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speak.” Their sufferings from thirst were and inopportune. In many cases, nay, in the most acute. On the third night, the most, it could only have been another form brothers were wakened from a peaceful of .malingering.' Even if •
pressure sleep by the sound of rain. A little cup of the Spirit' had been ever so powerful, a had been left in their room, and from the man of honour would have hesitated to open window they could soon have re- leave the ranks of his fellow-countrymen in freshed themselves. The first thought of that supreme hour of their peril, to shelter each was to do so. They were in nowise himself under the Exemption Act. The bound to concur in this inhuman punish- North Carolina Meeting seems to take it ment; yet an impression was clearly made for granted that all such converts were sinupon their minds, before consulting each cere; this credulity, and a certain Methoother, that they must withhold, and they distic twang in the style of its narrations, scarcely felt the copious showers tempt them. are the only drawbacks to this singular The next morning several officers entered pamphlet, which certainly discloses cruel the room and questioned them closely: they wrongs, and illustrates anew how human claimed it to be impossible for them to re- nature repeats itself, under pressure, in tain so much strength without any food, acts which one might have hoped no civiland charged them with having secretly ob- ized country would witness more. tained it. They then, in much simplicity, told them of their not feeling easy to take even the rain that fell. This evidently touched the hearts of the officers. Soon asier the end of four and a half days' absti
From The Leader. nence, a little water was allowed, and WATCHWORDS FOR THE WARFARE OF about the end of five days their rations
LIFE. were furnished again.'
The character and demeanour of Luther We can easily imagine that the virtue and determination of this excellent pair
were essentially warlike strong with 3 of brothers must have put the warriors of courage tempered by extreme conscientithe Southern army very much out of pa- the priesthood to find authority and sub
His militant spirit forced him into tience; but nothing can excuse such infamous persecution, and this pamphlet de him out of priestliness, although it left him
mission; not finding them, it again forced tails many other similar cases. The Southern Confederacy was, according to its own thetic in the contrast between the rollicking
a preacher. There is something almost paaccount, fighting for Liberty, above all things; Liberty (for white men at least) to his fellows of the schools, and the reticent
student, Martin, carousing and singing with act and think 'as they chose; and nothing and taciturn monk who, yet in youth, was can show more clearly how little they were really actuated by that principle thân this impelled to bury himself in the cloister and treatment of an inoffensive sect.
wrestle painfully in his search for truth. rious to see, how, under a stress of circum- not at a bound, but by laborious degrees,
From that contlict he emerges into light, stances sufficiently strong, the worst practices of the worst ages are thus found to
groping in grave doubt, leaving reluctant
ly the old fai behind him. We see him make their reappearance. To suspend a man fortwo hours by his thumbs, with his toes persuaded of fatal cankers in the Romish barely touching the ground, because he will Church, yet fully loyal to the Papaey. We not abjure the religions principles he has al- see him prostrate before the Bishop of Trent way's professed, is an act which, to English- second time on the ground, the third time
at Augsburg; “ I fell first on my knee, the at least, seems to put the world's clock back for three centuries. We have
remained prostrate there so long that three no doubt of the general truth of the state would not recant, and when asked where
times he bade me rise.” For all that he ments above reported, but must differ alto- he would find refuge, replied — “ Under gether from the views of the North Caro- beaven.” Then out bursts the grand delina Friends on one point. We cannot think that the severe measures adopted leaves him immortal : – "Here I stand; I
claration at the Diet of Worms, which with those who became Quakers after war was declared, is to be spoken of in the His indomitable soldier spirit shines through
can do no otherwise; God help me; Amen." same breath with the persecutions inflicted on those who professed the non-combatant
* Watchwords for the Warfare of Life. From Dr. faith of their Fathers. The conversion of Martin Luther. Translated and Arranged be the the former to the principles of peace, Author ,of Chronicles of the Schonberg-Cotia was, to say the least of it, most suspicious and New York.
