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clusion, which had for ages been the policy welcome to those of Great Britain and of the Chinese Government, could no longer France. The late Sir Frederick Bruce, the be maintained; and that the time had coine British Minister to China, who had corwhen, in the interest of China no less than dially acted with Mr. Burlingame in all in that of the world, the Chinese Empire matters during their joint residence in Peshould formally seek admission into the kin, was cognisant of the proposed arrangecomity and brotherhood of the civilised na- ment, and is understood to have given it tions of Europe and America. The idea his hearty support. After due considera

so obvious to the European and tion Mr. Burlingame accepted the mission. American mind, that many who do not be- Two mandarins of the second-class, Sunstow sufficient thought upon the matter un- Tajen and Chih-Tajen, an English and a derrate the merit and genius of Prince Kung French secretary, and a numerous suite of in conceiving and acting upon it. But the attachés, interpreters, and other officials, Prince, though not a revolutionist, is the were associated with him; and early in the greatest reformer that China has produced; spring of last year he set sail for San Franand in resolving, as he has done, to break cisco, to commence the performance of his down the moral Chinese wall that separated duties in the land of his nativity. his country from the rest of the world, has It was to have been expected among so entitled himself not alone to the praise of impulsive, warm-hearted, and demonstrative wisdom, but of courage. There were many a people as the Americans, that Mr. Burways by which this great change in Chinese lingame and his colleagues would be repolicy might have been made known to the ceived with more than ordinary enthusiasm. powers of the earth - either by the promul. It is easy to stir up the American people to gation of Chinese official documents, by no-political demonstrations of a kind which in tification to the diplomatic and consular slower and less excitable England are wholly agents of all States represented at Pekin unknown; but here was an occasion entireand the treaty ports, or by the despatch of ly novel, highly important, and one that a sufficient number of envoys or ambassa- appealed strongly, not only to the imaginadors to all the courts and governments of tion of the people, but to their national Christendom. Or the Prince might have pride and their commercial interests. Had selected from the many able men associated the plenipotentiary been in the humour for with himself in the administration of Chi-dinners for in America, as among ournese affairs, one person of the highest rank selves, the public dinner is a political instruand attainments and diplomatic skill to ment of no mean power and popularity – travel from kingdom to kingdom - from he might have traversed the Union from state to state - both in the Old World and extremest west to extremest east and rethe New — to represent vitâ voce the new ceived at any city at which he chose to halt . position which the ancient Empire had as- for the night such hearty demonstrations as sumed, and to explain the intimate relations the wealth of the inhabitants could bestow, into which it desired to enter with its neigh- and been greeted with such foods of rhetbors. But there were no Chinese states-oric and rhetorical buncombe as no other men to be found who, in addition to other people in the world can either so effectively essential requisites for so high a post, pos- discharge or so thoroughly appreciate. It sessed sufficient knowledge of the languages is' not often that the San Franciscans have and the ideas of Christendom to be able to such an opportunity as the arrival of Mr. enter into negotiations with governments so Burlingame afforded them. The city has many and so varied as those of Great Brit- a resident population of 50,000 Chinamen, ain, the United States, France, and Russia, and of about four or five times that number to say nothing of smaller, but still import- of industrious and enterprising American ant powers. Under these circumstances, immigrants from the Atlantic sea-board and Prince Kung bethought himself that one of the older States of the Union; so that the the Christian ambassadors who had resided Embassy alike in its cosmopolitan, its Amerlong enough in China to become familiar ican, or its Chinese character, could not exwith the character and traditions of the peo- pect to pass without an“ ovation," : and ple and the wishes of the Government, might an “ovation" there was on the 29th of April, be induced to accept a mission from China when the spacious banqueting-hall of the to Christendom. The first person he Lick House, the largest and finest on the thought of in this capacity was Mr. Burlin- American continent, was filled with an engame, a statesman who, he rightly thought, thusiastic crowd to do honour to the Miniswould be agreeable to the people and Gov- ter Plenipotentiary, and give his Chinese ernment of the United States, and not un-colleagues the first glimpse into the forms,

our

the spirit, and the splendour of a civiliza- the Eastern and Western world." I will not at tion so much newer than, and so very differ- tempt,” he continued, " to picture the grand reent from, their own.

