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houses of the nobles swarmed with retainers belief. The Turkish and Egyptian soldiers and famished dependents, many of them of of the present day are clothed luxuriously noble blood. These multitudes of gentry when contrasted with the accounts we read received for bed and board, and for doing of the Spanish troops. The cavalry were nothing, two reals a day (five pence); and without horses, and both cavalry and intheir mode of life is most graphically satir- fantry without pay. Officers yet in serised by Quevedo: they make themselves vice were seen begging in the streets of cloaks and coats out of furniture covers, Cadiz and in the towns of Spanish Flanquilts, baize, and sacking; and they got ders, though with such an air of proud dig.. their food how they could; it was with great nity as redeemed them from servility, while difficulty even the Duke of Albuquerque's in taking alms they seemed rather to confer egg and pigeon could be got safely to table than receive favours. The common solthrough this crowd of famished gentlemen. diers wore all their clothes and linen on As for a family dinner, it was next to im their back; the stuff of their dress seemed to possible to get it all to table, through the be made of packthread, their shoes were of hungry crowds who lined the corridors and cord, they had no stockings; yet they had staircases. If the cook left for an instant each a rag about his neck as an apology the soup-kettle while it was boiling, in all for a ruff, and a peacock’s feather stuck in probability when he returned he would find the hat behind. The once dreaded legions both broth and meat had disappeared. of Spain, the armies of Alva and Farnese, The Archbishop of Toledo, who had 120,- had since their terrible overthrow at Roc0001. a year, complained to Madame d'Aul- roy dwindled down to about 12,000 or noy that his broth was always stolen by his 15,000 men.

Fifteen thousand men were own retainers; and she proposed to him to all Philip IV. was able, after the treaty of have a silver soup-kettle made with a grat- the Pyrenees, to set on foot to invade Poring at the top and a lock and key, so that tugal and avenge its revolt from the crown the soup could be watched by the cook, and of Spain, and the shameful defeat of Villa be left without fear of being purloined; and Viciosa showed that Spain was now no the Archbishop adopted the suggestion. match for Portugal. Even this Famine invaded the palace. The royal ta- wretched remnant was not wholly comble itself was only supplied with difficulty. posed of Spaniards, but was a motley crew Nobody in Madrid, Madame de Villars of Burgundians and Walloons, Flemings writes, would give credit to any royal per- and Swiss. So small a force as this even it sonage for a real. The King only engaged was found impossible to pay; the soldiers, to find food for the gentlemen of his bed- often driven by sheer necessity and hunchamber, and this was often wanting. The ger, deserted their posts and joined the Queen-mother had a right to daily rations bandits with which the country swarmed. from the palace for her household. She The Viceroy of Naples was taken prisoner complained once that her rations were not by a troop of dragoons in the Toledo to get sent, whereupon she was told with Quixotic their arrears of pay from him, and the fronhumour, that her servants might come and tier garrisons were manned chiefly by old take their dues daily; for the King's cup- men and boys, who were unable to take to boards were all open — and all empty. brigandage or find other occupation. As From time to time the palace was almost to the fleet, the country which once sent wholly deserted of its attendants; and the forth the Spanish Armada now owned but grooms of the royal stables, left entirely a dozen or fifteen vessels, mostly rotting in without pay, ran off with their liveries, and the harbours, and the art of shipbuilding the royal horses were left with empty racks was lost. To such a state was reduced the and corn-bins, and not a groom to take care country whose proud boast once of them. Couriers with important de- When Spain moves the whole world tremspatches were kept waiting for weeks at Mad- bles' -• Cuando

en Espana, rid, because it was impossible to find toda la tierra tiembla,' and in which even money to start them.