Family.". London: T. Nelson and Sons ; Edinburgh
It is cu
all he did or said. Says Jean Paul Richter | apt to be overlooked by the superfine scep-“Luther's prose is a half battle; few tics of the nineteenth century. How many deeds equal his words." “ The goal of his of our philosophers would be able to bring march through this world,” writes Carlyle, to bear an equal amount of argumentative “ was the Infinite Heaven.” And Luther philosophy if suddenly confronted by a himself supplies the keynote to his own vision of horns and a tail? To this combacharacter in that line of his “ Euer Leben tive soul of Martin Luther full justice is ist eine Ritterschaft" – Your life is a Chiv- done in the title and the aphorisms chosen alry. His hard combative way of regarding by the Author of the “Chronicles of the existence led him into the superstition of Schönberg-Cotta Family." In point of inimagining the enemy was always at his el- terest the present book is inferior to the bow in the shape of a personal, corporeal Chronicles," as a book of mere sayings devil, who not only constantly assailed his must be inferior to a deftly woven romance. soul, but was accustomed to take mean ad- But the hand which presented Luther and vantages over his physical comfort, such as his humble associates in the life has well sedestroying his night's rest and playing off lected his so-called “ Watchwords.” Most practical jokes which, for Satan, were de- of these are axiomatic to the degree of cidedly paltry. For instance, Luther gravely baldness; but then the plainest and most relates how once, during imprisonment near threadbare truths are infinitely comforting Eisenach, he was suffered no visitors but to a large majority of readers. Thus when two young lads of the nobility, who brought Luther puts on record in a paragraph printed him one evening a bag of hazel nuts. After like an epigram that “the Holy Ghost is he had gone to bed, the light being out, called the Comforter, not one who makes the bazel nuts began to rattle about the sad," and much more to the saine effect, a room, and a row of platters occurred on the critical reader is apt to paraphrase his own staircase. “I rose, went to the staircase, address to the fiend and say, Tell us some and saw all was closed. Then I said, “0, thing new, doctor;” but the greater porif it's you, all right' (bist Du es, so sei es), tion of believers will find this sort of utterand committing myself to the Lord Christ, ance ever novel and striking, though they laid myself down in bed again.” He was have heard it all over and over again from fully convinced that the devil had been try- their youth up. And when Luther, tresing to worry him with the hazel nuts and passing comically through domains of nathe noise on the stairs ; no suspicion as to tural bistory, bids his' hearers emulate the the young lads who had left presented it- habits of the choice and pure little birds” self to his innocent mind. And he immedi- (choice and pure devourers of worms and ately adds, “it is a strange thing that it slugs and analysers of offal), which are conshould be commanded us, such weak tlesh tent, “ never troubling themselves what and blood, to strive with such a powerful their food may be or their lodging on the spirit as the devil is.” Strange, indeed! morrow," most readers will accept the exand stranger still that so powerful a foe ample as perfect, not recognizing that the should be reduced to nuts and crock- course of life which constitutes an appropriery-ware for ammunition! In another pas- ate bird would make an improvident and sage his writings Luther informs us that theftuous man. But Dr. Luther excepts
there are mountains so high that no crea- sparrows from his eulogium. “They are tures can live there, only the devil, who is the smallest and most dissolute of birds lord of the world." His strong argument (smallest, oh, Doctor! why, there is the for music is that Satan cannot stand it, but wren, cum multis aliis); and “they do the tlees as far off as he can get when he hears greatest mischief. Ergo digni sunt omni singing — “ especially hymns.” But with persecutione." What a libel on the sparall this present beliet, his cool contempt for rows! The Acclimatisation Society of New the fiend had something sublime about it. York would confute Dr. Luther were he
