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published in 1866 its first annual report. The every assistance that might be required. The principles of the association are thus stated in committee were of opinion that in most cases the report: “To establish such relations be- the expense of those suffragan bishops could be tween the two communions as shall enable the met by their holding important posts, such as laity and clergy of either to join in the sacra deaneries and canonries, in connection with the ments and offices of the other, without forfeit- Church. Any legislation for the settlement by ing the communion of their own church; sec- law of any expense upon those bishops to whom ondly, that any overtures toward such an object the assistance was rendered, was deemed inexshould be made, if possible, in coöperation pedient. The committee also recommended that with those churches with which the Church of an attempt should be made, through the ArchEngland is in communion; and thirdly, that bishop of Canterbury, to sweep away any diffisuch overtures, whenever made, should be ex culties which have existed in regard to the mattended to the other Eastern Patriarchates, and ter. As regards the appointment of suffragan not confined to the Russo-Greek Church. The bishops, the bishop is to nominate two, and the association numbers two hundred and eighty crown to select one of these. On motion of the members, and among its patrons are English, Bishop of Oxford, seconded by the Bishop of Scotcb, Colonial, American, and Eastern London, the report of the committee was bishops. (On the results of the Society's adopted. labors in the East, see the article “Eastern The sixty-seventh annual meeting of the EngCHURCHES.") A number of the Anglican lish Church Society was held May 1st, at Exeter friends of this movement regarded the Eastern Hall. From the report, it appeared that the total Churches as right in rejecting the addition of ordinary income amounted to £146,208 18. 9d. ; filioque (the procession of the Holy Spirit from total ordinary expenditure, £144,558 178. 4d.; the Father " and the Son” to the Athanasian surplus, £1,649 4s. 5d. The local funds raised Creed, and one of them (Rev. J. Ouseley) pub- in the missions and expended there upon the licly declared that he had abandoned the An- operations of the society, but independent of glican communion office, and the filioque too, for the general fund, were not included in the at least the last two years. A priest, claiming to above figures, amounted to £20,000. The sobe an Eastern bishop (Rev. Julius Ferretta), who ciety has at present 148 missionary stations, 278 made his appearance in England, met with a clergymen, 21 European laymen, 9 European fecordial reception on the part of a number of male teachers (exclusive of missionaries' wives), Anglican clergymen. (See EASTERN CHUROIIES.) and 2,122 native and country-born catechists Some advance was also made in 1866 toward and teachers of all classes, not sent from home. a closer intercommunion with the Episcopal The number of communicants in 1860 was Lutheran Churches of the Scandinavian coun- 19,828; 1861, 21,064; 1862, 21,261; 1863, 18,tries. (See LUTHERAN Caurcm.) An important 110; 1864, 18,124; 1865, 14,155. These figures step toward effecting a closer union between did not include the New Zealand mission, the the Established Church of Great Britain and returns from which had not been received on Ireland on the one hand, and the Scottish Epis- account of the disturbed state of the colony. copal Church on the other, was a declaration The society has withdrawn from seventy-seven inade by the Archbishop of Canterbury at the stations, chiefly added to parochial establishlaying of the foundation-stone of a cathedral at ments in the West Indies or transferred to the Inverness, Scotland, in October, 1866, that the native church in Sierra Leone, containing ten Scottish Episcopal Church is the only true rep- native clergy, 4,356 communicants, and 12,866 resentative of the Church of England in Scot- scholars. The annual meeting of the Society land, and that the prelates of the Church of for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign England pretend to exercise no jurisdiction over Parts, was held April 26th. The income of the clergymen in Scotland.

society for 1865 was £94,957 118. 3d.; and the The House of Bishops of the Convocation of expenditure for the same period was in British Canterbury, took, in 1866, for the first time, de- North America, £22, 120; in the West Indies, cided steps for an increase of the number of £1,328; in South Africa, £11,000; in the rest bishops. "The Bishop of Oxford presented the of Africa, £1,460; in Asia, £31,372, and in unanimous request of a committee appointed to Australia and New Zealand, £6,271. The Engconsider “as to the best mode of providing as- glish " Church Congress” for 1866 was held sistance for bishops in the event of illness, or at York, and both the archbishops of England old age, or the like, rendering them unable to took an active part in its proceedings. discharge the duties of their office, and needing The archbishops and bishops of the United some assistance in the performance of the same." Church of England and Ireland, in 1866, gave The committee considered the appointment of their assent to the establishment of a lay diacoadjutor bishops cum successione, would be un- conate, tho persons composing it to be set apart advisable, being not suited to the Church of by episcopal authority, to act in all cases under England. But, on the other hand, they con- the direction of the parochial clergy, and to be sidered it very desirable to bring into active designated as “readers.” They are to be puboperation the act of Henry VIII., which em- licly appointed after an examination by a bishop, powers the nomination of suffragan bishops to but not to be set apart by the imposition of lifferent posts in England, who might render hands as in the case of bishops, priests, and

