« FöregåendeFortsätt »
and grotesque. Rowland Hill (who cer- Plain-speaking is desirable, as a matter of tainly did not himself sin on the side of over- good taste as well as of edification, in the pulrefinement) was right enough when he said, pit. There, of all places, affectation, or the " I don't like those mighty fine preachers, savour of affectation, raises a sneer of angry who so beautifully round off all their peri- disgust; whereas an honest homeliness will ods that they roll off the sinner's con- at the worst but call forth a harmless smile. science.” “When I preach,” said Luther, A Welsh Calvinistic minister, well known in “I sink myself deeply down: I regard his day as “Sammy Breeze," was called neither doctors nor masters, of whom there upon to preach amongst others at one of are in the church above forty ; but I have those periodical gatherings popular amongst an eye to the multitude of young people, the Welsh, which are, as it were, feasts of children, and servants, of whom there are sermons — two, three, or even four preachmore than two thousand." It is hardly too ers succeeding each other in the pulpit much to say that two-thirds of every ser- perhaps in Welsh and English alternately, mon that is preached is practically unintel- The young man who immediately preceded ligible to an audience of working men. Sammy bad taken as his text, He that Neither the words, nor the ideas, nor the believeth not shall be damned;
but formation of the sentences, are what they “ begged pardon " of his audience for the are accustomed to. It is quite true that strong language he was using. Sammy got such audiences by no means object to fine up after him, and read the same text. language, if it be sonorously delivered; “Brethren,” said he in his honest Welsh and there are plenty of stories current as to English, our young friend has been fery the imposing effect of a sounding polysyl- foine to-night, and very polite. I am not lable, or even a scrap of Latin, upon igno- fery foine, and I am not polite ; but I will rant hearers. But if the pulpit trumpet is preach a little bit of gospel to you — He to call to the real battle of life, it must at that believeth not shall be tamned,' — and I least utter an intelligible sound. Sermons, begs no pardons." even more than prayers and catechisms, The length of a sermon is a very fertile must be in the “ vulgar tongue,” if they are subject, in the present day, of discontent to have any practical effect on the masses. and remonstrance. Tastes and opinions It has been one of the laments over the have always differed, and the preacher's Church of England that she is “ dying of own views upon this point may not always gentility;" but those who have listened to be in exact correspondence with those of preachers outside her pale know that the his congregation. Sermons in early times Dissenting pulpit is not a whit more free seen to have been comparatively short. from the faults of an inflated style and Some of those extant by the Latin fathers "genteel” vocabulary. The fine language would not occupy, as they stand, more of such orators is of a different type; the than ten minutes or a quarter of an hour; ornament is coarser, the metaphors less many of Bede's consist of only a very few chaste; but the fastidious polish of the uni- lines. Therefore we are not safe in resting versity graduate is not replaced, as one upon such data for their actual duration might be led to hope, by the homely sim- when delivered, since it is plain that in plicity of an uneducated apostle. There is many cases what has come down to us are more declamation, but hardly so much com- merely outlines or notes upon which the mon sense; and often the only difference in preacher worked, or short-hand memothe matter of hard words is, that the randa (for there were short-hand writers preacher of the conventicle is not quite so even in those early times) taken down on nice as Mrs. Malaprop in his “ derangement the spot, and dressed and corrected afterof epitaphs.” Hard words are often worse wards. Long sermons, as a rule, were the than unintelligible to an ignorant hearer; product of the post-Reformation, and eshe makes a guess at their meaning from the pecially of the Puritan times, when preachcontext, and the guess is not always a happy ing usurped a sovereignty over all devotional one. A country clergyman ean hardly be exercises. Yet some of the earlier divines too careful in this respect. Mr. Hood has were lengthy enough, especially university a story of one who was sent for suddenly to preachers. Bishop Alcock preached "a a cottage, where he found a man in bed. good and pleasant sermon at St. Mary's, “ Well, my friend,” said the pastor, “what Cambridge, which lasted from one o'clock induced you to send for me?” The pa- until half-past three. If such was anything tient, who was rather deaf, appealed to his like the ordinary length of a university serwife. “What do he sav? "
mon, one need not wonder at the rise of shouted the woman What the deuce did the practice of scraping with the feet you send for him for ?"