sults which, I trust, will flow from this auspiMr. Haight, the governor of California, cious event, not merely to America and Europe, in proposing the toast of the evening,

but to China and to mankind. I see in the near guest, the Honourable Anson

Burlingame, the Chinese empire and the nations of the West;

future a vast commerce springing up between the son of the youngest and the representative of the oldest government in the an interchange of products and manufactures world,” was both eloquent and sensible and the precepts of a pure religion uttered to

mutually beneficial; the watchwords of progress (the truest eloquence is always the most the ears of one-third of the human race, hitherto sensible), and described the objects of the resisting with the inertia of a dead weight all mission in a manner peculiarly gratifying progress, material, political, social or spiritual." to the San Franciscans, who expect, and not without reason, that the trade of Eu- Then, addressing himself personally to rope to China will ere long flow westward, Mr. Burlingame, he expressed a hope, and that this city will be its half-way house. which Englishmen as well as Americans He affirmed the mission to be a great his- may share,

" that he had accepted his great torical event. It marked the entrance of trust in no selfish or narrow spirit, either the oldest empire on the globe into the of personal advantage or of seeking exclugreat family of nations, from which it had sive privileges for America over other nafor thousands of years held scrupulously tions; and finally, in the name of comaloof.

merce, of civilisation, of progress, of hu

manity, and of religion - on behalf pot “Mercantile enterprise and religious devo merely of California or America, but of tion,” he continued, "had vainly striven to Europe and of mankind — he bade him and overthrow the barriers which a jealous spirit of his associates welcome and God-speed." seclusion had erected and maintained against contact with those who were regarded by the teresting as being his first public utterance

Mr. Burlingame's reply — not only inpeople of that empire as 'outside barbarians.' The antiquity of Chinese civilisation — the

upon the subject of his mission, but as befection to which many of the arts had attained ing in substance and spirit the same as all among that people — the value of some of their bis other speeches in Washington, New agricultural products, especially that far-famed York, Boston, and elsewhere - merits the herb that cheers but not inebriates' — their lack attention of the commercial classes of this of knowledge of the religion of the Bible — had country, as showing exactly what China all operated as powerful incentives to efforts, wants in seeking admission into the comboth selfish and unselfish, to open the door to monwealth of nations, and what she does freedom of trade and interchange of products not want. That it may receive this attention and ideas. Opinions might differ upon the as far as the circle of our influence extends, question of immigration and other subjects, but we reproduce its most important passages, there was, and could be, no difference of opinion omitting the merely local and personal alupon the desirableness of unrestrained commer-lusions. cial intercourse with China, and with all the reticent as a diplomatic functionary should