Last night.” he said on one occasion, alive to witness what the aspersed sparrows . when I awoke, the devil came and wanted have done beyond the Atlantic. Against to dispute with me, and cast up at me that these platitudes and these scientific heresies, I was a sinner. Then I said, “Say some- however, may be placed much solid teachthing new, Devil.?” The coolness of twit- ing in Luther's “Watchwords." His theting the foul fiend with platitudes and lack ory about short sermons may be commended of originality not a spiritual demon, be it to the Evangelical parsons who swear by observed, but an obtrusively visible and him in other particulars. " Preachers do tangible Apollyon accustomed to fling about hurt and violence with long preaching," hazel nuts and requiring to be met with a says Luther; for the faculty of listening hurled inkstand — is admirable in a sense is a tender thing, and soon becomes weary and satiated.” His standard of pulpit ora- the student's ethical vision has become tory is high, and arduous, and sound. “ A almost incapable of distinguishing the value good preacher must be able to preach plainly of one particular from that of another, and and in good order. He should have a good quite incapable of appreciating their proper head; he should have a good power of bearing upon the universal. It is the menspeech; a good voice; a good memory; he tal or moral condition analogous to that should know when to stop; he should be physical defect which (as Mr. Kinglake sure what he means to say, and should study would say) men call short sight. It is a too diligently; he should be ready to stake body great convexity of the cornea of the soul, and life, goods and glory, on its truth; he causing the beholder to see details, when must suffer himself to be vexed and criti- he looks closely at them, with almost miccised by everybody.” Luther's test, if en- roscopic acuteness, but preventing him from forced, would empty nine-tenths of the studying them at such a distance as to get pulpits in Protestant Christendom. the proper light and shade upon them, and
so robbing them of all their true and natural tone and colour, and quite disabling him from seeing what part they bear towards
forming the general harmony of the whole. From The Saturday Review. It is in fact a kind of ethical shortsight. ETHICAL SHORTSIGHT.
The effects or operations of ethical shortWant of common sense is principally sight may of course be traced in each of the shown in two respects — namely, in undue two great border domains wherewith ethical neglect of particulars, and in false esti- science is concerned—the domain of thought mates of particulars. The first is the and the domain of action; and though it amiable weakness of dreamers -- of poets, would be absurd to attempt, within the limphilosophers, and others who live in the its of such a paper as the present, to dekingdom of ideas; who think that it rains scribe all those effects or operations, yet a legs of mutton at regular intervals, that few hints may be suggestive. In the dowith so much bread and butter about it main of thought we are struck by the obvimust be impossible to starve, and that if ous fact that this shortsight is the besetting, there should ever be a deficiency of bread defect of statisticians. It is the weakness of it will be no great hardship to fall back the social student who rests more on the upon toast. The features of this phase are number than on the kind of his instances, too broad and too well known to require and is apt to ignore their relation to the comment. But the other phase, where want general theory which should preside over of common sense is shown in a false appre- his investigation. Lord Macaulay, in his ciation of particulars, is more subtle and celebrated criticism of Bacon's method, more interesting. It depends upon a con- if we may judge from the applicadition or habit of mind entirely different tion he makes of the story of the judge from that which occasions the first-named “who was in the habit of jocosely pro
It often originates in perfectly pounding after dinner a theory, that the contrary ethical circumstances. For where cause of the prevalence of Jacobinism was as the former arises from a dreamy or gen- the practice of bearing three names – to eralizing ethical babit, and shows itself in have supposed that the value of any indueundue neglect or contempt of particulars, tion depended on the number, and not upon the latter arises more frequently from a too the kind, of instances collected; and a simmicroscopic or particularizing habit, and ilar error is frequently committed by the shows itself in an inability to ponderate or professed statistician, and is partly at least classify particulars. The habit is not one the result of ethical shortsight. When once of overlooking particulars, or of hasty gen- such a person comes to be employed on any eralization; it is not the dreamy, imagina- public work, such as an educational or other tive disposition which renders its possessor social inquiry, be is overwhelmed by the liable to castle-building or Quixotism. It minuteness and diversity of his materials; is not