amongst the undergraduate portion of the
• He says,
audience, by which, with their eyes and ap- in the matter of prolixity as the Puritans.! parently their whole attention fixed on the Barrow was notorious for the length of his preacher, they contrived without detection sermons: one of his celebrated Spital serto signify their impatience. An hour mons is said to have lasted three hours and measured by the glass — seems to have a-half; and it is added that, when one of been held the legitimate length in the great his hearers asked him, in what must have preaching-days after the Reformation and been a polite irony, whether he was not if the preacher invited his audience to “an- tired, he replied, “Yes — of standing so other glass," as Daniel Burgess, a lengthy long." Of comparatively modern preachNon-conformist preacher, is said to have ers, Edward Irving tried the patience of done, the proposition was not always fav- his hearers in this respect most severely. ourably received. Mr. Fosbrooke tells us Mrs. Oliphant relates, in her delightful bioof a country squire at Bibury in Glouces-graphy of that remarkable man, the story tershire, who, when he found that his min- of his long-remembered sermon — - of three ister had taken to turn his hour-glass, used hours and a-half — preached for the Lonregularly to leave church after the text was don Missionary Society in Tottenham given out, retiring to take his glass else- Court Road Chapel. “The necessity of where, returning in good time for the final coming to an end did not occur to himn." blessing. Modern congregations are well Thrice he paused, and the patient congrecontent with half the hour-glass meas- gation sang hymns in the interval. But, ure; a good many, indeed, would not ob- partly on account of his enthusiastic theory ject to the judicial dictum attributed to of missionary work, and partly, no doubt, Baron Alderson, on being asked to give his from the length at which it was set forth, the opinion. “ Twenty minutes — with a lean- “ religious world” never wholly forgave ing to the side of mercy.” And an Ameri- him. It is with the wholesome awe of the can critic, who had certainly never heard Nemesis which always waits upon prolixity, of the English judge's verdict, came to a and not because we have exhausted a subsimilar conclusion — " If a preacher can't ject which has been only slightly and imstrike ile in twenty minutes, he's either got perfectly touched, that we now take leave on an uncommon bad location, or he's bor- of our readers. It is possible that we may
with the wrong tool.” Highly ortho- return to the more modern ulpit heredox divines have sinned almost as largely after.
"THEY DESIRE A BETTER COUNTRY."
And who is this that veiled doth walk with thee?
One exile holds us both, and we are bound
I would not if I could undo my past,
Tho' for its sake my future is a blank;
My past, for which I have myself to thank
Or launch a second ship for one that sank,
Or drug with sweets the bitterness I drank,
More than a thousand hopes in jubilee;
That unforgotten calls and calls to me, “Follow me here, rise up, and follow here."
A dimness of a glory glimmers here
Thro’ veils and distance from the space remote,
A faintest far vibration of a note
Making the serried mist to stand afloat,
Subduing languor with an antidote,
Rise looming on us, golden walls of home,
Then thro' the outer darkness burdensome
CHRISTINA G. ROSSETTI. Macmillan's Magazine.
What seekest thou far in the unknown land?
In hope I follow joy gone on before,
In hope and fear persistent more and more, As the dry desert lengthens out its sand. Whilst day and night I carry in my hand
The golden key to ope the golden door
Of golden home; yet mine eye weepeth sore For the long journey that must make no stand.
LIVING AGE. VOL. XIII. 522
From The Magazine of Biography. Forbes has already become widely known
as a student of physical science, and espeOn the 31st of December, 1868, died at cially from his researches on the subject of Clifton, James David Forbes, one of the heat. A short account of these will be most distinguished men of science of his found in the Dissertation on the progress of day, and, until a few months before his Mathematical and Physical Science from death, Principal of the United Colleges of 1775 to 1850, contributed by Forbes himSt. Salvator and St. Leonard at St. An- self to the Encyclopædia Britannica in drew's.