Mr. Burlingame, while he was as nations of the earth. To Californians, the ap- be who had not yet been received by any pointment by that Government of an American of the governments to which he was accrecitizen to be its organ of communication with the Western Powers, was an event of peculiar dited, spoke very plainly as diplomacy interest. The discovery of gold in California, is at last learning to do, finding that secreand the consequent rush of adventurous emi- cy and mystery are not the best policy in gration across the plains and mountains, had our times, whatever they may have been in brought the oldest and youngest of nations face the days that are gone. He gave an into face on the opposite shores of the Pacific teresting résumé of the present position of Ocean. The young, impulsive, progressive civil- the Treaty Powers towards China, and of isation of America was thus brought into direct the position and desires of China towards contact with the ancient, venerable, and peculiar them and the world. civilization of Asia. Events, some of which," he added, “ were perhaps not very creditable either “ There is,” said the ambassador, “nothing to China or to Europe, had culminated in lib- in the origin of the mission that I should not be erating the Chinese mind from the fetters in glad to tell. There is nothing — not one purwhich it has been bound by centuries of exclu- pose of it — that I should be ashamed to conceal. sion from Caucasian progress. The first result It came to me unsolicited; it was accepted in the of this liberation was the remarkable spectacle broad interests of civilisation. . You said truly, they beheld that evening, when a citizen of the sir” (turning to Governor Haight), " when you young republic appeared before them as the said that the mission would not be used by me bearer of offers of commerce and amity between in any partial or limited sense. If I know myself, it shall be conducted only in the interests | rich fruits. Under its inspiring influences comof all the world. This mission is not the result merce has sprung into being; trade has inof any accident, or of any special design; it is creased from 82,000,000 to 300,000,000 dollars; the result, the legitimate consequence, of events steamboats have been multiplied; arsenals have which have recently occurred at Pekin. It was been built; lighthouses are being erected; hunnot until recently that the Western Powers were dreds of foreigners have been taken into the brought into proper relations with the Chinese civil service of China, under the leadership of Government. Previously, affairs went on upon some of the ablest men in the world. The flag a system of misunderstandings, resulting in which is above us (the imperial flag of China) mutual misfortunes. It was not until the year has been adopted as the first national flag of 1860 that the representatives of the Treaty Pow-China. Wheaton's International Law has been ers met the great men who carry on the Chinese taken and is become a text-book for that great empire. Coming into personal relations with empire. The influence of Christian missions has them, their representatives had occasion to modify been advanced from the Yellow Sea even to the their views as to the capacity of the members of great plains of Mongolia. A great college has the Chinese Government and as to the intentions been established at Pekin, where modern science of those men. And they were led straightway is to be taught, as well as the foreign languages to consider how they should substitute for the - a great college which will be looked up to by old false system of force one of fair diplomatic the eleven thousand students of China who go action. They addressed themselves resolutely up every three years to Pekin to take their third to the discussion of that question, and that dis- and fourth degrees, and to look, as they term cussion resulted in the adoption of what is called it into the mirror of the mind,' to see what it the co-operative policy,' which is briefly this : has to reveal to them. And, finally, as a reAn argument on the part of the Treaty Powers sult, I think, directly of that fair and generous to act together upon all material questions -- to policy, it has sent this mission forth on its stand together in defence of their treaty rights; errand of goodwill. As I have said, I will not and the determination, at the same time, to give speak at length of its purposes -- I must reserve to these treaties a generous construction; a de myself for questions as they arise; but this i termination to maintain the foreign system of will say, that this mission means that China customs, and to support it by a pure adminis- desires to come into warmer and more intimate tration and upon a cosmopolitan basis; an agree-relations with the West. It means that she dement to take no concessions of territory to the sires to come under the obligations of internaTreaty Powers, and never to menace the terri- tional law, to the end that she may enjoy the torial integrity of China. These agreements are advantages of that law. It means that China, at the foundation of the co-operative policy. conscious of her own integrity, wishes to have You will perceive that they leave China per- her question stated; that she is willing to subfectly free to develop herself in precisely such mit her questions to the general judgment of form of civilisation at she may desire, at such mankind. It means that she intenus to come time and in such manner as she pleases. It into the brotherhood of nations. It means comleaves her waters under her own control, and merce; it means peace; it means a unitication her territory safe from aggression or spoliation. of the whole human race. Though this ephemeSuch, in brief, is the co-operative policy. I do ral mission may puss away, the great movement not propose to speak of the protracted discus- will go on. The fraternal feeling of four hunsions which led to these results. I did not in- dred millions of people his commenced to flow tend — and it would be improper to do so — – to through the land of Washington to the older speak of the action of the living in this regard, nations of the West, and it will flow for ever. but I would speak of the dead. There is one who is there that would check it? Who is there who is identified with that policy, and with the that would say to China, We wish to have no establishment of justice in China, whose name other relations with you than such as we egought never to be forgotten or passed over in tablish in our own interests and enforce at the silence - the name of Sir Frederick Bruce, the cannon's mouth?' I trust there are none such. late British Minister at Washington. That great I believe, rather, that this fraternal meeting is man, recalling the traditions and practices of the true exponent of the sentiment of the masses his own country, said that they jarred upon the of the people. I believe this occasion reflects moral sense of England, and that he was ready more truly that enlarged spirit which is not upon his own responsibility to reverse them. He alone devoted to trade, but also to civilisation was ready to lead against them: and he did and progress; that great and liberal spirit which lead against them, so fairly and so ably as, in would not be content with exchanging goods the first place, to earn the respect of his col- with China, but would also exchange thoughts leagues; in the second place, to receive the sup- with her; that would inquire carefully into the port of his country; and, in the third place, to causes of that sobriety and that industry for win the admiration of the diplomatic world. It which the Chinese are celebrated; that would is not time yet to speak of the results of that learn something of the long experience of that policy. I cannot foretell the future; I can only people; that would question those institutions speak to some extent of the recent past. And as which have withstood the storms of time as to I do so I must aver that that policy has borne the secrets of their stability; that would ask

