for him? Don't you play in the hand of an ally who's Or has he changed his ground?

hoping

That you'll take the kicks, while he pockets This sitter 'neath the gangway moved

Up to the Treasury Bench ! A Member of the Cabinet, he

Trust Bulgaria and Bosnia, Wallachia, Moldavia, Who erst made Cabinets blench!

With their Suzerain Sultan to clear their own And yet the Offices go on

Let the Turk bind Crete over to better behaviour ; In calm circumlocution :

Leave Albania still Moslem, though close at In Whitehall and in Downing Street No roar of revolution !

Grande idéethough it be to make Hellas

commander And he can boast, and truly boost,

Of all the Turk rules on this side Helle's sea, The change is not in him.

There's an idée I venture to call even grander He waited, as the years went by,

Let Hellas make Hellas all Hellas should be. Rigid, resolved and grim.

Instead of declaiming about her old glories, Thought out his thought and spoke it out,

Let her kick drones and demagogues both off Nor cared for howl or cheer:

her back : Reckless what faith his speech might win,

Open roads, pay off debts, and give up telling What hate provoke, or fear.

stories,

Get rid of her brigands, her army bid pack : Foresaw, foretold, derided oft,

Make her peasants secure of the fruits of their The current of the laws ;

tillage ; Nor steered his course for Office, more

Find the right men and in the right place set Than shaped it for applause.

them fast :

Keep her judges from bribes, her officials from Till the great tide, whose forces deep

pillage, Nor men nor modes withstand,

Turn her face to the future, her back to the Bore spoils of office to his feet,

past. And power into his hand.

Till the star of her youth through her dark pres

ent flashes, “ I sought them not: they came to me,”

And the dead bones around stir and draw to He says — and says what's true: So Punch can vouch — whose baton oft

its light;

And a nobler Byzantium arise from Time's ashes, Hath beat him black and blue.

And Hellas's rule is the rule of the Right. Then beneath her broad ægis the nations shall

gather, While the glories of old re-emblazon her name,

And the shades of her heroes exultingly father πYNCH ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝ ΦΙΛΟΙΣΙΝ ΈΛΛΕΣΙΝ

The Hellas they now from Olympus disclaim.

Punch. My dear little Hellenes, pet no more rebellings:

Get up no more rows under auspices Russ : There's a fable of which you should need no

more tellings, Touching certain hot chestnuts, a pug and a WAGNER has finished the third part of his puss.

Niebelungen, a mammoth opera in four parts, Already by dabbling in Eastern hot waters, necessitating several nights for performance. In Your poor little fingers you've burnt to the one scene an aquarium is required for the charbone.

acters, who have to swim and disport about beLeave Russia in future to catch her own Tartars, tween water and rocks, singing all the while.

Fight shy of the CZAR, and let Turkey alone. Pleasant work for delicate-chested tenors !

From The Edinburgh Review.

pages to refer to the Letters of Madame de SPAIN UNDER CHARLES II. *

Villars, the wife of the Marquis, which are This volume is published under circum- also in themselves of great interest, and, stances sufficiently curious to merit notice. from the elegance of their style, have taken The MS. from which it was printed was pur- rank among the epistolary classics of dischased some years ago at a sale in London tinguished French women. The Letters by Sir William Stirling Maxwell, then Mr. and Memoirs of Madame d'Aulnoy, the Stirling of Keir. It was evidently in the authoress of the Contes des Fées, who handwriting of the eighteenth century, and visited Spain at this time, are also highly on examination it proved to be an interest- entertaining, full of information, and writing report on the state of the Spanish mon- ten in a sparkling style. Besides these archy under Charles II., drawn up by the sources of information, the letters and deMarquis de Villars (father of the celebrated spatches of Mr. Alexander Stanhope, Enggeneral of that name), who was French am- lish ambassador at Madrid, published some bassador at the Court of Madrid in the reigo years ago by Lord Stanhope, also throw of Charles II. Mr. Stirling, himself pro- great light on the state of Spain at this pefoundly acquainted with the historical an- riod. Nor should a brilliant article of M. -nals of Spain, could find no evidence that Paul de Saint-Victor, in his recently pubthe document in question had ever been lished collection of Essays, be left unnoprinted before; Sir Frederick Madden and ticed. Mr. Panizzi, of the British Museum, on The country of the Cid and of Philip II., being consulted, were of opinion that the of romance, intolerance, and superstition, MS. had never been made public. The still possesses a charm and an interest even work was therefore printed at Mr. Stirling's in the darkest hour of its abasement. The expense, and presented by him to the Phi- personality of Charles II. is a still more lobiblon Society. Subsequently, however, striking representative of the fortunes of it appeared that these Mémoires had already Spain than those of Philip III. and Philip passed through the press and been given to IV., and the impending extinction of the the world, in 1733, in Paris, in an anony- great Spanish House of Austria gives it a mous form; and thus the Marquis de Villars tragic solemnity in spite of the King's imbehas had the honour of publication in Eng-cility. For, imbecile as he was, Charles land nearly two centuries after the composi- possessed all the strange characteristics of tion of his work, entirely from the oblivion his race. The story of his reign, indeed, into which it had fallen. The document, has nothing to chronicle abroad but disaster, however, is in itself of great historical value: and its political changes within were insigit gives a very clear and curious picture of nificant; but the real historical interest of the condition of Spain at the end of the his sovereignty is centred in himself, in the seventeenth century; and some of the life of the palace, and the records of the causes of its incessant and increasing de- amazing condition of society and the nation cay are specified with great judgment and at its period of worst humiliation. penetration. From the account we have The greatness of Spain had been acquired given of the publication of the English edi- by a system of external and internal policy tion it is clear that the existence of the which contained within it all the maleficent work was unknown to those most conver- roots of premature decay. Around the vast sant with French and Spanish literature trunk of Spanish grandeur even in the days and history. Besides the work in question, of Charles V. and Philip II., the ivy of we shall have occasion in the following ruin was growing with its growth, and the