Philip III. adopted the baughty device, The Queen herself was rarely or ever 'All against us, and we against all'paid the nominal 500 pistoles a month which Todos contra nos y nos contra todos.' was her due, and as the royal journey in Spain at the end of the reign of Philip IV. the spring to Aranjuez cosť 150,000 began to fear the return of the Moors. pistoles, which were sometimes not forth- All wonder at this state of penury ceases coming, the Court was detained at Madrid when we review the causes by which it was the whole summer from lack of funds. As occasioned. Not the least of them was the for the army and the fleet, both were in so barbarous expedient of debasing the coin, deplorable a state as to be almost beyond The Duke of Lerma, under Philip III., bad

was,

se

mueve

minted an alloy of silver and copper, and omit to enclose his land, plant trees, and declared by edict that the debased coin execute works which the next year's incurshould be exchanged everywhere as if it sion inight wholly destroy ; but here was a were silver. The consequence naturally worse foe to the agriculturist than mediæval was that foreign nations poured copper warfare - the · Honrado consejo de la Mesta' into the country, in coin still more debased, (the Honourable Council for the Preserva-, and exchanged it for its nominal price in tion of Grazing Ground), elected by the silver; while for their imported manufac-rich proprietors, whose flocks of merinos tures and corn they took care to be paid in migrated every spring from the grassy. silver. All silver and gold coin vanished plains of Andalusia and Estremadura to from the country; prices rose, and the the mountains of the Asturias and the largest sums were paid in numerous bags kingdom of Leon, and whose object natuof bad copper coin, which were weighed; rally was to preserve the whole intermediand while such great princes as the Dukes ate country as grazing ground, without of Infantado and Albuquerque possessed which such migrations would be impossible. tons of silver in the form of plate in their The flocks of some of these proprietors houses, and millions in diamonds, emeralds, were enormous: that of the Marques de rubies, and pearls, not even they pos- Gebraleon consisted of 800,000 sheep, and sessed a single gold or silver coin, but re- there were 4,000,000 sheep in Estremadura. ceived their revenues in kind or in masses They found no difficulty in getting enactof bad coin. The savage system of barter ments passed for the preservation of what sprang up again in a civilised age in Eu- they persuaded the State was the true rope. Moreover, not one-third of the rev- source of wealth of the country. Philip enues of the King came into his coffers, II., who seems to have hated handicraft of through the bad system by which they were every shape and form, lent himself readily farmed, and through the dishonesty of the to their views, and had the incredible folly officials. But no follies in coinage or in to pass a law to punish with fourteen years' receiving the revenues would account for exile the agriculturist who made bread of such poverty as gnawed the vitals of the his own corn or sold it in the public marcountry: the chief origin of which was the ket. Agriculture was thus utterly sacristate oppression of the only true sources ficed; for in the presence of enactments of national wealth — agriculture and indus- against enclosures and enactments against try and commerce. The kings of Spain the sale of grain, it was virtually imposhad so well succeeded in this, aided as they sible. The practice of entails, mayorazgos, were by the indolent proud prejudices of and the laws of mortmain, added further their subjects, that all industry was quite desolation to the country. As for the laws extinguished, and commerce and agricul- of entail, never were they so strictly obture nearly so throughout Spain. Of agri- served in any other country in Europe. culture, Sully has well said that, • le labour- When once a property was settled in mayage et le pâturage sont les deux mammelles orazgo in a family it was impossible to rende l'Etat, les vrais mines et trésors de der it available for any purposes of comPérou ;' and no country offers a more merce, and it could not be made subject to promising field to agriculture than Spain, debt. The consequence was, that by inand no country has ever made so little of termarriages the accumulation of landed her resources. The traveller at the pres- properties in single hands was enormous. ent day, when he traverses the interminable Some noble landowners had as many as plateaux of Arragon or Castile, and looks 80,000 people on their estates — people around bim and finds not a tree in sight, who might almost be called subjects, and and asks the reason, is told that the Span- could never acquire any property in the iards have a prejudice against trees; but land they cultivated. Latifúndia,' Pliny this is not the whole reason of the entire said, 'perdidere Romam.' By such a sysdenudation of the Spanish plain.

tem Campania Félix was reduced to a desIt may be doubted if this prejudice is of ert in the days of Honorius, and Italy natural growth at all, and whether it is not early in the Empire was obliged to seek for the foster-child entirely of legislation. The corn in the granaries of Spain and Sicily. chief reason of this absence of vegetation is The same aphorism applies with greater the series of laws directed in Spain against force to Spain, where the destructive influthe enclosure of fields. During the time ence of the accumulation of immense prowhen the wars of Spaniard and Moor and perties in single hands was outdone by the of countless petty chieftains and kings de- stupendous amount of land in the posvastated yearly the country, one can well session of priests and monks. With the understand that the agriculturist should I superstitious tendencies of the time, im