the habit which would cause a man to he is quite unable to sift the evidence which talk of Lancashire as if it were the new pours in upon him; and, unless in the course Atlantis, or of Birmingham as Utopia, or of fate he becomes the prey of some fanatic, which would induce him to start off on a or the useful tool of some master mind, be voyage over an unknown sea in search of is hopelessly lost in his Cretan labyrinth of an earthly paradise. On the contrary, it is details. In the domain of thought, the a habit which, originating perhaps in a want tendency of all laborious and scrupulous à of fancy or of humour, is fostered and mag- posteriorists is in the direction of ethical nified by an overstudy of particulars, until shortsight. They are like tourists who are
trying to work their way across an over- both in politics and in morals, mostly due grown country, or a country with much to ethical shortsight; but of course, as the sameness of feature, without having first matter on which the wisdom of politics climbed a height in order to take a general works is somewhat different from that on
survey of it; or rather, perhaps, they are which the wisdom of morals works, the re• the men who did climb the height, but who, sults of such false estimates differ in their
owing to their shortsight, were unable to social importance. Shortsight in politics make any use of their position, and so set to affects the collective happiness of mankind work to grapple with the details of their much more than shortsight in morals. The task unprovided with any mental map. shortsighted politician is a pest to his coun
In the two great provinces of the ethical try; the shortsighted moralist is a curse to domain of action — namely, politics and himself. It is only when such a moralist morals — we find this defect of the ethical turns legislator or agitator, and therefore vision operating in a mode closely analo- drops the guise of moralist for that of politigous to that in which it works within the cian, that he becomes dangerous to the domain of thought. Here, also, its effects peace of others as well as to his own, 'and are shown in an inability rightly to regard, illustrates the wisdom of Dr. Johnson's oband judiciously to manipulate, particulars. servation, adopted and amplified by Mr. It is, both in morals and politics, an in- Buckle, that there is no greater social nuicapacity for duly apprehending what Aris- sance than your wrong-headed conscientotle calls the minor premiss of the practi- tious man. Such a man, if he comes into cal syllogism. And it is the exercise of tbis power, turns the affairs of his country tact for apprehending the minor premiss, so which previously were in a condition, if not as to know when and how to apply it to the of perfection, at least of order and decency major, which the marvellously practical ge- into the cauldron, and makes of them nius of Aristotle declared to be the very what Punch once represented Lord Palmeressence of common sense or of social wis- ston as calling “ a pretty kettle of fish.” dom. False estimates of particulars are,
NUMBERS FOR THE SORROWFUL. So, when the leafage of thy days is past Trust Him who is thy God and have no fear:
And life is desolate, repine thou not, His eyelids ache not with the drowse of sleep,
God can give thee the stars of heaven for fruit! He cannot tire, and how should he forget?
Nor fear thou death. God's law is gain in loss : Self-centred in His own infinity
Growth and decay obey a common law, He that is All is cause and law of all:
The starry blossom and the seed are one. Alike in orb and atom infinite. The worlds He soweth broadcast with His hand, Think! Thou wert born and fashioned for a
world As o'er the glebe the sower soweth seed, Till with His glory all the heavens are sown;
Assorted to thy needs and thy delights,
And wherein thou hast dwelt and had content. Yet perfect from His shaping fingers sent The rain-drop glitters populous with life,
Not of thy strength or cunning didst thou come And in a jewelled surcoat wheels the gnat.
Into the fief and heritage of life;
And shall all fail thee in thy going hence ?
The salt foam of the sea upon thy lips,
The blown sand of the desert in thy face:
Content thy soul and comfort thee in this :
In God's design is neither best nor worst, And if thy prime be gone and thou lament,
But ever ordered change is ordered good : “ The leaves are falling and the fruit is done!” Yet shrink not from the winter of thy days.
In Him love rounds the infinite of might, See, where the cruel winds have swept the trees And He who giveth both to live and die And all are branching bare against the night, Is equal Lord of Life and Lord of Death. There, in the barren spaces, hang the stars!