inflexible Spaniard, whose haughty boast * 1. Mémoires de la Cour d'Espagne sous le Régne de Charles 11., 1678 – 1682. Par le Marquis de Vil- was • Nosotros Españoles no mudamos rey LARS. London: 1961. (Printed for the Philobiblon ni religion,' so well personified by the imSociety.)

perturbable Philip II. himself, was not ca2 Lettres de Madame de Villars a Madame de pable of producing a reformed government, Coulanges, (1679-1681). Nouvelle édition, avec Introduction et Notes par ALFRED DE COURTOIS.

or even of awakening to a consciousness of Paris: 1868.

the extravagant follies and parasite vices which were exhausting and strangling the Roman Empire, was so terrible a cry heard life and energies of a once great people. in any country in Europe. Madrid, which As for the causes of the ruin of Spain, they had in the sixteenth century possessed 400,are countless; and it may be said that its 000 inhabitants, fell in the seventeenth to history will ever remain one of the most in- 180,000. Madame d'Aulnoy says the apstructive in the world; for the statesman proach to the capital resembled entering a and political economist may here eternally desert. Seville in fifty years was reduced find for almost every principle of policy, to a third of its population. Three hundred and every form of administration and taxa- ruined villages were to be counted in Castion, a precedent of how a country ought tile, two hundred about Toledo, and one not to be governed.

thousand in Cordova. Those desolate treeless tracts of Spain The first notorious cause of this terrible those dreary wastes, interrupted only by the decline was the expulsion of the Moors, drearier barrancos or ravines, styled the according to Richelieu the most wild and despoblados or unpeopled districts — still barbarous stroke of policy’ever achieved by present a terrible testimony to the world any government, which cost Spain three against the exterminating policy of Philip millions of her most industrious inhabitants, and his successors. No such ill-omened and reduced a populous and admirably-cultitle exists in any other country in the tivated Paradise to a desert. The next world; and the remembrance that this state great and incessant drain on the population of desolation was not brought about by the of Spain was the emigration to America. ravages of an Attila or a Tamerlane, but by The Marquis de Villars wrote to Louis monstrous misgovernment and habitual con- XIV. in 1681, that 6,000 Spaniards emitempt for all sound principles of human ac- grated in one fleet of the galleons, because tion, increases the wonder and commisera- they were unable to live in Spain. Every tion of the traveller across desert regions year it was calculated 40,000 people left which recall the steppes of Asia, productive their homes for Mexico and Peru; and the of nothing but rank grass and briars and emigration to America is supposed to have thorns, where the reign of the wild bull is deprived Spain of 30 millions of inhabitants disturbed alone by the occasional migratory - 30 millions, not of surplus population flock of merinos passing slowly from hori- like our own from over-crowded districts, zon to horizon under the conduct of the but of hands which were wanted in a counshepherd — the solitary hidalgo of the Si- try brought down from prosperity to hunger

and desolation, in a country of which a large The depopulation of Spain proceeded district in the Sierra Morena was subsewith such uninterrupted rapidity that from quently recolonised in 1763 by German emiten millions in the time of Philip II. it had grants, induced to settle there by Charles dwindled down to less than six in the days III. Next to emigration, and perhaps as of Charles II. Year by year houses, vil- great a cause even as emigration, comes lages, and towns fell into ruin, and no one monasticism and convent life, which desicattempted to rebuild them. People no long- cated to an incalculable extent the sources of er married. The Cortes, in an address to reproduction in this wretched country. the King in 1619, said, “That it was plain There were 20,000 priests and monks in and evident that if the state of things went Pampeluna and Calahorra alone. There on at the same pace as up to that time, in- were 9,000 monasteries and 928 convents in habitants and neighbours would be wanting the kingdom: at the end of the seventeenth altogether to the villages, labourers for the century it was computed that 86,000 priests, fields, and sailors for the sea; and in the 60,000 monks, and 33,000 nuns, or, out of a present dread of marriage the country could population of less than six millions, nearly exist no longer than the end of the century.'* 200,000 persons, were devoted to conseNever, since the days of the Decline of the crated idleness and celibacy. People took