mense properties were yearly bequeathed | has alone escaped destruction from a prejto churches and monasteries for masses for udice in favour of the superior nobility of the souls of the testators :- a form of be- this kind of workmanship; but Segovian quest known as dejar beredera su alma' cloths, and Cordovan and Gallician leather, - and such property could never be alien- ceased entirely to be made. There were ated. The Statutes of Mortmain in Spain at one time 34,000 weavers in Segovia ; in were all of course in favour of the Church; the reign of Philip IV. there were but three so that it was reckoned that a fifth part of or four. Of the contempt into which the the soil of Spain was in the hands of business of a tanner fell, an idea may be priests and monks; and if in 1817 the formed by the fact that a member of a noproperty of the

clergy of Spain still ble family hunted his brother to death beamounted to 6,000,0001. a year, it may be fore all the law courts of Spain to deprive imagined what it must have been in the him of his property, for having married a days of its undisturbed ascendancy. At tanner's daughter. In fact, everybody in the end of the sixteenth century it appears the nation wanted, under legislative enthat the resources of the clergy of Castile couragement, to be noble or to be thought alone amounted to 3,320,0001. The evils so. The pecheros or working classes were of this accumulation of property in mort- regarded as pariahs. The Government main were beginning to be felt in the days succeeded so well in their aims that at the of Philip II., but the answer he made to end of the seventeenth century there were remonstrances from the Cortes remained 625,000 nobles in Spain, and the only serthe rule of his successors : Que no con- vice considered worthy of a Spaniard was venia que sobre eso se hiciese novedad' to become one of the starved ragged no(* No novelty could be allowed in such a bles soldados del rey, or to enter into the matter ').

domestic service of a noble house. With The suppression of agriculture, the may- what dignity they performed their functions orazgos, the immense quantity of land in as servants, may be surmised from the mortmain, led to the same result in Spain speech of a Spanish cook: ‘No puedo padeas the latifundia of imperial Italy - the cer la riña, siendo cristiano viejo, hidalgo country was mostly supplied with wheat como el rey y poco mas' (' I cannot endure from abroad. 11,315,851 fanegas of corn, a scolding, being a real old Christian, noand 1,601,750 fanegas of barley, it is com- ble as the King, and a little more '). The puted, were imported yearly; and, as great feudal dukes, made a practice of sellSpain had no manufactures to give in ex- ing noble titles; and indeed there was change, the result was a yearly drain of every inducement to get a title to nobility more than four millions and a half of Eng- in some way or other, for the noble, like lish pounds sterling out of the country. the priest, could not be taxed. The con

But the legislative discouragement of ag- tempt of the great nobles for all business riculture was exceeded by that of industry, transactions of any kind was without limit. which was utterly annihilated. The spirit Every Spaniard disdained to bargain. It of romantic but false honour which animated was beneath him to take back the change all classes only too readily yielded to the of a gold piece on purchase of the merest royal enactments on this point. Every- trifle. To take interest of money savoured body desired to be noble, and much of this of Judaism,* and all were considered confeeling may be accounted for by the previ- temptible who did so. When a Duke de ous history of the country. But Philip II. Frias died leaving three millions sterling who, it may be presumed, was disgusted of money and three daughters, the eldest with the rebellious spirit of the mechanics, of whom was seven years old, he directed manufacturers, and merchants of the Ne- by will that the money should be divided therlands, and considered such people as and locked up in three huge coffers, and a bad subjects, did his utmost to discourage coffer given to each daughter as she became both industry and commerce. The Al- of age or married. They despised so incavala was a heavy tax raised on every article sold; and the taxes laid on some The caution exercised by the Spaniard in the classes of artisans were so great that it was days of the Inquisition to avoid all imputation of cheaper for them to be idle than to work. bacon in the

national puchero is a standing protest The natural consequence was that indus- against Judaism. How unsleeping also was the wit try of all kinds perished in the country. er ingenuity of this people to fix the imputation of

by Spanish cloths and Spanish leather had, in

told by Castiglione in the Cortegiana.' A guest at the fifteenth century, as high a reputation a table called for vino, which in Spanish means throughout Europe as Toledo steel. The

wine' or · he came.' Y no lo conocistes,' retorted

another, taking it in the latter sense (" And you did manufacture of the steel blades of Toledo not receive him'), meaning of course our Saviour.