jloacons. They are to minister in outlying dis- upon Paraguay and Bolivia, great dissatisfactricts, but will not have authority to administer tion with the continuance of the triple alliance the holy communion--that part of the church and the war was expressed, and repeated atservice being taken on stated days by the paro- tempts were made at stirring up civil war and a chial clergy. The “readers" are not to be ad- separation of some of the northern provinces dressed as “reverend,” but they are to wear from the Argentine Confederation. Most of the surplice in their ministrations. At the first these attempts were easily suppressed; but the annual meeting of the “ Association of Lay latest reports from Buenos Ayres stated that, in Helpers," in the diocese of London, about fifty December, the insurrection in Mendoza was persons were present.

becoming more serious, the chief having upANHALT, a duchy in Germany. Area, 1,017 ward of three thousand men at his command, Engl. square miles. Population, in 1864, 193,- and being evidently supported by Chili. In 046. Capital, Dessau, with 16,306 inhabitants. Catamarca the insurrection was also reIn the German war, in 1866, Anhalt sided with ported still to hold the Government. The Prussia, and after the conclusion of the war it sympathy of Chili, Peru, and Bolivia with joined the North German confederation. the Paraguayans threatened the friendly rela

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. President (from tions which had hitherto existed between these October 12, 1862, to October 11, 1868), Barto- republics and the Argentine Confederation, and lomé Mitré; Vice-President, Marcos Paz. toward the close of the year fears were enterMinister of the United States at Buenos Ayres, tained of an invasion of Argentine territory General Alexander Asboth, appointed in Octo- by a Bolivian army. (See Bolivia.) The Arber, 1866.

gentine Government took, however, occasion The area of the republic is estimated at 38,- from the bombardment of Valparaiso by the 890 geographical (or about 825,000 English) Spanish fleet, to protest against this act as consquare miles. Exclusive of this territory the trary to the principles of international law. Argentine Government claims Patagonia, Notwithstanding the continuance of the war which is generally connected with Chili, and which taxed the strength of the government to the whole of the Gran Chaco, parts of which are the utmost, the republic is at present making generally counted with the territory of Bolivia greater progress than during the previous peace. and Paraguay. The population of the republic On September 11th the Western Railroad was in 1857, and, according to Martin de Moussy*, opened ten leagues farther, to the town of in 1863, was as follows:

Chiviledy. This finishes one hundred and ten

miles of railroad westward from Buenos Ayres. Population Population This railroad traverses a fine country, and al

ready has a great business. It is owned by the Buenos Ayres..

(Not counted) 350,000 government. In the same month two AmeriEntre Rios...

79,282 107,000 can gentlemen, Messrs. Hopkins and Cary, obCorrientes and Missions..


90,000 tained a charter from Congress for a telegraph Santa Fé......

41,261 45,000 Cordova..

137,079 150,000

from Buenos Ayres to Chili. In October the Santiago del Estero.

77,575 90,000

submarine cable which connects the cities of Tucuman.


100,000 Buenos Ayres and Montevideo was successfully Salta ..

(Not counted) 80,000 laid. It lies on the bed of the river, between Jujuy.

35,189 (+ 40,000 Catamarca.


Buenos Ayres and Colonia, a distance of twen

80,000 La Rioja..

34,431 40,000

ty-six miles. The works on the Argentine San Juan.

(Not counted) 70,000 Central Railroad, from Rosario to Cordova, were Mendoza...

47,478 50,000 suspended in November, 1866, on account of San Luis.

37,602 45,000 the tardiness of the government in making out Indian territory in the North


the titles to the public lands granted to the Indian territory in the

company. For every twenty leagues of railSouth..


road there was to be a transfer of title to the

granted lands, and the company having finished Total.........


the railroad abont twice that distance, needed The war which the Argentine Republic (in the land, on which to base the issue of bonds. common with Brazil and Uruguay) has for some But though the materials for the entire railroad time been carrying on against Paraguay, con- had all arrived, or were en route from Europe, tinued throughout the year. (See PARAGUAY.) yet there was this obstacle to the work. This In some provinces, especially those bordering road, when finished, will be the grandest road

south of the equator, sweeping for two hun• Martin de Moussy, the author of the great work. De dred and fifty miles through a region of great scription de la Confédération Argentine tom, ili., Paris, fertility. 1861), is called by Page (in his work, "La Plata," London, 1859) “an eminent scientific man," and his work is recom