Pues era llano y evidente que si este estado sitas a la mar, y desdenado el casamiento duraria el aumentase a el passo mismo que hasta allí, avran de mundo un siglo solo.' (Cespedes y Mercedes, lib. faltar a los lugares habitadores y vezivos y los pilo- chap, il. x. p. 56.)

erra.

to the monastic life not only from supersti- | through a small wicket. You paid him his tion and to obtain a subsistence in a hunger- money beforehand; if you asked for a loin stricken country, but for the same reason as of veal, he would in all probability hand you they took to emigration and avoided mar- a leg of mutton; if you declined the mutton, riage without profession of vows — in abso- be offered you a piece of beef; if you still lute despair of the future of Spain. The called for the veal, he flung back your monPeninsula was converted into a veritable ey to you, 'and told you to go your way Thebais, in which the permanent state of (Vaya Usted con Dios). The hunger of the famine, the result of human policy, was people and the scarcity went on increasing raised at times to horrible crises of starva- to the end of the reign of Charles II. Mr. tion from natural causes, and where visita- Alexander Stanhope, English ambassador at tions of pestilence and frequent earthquakes, Madrid in those days, writes of the frequent one of which shook 1,200 houses to the bread riots in the streets, in which every day ground in Malaga alone, added to the daily persons were killed. For some time the terror of existence arising from poverty. scarcity of bread was so great that he was

The readers of 'Don Quixote' are fully obliged to procure an order from the Corable to enter into the delight of Sanchoregidor of Madrid to have twenty-four Panza when he had a good meal in the loaves delivered to his servants. He had to course of their wanderings, for such occa- send to Vallegas, two leagues off, to get sions were rare, and the trick upon his ap- this supply, with an escort of men armed petite in the palace of the Duke was a bar- with long guns to convey his servants home. barous practical joke. In the ventas of The sight of food was so maddening that those times, Madame d'Aulnoy informs us, in everybody snatched what he could get. her very graphic • Voyage en Espagne,' that The bakers barricaded themselves in like the you had to pass through the stable, up a butchers, and the press in front of their wretched ladder, to your chamber. There houses was so great that five women were was generally but one cup in the whole es- stitled to death before a shop in a single tablisbment, from which the guests drank in crowd. The people here, writes Madame de turn: and if the muleteers arrived before Villars, seem to live upon what they call airyou, as was often the case, you must either ing themselves in the sun, tomar el sol, put up with the pitcher, or wait till they had tant il est maigre, abattų et misérable.' tiuished their meal. Sheets were of the size Mr. Stanhope says, nevertheless, even in of towels, and towels were as big as your that time of scarcity, the misery in the counhand. If you wanted to sup, the landlord try was still greater than in Madrid; for required the money beforehand, and went twenty thousand people flocked to the capiout to purchase such villainous provisions as tal, destitute of all means of subsistence, the place afforded. Ladies were shown into and hoping by begging or by robbery to esrooms with thirty beds side by side ; and if cape starvation. Indeed, for the most part, they wanted to avoid the ragged crowd, provincial people died simply of hunger, and which the hostess was sure to marshal into their destitution leaves no mark in history the room as soon as they were in bed, or beside that simple brief statement. But in have a room to themselves, they must pay the cities, in the houses of the great nobles, for the whole thirty beds. Dinner was in the palace itself, foreign observers have always taken in the open air with purchased chronicled facts which characterise the period provisions to avoid entering these wretched less horribly, but more circumstantially. paradors and posadas, in which the kitchen Caballeros and hidalos lived entirely on without a chimney, she said, gave one a chocolate, onions, garlic, and garbanzos ; horrible notion of hell, and where the meat they took their meals at public kitchens, in was burnt and smoked on a tile or roasted open air in the street, having no means of by a string. The butchers in Madrid, she cooking at home. An egg and a few onions tells us, sold their meat ensconced in a kind was a dinner for a dukę. The Duke de of fortress, for fear that the ravenous appe- Albuquerque, the inventory of whose plate tites of the crowds without would carry off took six weeks to write out, dined ordinatheir joints. You dealt with the butcher rily on an egg and a pigeon. The great

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