1858. The slight manner in which his imHe was born in Edinburgh on the 20th portant discoveries are there mentioned of April, 1808, the youngest son of Sir forms, in the opinion of a writer we have William Forbes, of Pitsligo, in the county already quoted, the one defect visible in of Aberdeen, by Williamina, only child and that dissertation. Fuller information on heiress of Sir John Stuart, of Fettercairn. the subject will be found in Professor He was educated at the University of Edin- Powell's Second Report on Radiant Heat in burgh, and was appointed to the chair of the Brit. Assoc. Reports for 1840. At the Natural Philosophy in that University on time when Forbes commenced his investithe death of Sir John Leslie, in 1833, at the gations the instruments available for such early age of 24. Among his competitors purposes were extremely inefficient. His for the office were the late Sir David Brew- first attempts to test the polarizability of ster and Mr. Galloway, both, but especially heat by means of common thermometers the former, men of great scientific eminence were unsuccessful. But shortly before the and European reputation. The choice of period of these experiments — about the Forbes has been abundantly justified by his year 1828 - a new and extremely delicate subsequent career; but it is interesting to instrument had been contrived, or at least remark the high estimation in which his greatly improved, by Nobili, a skilful and powers were even then held by so great a ingenious physicist of Reggio, Modena, inan as the late Sir John Herschel, who, in assisted by Macedonio Melloni, of Parma. the testimonial which he gave the young This was the so-called Thermo-multiplier, candidate, says: “It would be the height in which the minutest differences of temof absurdity to think of raising an objection perature are indicated and measured by the on the score of standing to one who has electric current generated in the instrualready brilliantly distinguished himself, ment.* On repeating his former experiand whose talents and application can only ment with this delicate test in November, be rendered more precious by the vigour 1834, Forbes succeeded in proving that heat of age to which they are attached." was polarized, like light, in passing through
A writer in the Scotsman of Jan. 6th re- a crystal of tourmaline, and also by transmarks of his university lectures :
mission through a bundle of thin mica plates Those who had the pleasure of belonging to placed at the polarizing angle. He next by his class can recall with distinctness, after the an indirect but extremely ingenious experilapse of many years, the admiration with which ment succeeded in proving that polarized they regarded the singular lucidity of his style, heat is subject to the same modifications and the thoroughness with which he gave his which doubly-refracting crystallized bodies explanations. There was no slurring-over of impress upon light. He also succeeded in difficulties; none of the pompous but vague lan- repeating with heat Fresnel's experiment guage too commonly einployed to mask imper- on light, producing circular polarization by fections or absence of knowledge; no tedious two internal reflections. The whole of magnification of trifles; but an honest and per- these important investigations were comsevering attempt to impart real and valuable pleted between November 1834 and Januinformation. The scrupulous care which dis-ary 1835. The greatest novelty in tbem, tinguished him in everything else was bestowed, besides the application of the thermo-mulif possible, in greater share upon his manuscript tiplier to this purpose, was the employment lectures, which, we hope, will some day be pub- of the piles of mica plates for polarizing lished. Among the masses of hastily-written the heat by transmission. This contrivance and ill-digested trash which form by far the greater portion of the publications of the present * The thermo-multiplier consists of a number of time - not in literature alone, but, sad to say, short thin bars of antimony and bismuth, arranged in science - the appearance of such a work like a square faggot, and sidered twgether in pairs would be hailed with real delight by all who are compound, metallic conductor. Any difference of was naturally suggested to Forbes by his of which is appended to Forbes's volume on having previously observed the extraordi- Norway, published in 1853. They then nary permeability of mica to radiant heat. went to Switzerland, and, having met Prof. At the time of his earliest and unsuccessful Agassiz by appointment at the Grimsel experiments Sir David Brewster had written Hospice on the 8th of August, proceeded him a letter in which he suggested as a by his invitation to spend some time with mode of polarizing heat, among others, the him on the Unter-Aar glacier. reflection of heat from mica bundles. This For three weeks afterwards they were suggestion was not put in practice at the engaged together daily upon the ice, shartime, and appears to have been entirely ing at night the shelter of the same rude forgotten by Forbes when he adopted the hut, under one of the huge blocks of the use of a similar apparatus for polarization medial moraine of the glacier. The general by transmission. These experiments, taken fact of the downward movement of glaciers in conjunction with those carried on at the bad long been known, although it is resame time by Melloni and others, established lated that a certain professor of Tübingen, the identity of action, under similar condi- after a brief visit to those of Switzerland, tions, of light and radiant heat, forming a went home and wrote a book latly denying most important step in the investigation of the possibility of their motion. The first the nature of both, and contributed in no attempt to form a glacier theory was that trifling degree to the great advance which of Scheuchzer in 1705. He supposed the this branch of physics has since achieved. motion to result from the conversion of
at alternate ends so as to form a single, long, bent. qualified to judge. And there are few, if any, temperature between the two ends of the instrument even among the greatest of scientific men, who generates a thermo-electric current, which is means would rot cheerfully own that they would bene- ured by means of a galvanometer, to which it is con
ducted by wires proceeding from the opposite ends fit largely by the perusal.