what means that free competition by which the company, that, advancing from small things son of the lowliest cooly may rise to the highest to great, had ended by converting a splenoffices in the empire, and that makes scholarship did native empire into an appanage and dethe test of merit; that does not believe that pendency of an alien and distant Power. genius is dead in the land of Confucius; that There still remain amongst us too many does not believe the powers of the mind shall no more be kindled and burn on the soil beneath Cial — who would perpetuate the policy (or

politicians – commercial and uncommerwhich rest the bones of the inventors of porce, iinpolicy) of force towards. China, who printing; that does not believe the Christian's would compel it to govern itself by our hope should cease to bloom where the Christian ideas, and who would force it to buy our opimartyrs fell. Ricci, Verbrest, Schaab, Morri- um for the demoralisation of its people, even son, Milne, Bridgeman, Cuthbertson, and a host if the trading compulsion took the untrades. of others lived and laboured and died praying manlike form of fire and sword, the bomand hoping that the day would arrive when that bardment of their cities, and the slaughter great nation would stretch forth its arms towards of the inhabitants. There are others not the shining banners of Christianity and Western so truculent who would, nevertheless, secivilisation. The hour has struck and the day cure the monopoly of the Chinese tradeis here."

whether acquired by fair means or by foul It is only necessary to add to this author- to the merchants of Great Britain ; and itative exposition of the wishes of China who look upon Mr. Burlingame's mission for her future intercourse with the world, a with a considerable amount of jealousy. few facts to show what has been the previ- These persons, whether they be few or ous intercourse of the world with China. many, must reconcile themselves to what it There have been faults on both sides, but has become the fashion to call “the logic the greater faults have been on the side of of facts." The future intercourse between the Europeans, and notably of Great Brit- China and the Christian nations must be ain. The Chinese have, doubtless, been in guided by the Christian doctrine of doing the wrong in treating the Europeans and as they would be done by, which is the Americans as “outside barbarians ; ” but doctrine of Confucius as well as that of have not the Europeans been quite as much Jesus; and not upon the . barbarian docin the wrong in depreciating the intelligence trine that, because a nation, great or small, and civilisation of the Chinese? We were does not see its way to profitable trade, or barbarians two thousand years ago, and any trade, such nation must be taught they were not. And though we have run political economy at the point of the bayofaster than they in the interval, they have net or by the fiery eloquence of artillery. not been asleep during all that time. The In the new relations already established European error has been the more prolific and to be still further extended with China, of the two in producing ill feelings and it must be a question of give and take on war, inasmuch as the Chinese only desired both sides, and a mutual relinquishment of to be let alone; and the Christian nations old prejudices. If the Chinese have much - often forgetful of their Christianity – to learn from us, we also have something to very obstinately persisted in not letting learn from them. Among other things we them alone, treating them in a spirit but can learn from them how to educate the little more kindly and conciliatory, than people. They are, par excellence, the litethat which they displayed to the red abo- rary nation of the world; and their literarigines of America, to the blacks of Africa, ture, unlike our own, does not merely float to the Fijians, and the New Zealanders. lightly over the heads of the upper and Even if they did not fall into this extremity middle classes of society, but percolates to of error, they fell into another quite as the millions who toil for their daily bread, hurtful to the pride of the Chinese, and so that an uneducated Chinaman, even of treated this people – vith its ancient tradi- the meanest and poorest estate, can scarcetions, its venerable history, its humane ly be said to exist. If all their printed moral code, its intellectual religion - as books were consumed by fire or otherwise if it were a child to be taken into pupilage, destroyed to-morrow, a body of sound and and to be indoctrinated, per fas aut nefas, wholesome literature, including the works into those Western ideas and habits which of Confucius and Mencius, would still exist might suit the West, but which were un- in the memory of more than twenty millions known to, and might, if known, be wholly of men, and would be reprinted without the unsuitable to the East. The Chinese, no loss of an idea or even of a word. So careless or uninterested observers, saw at long have they preceded us in the establishthe same time wbat had been the fate of In- ment of true principles in the administradia-swallowed up piecemeal by a foreign tion of all the minor offices of government

us.