tensely all appearance of money-making by revolt after revolt. An Italian proverb work that the Prince of Distillano, who said that the Spaniard gnawed gold in had an important office in the Contratacion, Sicily, swallowed it in Naples, and deor Spanish India House, refused to put his voured it at Milan; to which may be added name to paper, when by doing so he might that he tore it out of the entrails of earth have gained 80,000 livres a year. To and man in Mexico and Peru; and all to every application made to bim for his sig- no use, so far as Spain was concerned. nature he replied, . Es una niñeria' (It is The gold and silver of the richest kingdoms a silly affair ).

and continents in the world came streaming As for commerce, the maxim was, “No-to the country; but it passed through it as bility may take a nap in domestic service, water through a tub of the Daniads. It but it is killed by commerce.' The natural swallowed everything and digested nothing, result was that all lucrative occupations after the fashion of all idlers and spendwhatever fell into the hands of Jews and thrifts. foreigners. Foreigners in these days flocked Yet proud ostentatious Spain retained all from all parts of Europe to work for the its national love for display in these times Spaniards; and, as they would as soon of excessive destitution as much as if it bave thought of settling in the Great Sa- were still the most wealthy nation in the hara as in poverty-stricken desert Spain, world, and this passion pervaded all classes. their only thought was to make a compe- The poor Hidalgo described by Quevedo who tency, and to send and carry their money turned his green baize cloak, for second out of a country where they were regarded wear, must beg, borrow, or rob money with contempt, both by people and Govern- enough on fète days to hire coach and ment; for the fact is true, incredible as it visit his friends in state. Of the Duke of may seem, that Charles II. relegated the Albuquerque, who dined on an egg and a foreign workmen of Madrid to live exclu- pigeon, it is on record, as we have said, sively in the Calle de Atocha, as though that the inventory of his plate took six they were in his eyes no better than Jews, weeks to make out. He possessed 120 and deserved to be set apart in a Ghetto by dozen silver plates, 500 large, and 500 small themselves. The carpenters, the shoe- dishes, and had 40 silver ladders to mount makers, the masons, the bakers, the weav- to the top of a gigantic sideboard crowded ers, the tanners, were supplied at last al- with silver vessels. Other nobles possessed most entirely from France and Switzerland, plate in proportion, and in the illuminated Flanders and Italy.

fêtes which they gave to royalty, the lamps The Marquis de Villars, who was instructed were hung with emeralds, topazes, and amto supply information about the trades to ethysts, and the ceilings and walls garlanded Louis XIV., said there were 40,000 for- with precious stones. The women eign workmen in Madrid. His computa- blazing with diamonds from head to foot, tion was that there were 1,000 French work- and wore necklaces and zones of thousands men and merchants in Navarre, 20,000 in of pearls, with which they also braided their Arragon, 1,000 in Catalonia, 12,000 in Val- long tresses in countless numbers.

No encia and Murcia, 16,000 in the two Cas- Spaniard so poor but he dressed in silk or tilles, 1,000 in Biscay, 16,000 in Anda- velvet, if it were by any manner of means lusia; in all 67,000 French — 7,000 mer- possible; and the possession of a guitar, chants and 60,000 workmen, doing for the and a sword and dagger, was more indisSpaniards what they ought to bave done for pensable to the poorest Spaniard than any themselves, and sending yearly seven or article of furniture. The Corregidors and eight millions of livres out of the country; Alcaldes wore gold brocade and crimson and the French only formed a portion of velvet at all public festivals, and the pomp the foreign mechanics and commercial peo- and display of public fetes, royal processions, ple in Spain, all living on the Spaniards; and travelling equipages were still unparalso that proud bankrupt Spain had long leled in Europe. been living and continued to live on its cap- Saint-Simon, who had experience enough ital, spending everything and earning noth-of court life, says somewhere in his · Méing. All the wealth of Mexico and Peru moires' that one of the best keys to the unmillions

millions - passed through the derstanding of the history of a country is the country, but not an ingot of gold or silver, knowledge of the daily routine of palace not a single piece, remained there. The life; and speaking of a despotic country, whole of the nations under their rule bled and of Spain, this is strictly true. The in gold for their pleasure, and they grew monarchs of Spain are complete represenpoorer and poorer. Their grinding taxes tatives of the country in almost every age; in Lombardy, in Naples, in Sicily, raised and its decline is exemplified in the charac