of the system of bars.
Another important investigation con- water into ice within the glacier, the expanducted by Forbes with respect to the prop- sion so caused furnishing the force which erties of heat related to thermal conduc- impelled it downwards. This theory, tivity. He was the first to point out — and adopted and illustrated by M. de Charpenthis at a very early period of his career – tier, has since been associated with his name. the fact that the conducting powers of the De Saussure, following Altmann and Grümetals for electricity are approximately ner, concluded that the glacier reposing on proportional to their conducting powers for an inclined bed, slid down by little and litheat. Now, heat diminishes materially the tle, as a solid mass, towards the valleys. electric conducting power -- does it also M. Rendu, Bishop of Annecy, who died in affect the thermal conductivity ? Forbes the autumn of 1859, published in the Meshowed that, at least in the case of iron, moirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences of the only metal his failing health left him Savoy, in 1841, an essay entitled Théorie strength to examine, the conductivity for des Glaciers de la Savoie, in which he for heat diminishes as the temperature increases. the first time directed attention to the Another result of the same investigations, different rates of motion of different parts and one of great interest and importance in of the same glacier, and especially to the modern science, is his determination (the fact that the centre of the glacier * moves earliest of any real value) of the absolute more rapidly, while the sides are retained conductivity of a substance, i. e. how much by the friction against its rocky walls." heat passes per second per unit of surface M. Rendu also remarks that “ between the through an iron plate of given thickness, Mer de Glace and a river there is a resemwhose faces are maintained at constant blance so complete that it is impossible to given temperatures. As a proof of the find in the latter a circumstance which does value attached by scientific men to these not exist in the former — the friction of the ingenious experiments, it is only necessary bottom, that of the sides, the action of obto mention that the British Association has stacles, cause the motion to vary, and only given a grant for their repetition with the in the middle of the surface is this entire." best attainable instrumental means, and for The first person who made quantitative their extension to other substances than observations of the motion was Hugi, who those to which Forbes was compelled to found that from 1827 to 1830 a cabin confine himself.