and of the civil service, that it was but the peans the graveyards of their ancestors. other day that the British Government The whole country, populous beyond comadopted a principle that has been in opera- parison with any other, is populous with tion in China from time immemorial – the these cities and villages of the dead - of bestowal of public appointments as the re- the dead who died thousands of years ago, sult of a competitive examination. In this as well as of the dead who died but yester. respect the Chinese are still in advance of day. And if a railroad company in search

In England a young man must be of a straight line were but to threaten the nominated by somebody before he can least of these sacred enclosures, the whole compete with others for a civil or military population would be up in arms to prevent appointment. In China the young man or to punish the sacrilege. Either the rails can nominate himself as a candidate for the must be laid on the existing common roads honours and emoluments of the State. He or the religious feeling — it may be called needs no aristocratic support, because in the superstition of the people must be China there is no aristoracy but that of modified or softened down, before the rail learning – marked with the seal of success is possible in China. In like manner the in the indispensable examination. There electric wire, if laid, would not be safe is, it is true, an aristocracy of wealth -as among a people, especially in the interior, there is and must be in all countries; but who are still very jealous of the “ outer official aristocracy is the aristocracy of barbarians ; " and its introduction must be learning and literature. Thus the poorest postponed until that jealousy subsides, as man of merit and capacity has an infinitely it is to be hoped it will with the increase of better chance of rising to the highest rank trade and friendly intercourse. The Centhan the rich man whose capacity is either tral Government, with Prince Kung at its small or non-existent. The first-mentioned head, very fully appreciates the advantage has all the chances in his favour; the latter of these things; but the powerful local has none. Such a people are not to be governments, who sometimes yield but a taken under European or American patron- very shadowy or fragile allegiance to the age, or to be accounted as barbarians be- Emperor, may not; and the people may, cause their civilization is different from and do for the present, go along with the ours, and has not been of such rapid latter. This is evident from a memorial to growth. “Slow and sure” has been the the Chinese Yamen,” or Foreign Office, motto of China since the days of Confu- from one of the most powerful Governors

and if China now appears to be go- General of the provinces, who rules over ing a little faster than it did, the Christian the two Kiang and a population of upwards nations should not be disappointed if she of sixty millions. This high functionary, does not move quite so fast as they would Tseng Kwo Fan, though he does not wholwish; and remember, in the case of China ly oppose the enlightened policy of the as in their own, that a liberal and progress- Central Government, expresses some doubts ive government cannot always carry a prej- of its wisdom, as well as much distrust of udiced people along with it. The neutral- the foreigners who come to push a trade in ity of Chinese waters, the integrity of the China against the wishes of the natives. Chinese territory, the sovereignty of Chi- “ Foreigners in the East and West,” he nese law over all persons, native or foreign, says, have for several hundred years been inhabiting the territory - these are de- making and unmaking kingdoms, each kingmands which the Chinese have as much dom wishing to deprive its neighbor's subright to insist upon as France, England, or jects of some advantage, with the hope that America have as regards themselves, and its own subjects might ultimately profit within their own jurisdiction. These points thereby. Their object in coming to China, conceded as from equal to equal, an exten- setting up places of business everywhere, sion of trade - perhaps total Free-trade- and trading largely in goods, is to follow will follow in due time between China and their nefarious devices of depriving others all the world. But the go-a-head Ameri- of advantages, and to damage our mere cans and the enterprising English must not chants.". Tseng Kwo Fan, with a strong be in too great a hurry with their railroads faith in bis own religion, has no fear that and their electric telegraphs, or expect any Christian missionaries, however numerconcessions from the Chinese Government ous and eloquent they may be, will make - at least not yet awhile - for the estab-converts among the Chinese. He hints that lishment of either.

Roman Catholics and Protestants hate each Two powerful but not insuperable imped- other, while the religion of Confucius " has iments stand in the way. The Chinese ven- not suffered attrition through myriads of erate to a degree quite unknown to Euro- ages." He objects, however, to railroads, LIVING AGE.

520

cius;

VOL. XIII.

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