upon

were

He was

6

ter and court life of Charles II. in a fashion could not walk till the age of ten, and then
little short of marvellous ; even the dis- only by leaning on the shoulders of his
cases and the state of the King's body, as meninos, or pages of honour.
found after death, typified the condition of brought up on the lap of women and in
his country. He too in his last days swal- their company. His mother, who was Re-
lowed voraciously and digested nothing, gent, was afraid to make him study, and be
and not a drop of blood was found in his never showed any disposition to receive the
heart. Sus entrañas se hallaron en parte elements of education and knowledge.
canceradas, el corazon enjuto y seco, sin During the early part of the regency the
sangre alguna.' The unbappy King was Queen-mother, aided by a council, directed
little more than a walking, corpse, the im- the affairs of the kingdom; but her two
becile spectral semblance, both in mind and validos — the first, Nithard, a Viennese
feature, of each of his progenitors, who all Jesuit, and the second, Valenzuela, a hand-
in degeneration present the most striking some political Gil Blas, excited great dis-
family likeness. His lank long fair hair content, and were successively obliged by
tucked behind his ears, his high narrow a conspiracy of the nobles to fly from Spain.
forehead, his gaunt cheeks, his vacant gaze, The most important as well as perhaps the
his cadaverous complexion, his heavy under- most able statesman and general in the
hanging lip, his lean tall form, his ignorance country, was Don Juan of Austria, a natu-
of affairs and of human nature, character- ral son of Philip IV., whose military suc-
ised the person and the mind of Philip II. cesses in putting down revolts in Naples
in the last stage of imbecility, and his great and Sicily had, however, been nearly effaced
solution of every political difficulty was by his subsequent disasters in Portugal ---
given in the traditional reply of his house disasters which broke the spirit of Philip
Veremos.

IV. As he was treated with great favour The letters of Madame de Villars, the by Philip, and as, owing probably to that French Ambassadress, and of Madame inoculation with Moorish customs and feeld'Aulnoy, portray the court life of Madrid ings which has permanently affected the during this reign with a reality which reads language, manners, taste in dress, and hablike romance, and with incidents so extra- its of thought in Spain, natural sons have ordinary that they would seem exaggerated without question always held a position in some tale of human folly by Swift or Vol- there more favourable and more recognised taire. While the history of the marriage than in any other part of Europe, it had of the monarch with Marie Louise d'Orléans been expected that Philip IV. might declare and the first two years of their married life, him heir in the place of bis sickly infant which may be gathered wholly from these Charles.. A prince of such pretensions was pages, has an interest as pathetic as it is necessarily an object of jealousy to the extraordinary

Queen-mother, and bitter enmity subsisted Charles II. came into the world in 1661, between them. The Queen-mother at first four years before the death of his father succeeded in banishing Don Juan to SaraPhilip IV., about the time that the long gossa. She exiled many of his friends, and hostility of Spain and France had ended in one of them was arrested and strangled in the humiliation of Spain in the face of prison by an order from her hand. When Europe, in consequence of the dispute for the discontent caused by the pretensions precedence of the Spanish and French am- and political meddling of her favourite bassadors in London, at the court of the Valenzuela was at its height, Don Juan, at Protector, and two years after the miserable the invitation of some leading nobles, defeat of the Spaniards at Villa Viciosa. emerged from Saragossa, took possession He was thus born in the hour of Philip IV.'s of the Regency, exiled the Queen-mother deepest humiliation, and when that cadaver- to Toledo, and delivered the young King ous, proud, but gentle-natured monarch from the subjection to women in which he was in an almost dying state. His mother had hitherto been brought up. But this was Marie Anne of Austria, daughter of early period of female domination had the Emperor Frederic III. The son of made such an impression on the spirit of these parents was the living embodiment of Charles that he felt a horror at the sight of the sorrow, humiliation, and diseased con- a petticoat. He always turned out of the stitution of his father. The infant seemed way when he met a lady. His former govat first hardly to have life at all, and was erness, the Marquesa de los Velez, had to so perishable and delicate as to require to wait for six months to get a word from be placed in a cotton box. He was suckled him; and when he was obliged to receive a at the breast of his wet-nurse till he was petition from a woman he looked another three or four years old. The young prince way. With this disposition, it seemed un

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