erected by him on the Aar glacier had In the months of June and part of July, moved 100 métres, or about 110 yards, 1841, Forbes was engaged in exploring the downwards; and in 1841 M. Agassiz found volcanic countries of Central France, an it at a distance of 1428 mètres from its account of the results of which expedition original position. We have thought it is contained in a paper in the twentieth vol- necessary to give these details regarding ume of the Edinburgh Phil. Transactions. the state of the question at the time it was The remainder of July was devoted, in taken up by Forbes, as the importance of company with Mr. Heath of Cambridge, to the contributions which he made to the excursions in Dauphiné, an account of part I knowledge of the subject has perhaps been exaggerated on the one hand, while it has | bis interesting narrative of alpine scenes been as much depreciated on the other. and adventures contributed not a little to The general analogy between the motion of kindle the enthusiasm with which such a glacier and that of a river had been
clearly scenes have since come to be regarded by pointed out by Rendu, but the obvious succeeding mountaineers. difference between the solid ice and the The Travels through the Alps was followed mobile elements of a stream remained, and by his Norway and its Glaciers (Edinb. 8vo. how this solid mass could present phenome- 1852), the narrative of a journey undertakna similar to those of a liquid remained to en in the summer of 1851, to which was apbe accounted for. By his observations on pended Journals of Excursions in the High the Aar glacier, and subsequently by those Alps of Dauphiné, Berne, and Savoy (made on the Mer de Glace, Forbes examined in 1839 and 1841), and by The Tour of Mount these phenomena in detail, and in four let- Blanc and Monta Rosa (ib. 1835), an ters to Prof. Jameson (1812, Ed. Phil. abridgement of the larger work. In 1849 Journal, 1842–3), and more fully in his Forbes published The Danger of Superficial Travels through the Alps of Savoy and other Knowledge, an introductory lecture delivparts of the Pennine Chain (Edinb. 8vo. ered Nov. 1848, and in 1854 he contrib1843), propounded his theory known as uted an essay on The Geology of the the · Viscous or Plastic Theory." This Cuchullin Hills to The Guide to the Island theory is shortly expressed by himself in of Skye. In 1859 he published Occasional these words: “A glacier is an imperfect Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (Edinb. fluid or viscous body, which is urged down 8vo.), a collection of his minor papers on slopes of a certain inclination by the mutual the subject, with a “prefatory note on the pressure of its parts."
recent progress and present aspect of the This theory was further explained and “Theory of Glaciers." These include the illustrated in subsequent papers which ap- paper on glaciers contributed by Forbes to peared in the same journal between 1814 the 8th edition of the Encyclopædia Britand 1850, and it certainly conveyed a more annica, for which he also wrote Dissertaclear and lucid general conception of the tions on the Progress of Mathematical and phenomena than had ever been previously Physical Science, already referred to. His advanced. Prof. Tyndall has since suffi- last publication, 1860, was a Reply to Prof. ciently exposed its weak points. It must Tyndall's remarks in his work on the Glabe conceded that the term “ viscous was ciers of the Alps relating to Rendu's “ Théonot happily chosen. Ice under pressure rie des Glaciers.” (Edinb. 12mo.) He was has a decided plasticity, but it is so far from moreover a not unfrequent writer in the being viscous that a very small strain Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews. We may is sufficient to interrupt its continuity:* especially mention an interesting article conForbes, who was always most modest in the tributed by him to the latter (No. 202, assertion of his own claims as a scientific April 1857,) entitled “Pedestrianism in discoverer, was deeply hurt by the insinua- Switzerland.” tion which appeared to be conveyed by Prof. It is to be feared that his alpine labours Tyndall's observations, that he had not and the exposure which they necessitated sufficiently acknowledged the prior state- resulted in the serious injury of his health. ments and theories of Rendu. Hence arose His Theory of Glaciers is dedicated to his a controversy which became almost person- friend Dr. Symonds, of Clinton Hill House, al, and therefore painful to the friends of Bristol, under whose care he had been comboth parties, but which was not unservicea- pelled to place himself. In 1860 he was ble in the further elucidation of the subject. obliged to resign.his professorship, having But, besides the theoretical portion of continued to perform its duties for several his work, Forbes accumulated a large years in spite of bodily weakness. In the amount of accurate observations, illustrated same year he was appointed Principal of by maps and views of glaciers, the first St. Andrew's, in which office, though its lawhich had appeared with any approach to bours were less severe, he was able to truthfulness. He was also the first to call render most valuable service. attention to numerous important glacial The Pall Mall Gazette justly remarks on phenomena, such as the • dirt bands,” this portion of his career, is veined or ribboned structure," &c. while
All who came under Principal Forbes's inWe believe, however, that the change of form tellectual and moral influence looked up to him undergone by a glacier in its motion is mainly due, with reverence, and even with enthusiastic adas stated by Forbes, to plasticity under pressure; miration, while among his friends he was reregelation” to which it is ascribed by Professor garded with a singular degree of affection. In Tyndall.
ordinary intercourse nothing could be more