On December 10th a convention to reform mended by Sir Woodbine Parish, who himself is the author the constitution of the republic met at Santa desire to have the latest and most accurate information on Fé, in a kind of general caucus. On the 11th the subject. M. de Moussy has carefully compared all the it had a preliminary meeting, and on the censuses and estimates of population, and his stateinents are 12th they proposed amendments, discussed aniversally accepted as those most entitled to credit. + Census of 1855. ^ Census of 1854.

them, voted on them, apl adjourned. The

in 1857.

in 1863.

only point of amendment intended was to currency per month, about $20 silver, San give the permission to Congress to levy duties Carlos has about 300 Protestant persons, and on exports. This has been done heretofore, the Methodist mission has a church, school, and but the period has expired within which the parsonage. In Villa de Urquiza there are about constitution permitted it. The vote stood 22 200 Protestants, mostly German, with a school to 19. All the provinces were represented in taught by the Methodist missionary. In Corproportion to their representation in Congress. dova a Sunday-school has been established. Among other reforms aimed at is a reorganiza ARKANSAS. The gorernment of the State tion of the common-school system. A com- of Arkansas continued during the year as it mission was, in 1866, engaged in examining the had been organized in 1864, with the exception various systems in the world, with reference to of the resignation of the Lieutenant-Governor. thorough and radical reforms. It was regarded An election was held, on the first Monday of as likely that the school system of the United August, for the choice of an Auditor, Treasurer, States would be adopted.

Supreme Court Judges, and members of the The estimate for the wool-clip for the year Legislature. The total vote given for Auditor 1866 is one hundred millions of pounds. The was 34,407, which was divided among three export duty on wool, hides, bones, tallow, etc., candidates as follows: Miller, Union, 15,241 ; produces about three millions of silver dollars Fagan, Union, 12,690; Berry, Republican, 6,476. per annum. This tax is designed chiefly to pay Cunningham was chosen Treasurer; and interest and for the reduction of the public debt. Clendenin and Walker, Judges of the SuAs the amount of exports doubles every four preme Court. Twenty-five Union members years, this export duty must soon lift the na were chosen to the Senate, and seventy-nine tion out of debt.

members to the House, of whom five were ReThe government imitated the policy of that publicans. All persons were allowed to vote of the United States in issuing treasury notes, who were free white male citizens of the United bearing interest, for payment of government States, and had attained the age of twenty. dues, and to be received in payment of custom one years, and had been citizens of the State house duties. They represent silver dollars, during the last previous six months, without and are of the denominations of $5, $10, $20, taking a test oath or any other preliminary oath $50, and $100.

whatever. The Legislature bad attempted to Immigration for 1865 to the Argentine Con- require a test oath to be taken by all voters in federation foots up to two thousand five hun- the State, as a prerequisite to their right to exdred and forty. This does not include those ercise the elective franchise Under this auwho came by steamer, neither does it except thority Governor Murphy in his first proclamathose who left the country for foreign parts, tions stated that no one could be allowed to of whom there have been many. The greatest vote until he had taken the oath. But in Deprogress immigration has made is in the provincecember, 1865, the Supreme Court of the State of Santa Fé, where the first colonial settle- declared the law to be unconstitutional, and all ments began ten years ago, and where now oaths were abandoned. over five hundred and fifty foreigr families are The Legislature assembled at Little Rock, on settled. In the Gran Chaco a California colony November 5th. It was the first session, in has been established, which is doing very well

, which all parts of the State were represented, and already has a great many acres in grain. that had been held since the reorganization in The Argentine Government look upon this col- 1864. Its acts were confined alınost entirely to ony as one of great hope and promise. local interests. It accepted the lands donated

in consequence of the foreign immigration, by Congress for agricultural colleges; located Protestant churches and schools are being an institution for the blind at Arkadelphia, established in a number of places. The most with an appropriation for its support; and prenumerous Protestant body in the country is the vious to its recess, near the close of the year, Protestant Episcopal Church. From the latest inaugurated measures for the remission of taxes report of the superintendent of the Methodist for the years from 1861 to 1865; to rebuild the mission, Rev. Dr. Goodfellow, dated October court-houses and jails burned down; to repeal 10, 1866, we gather the following intelligence: the stay law; to define the rights of persons of In the city of Buenos Ayres the Methodist con- color; to provide for the support of wounded gregation has 92 members, 44 probationers; and disabled soldiers, and the indigent children total, 136; 90 scholars in Sunday-school, and of deceased soldiers, whether in the Northern 19 officers and teachers. In Buenos Ayres cir- or Southern service; to provide for the payment cuit there are 6 regular preaching-places, and 1 of debts in instalments; to bestow civil rights occasional, with 11 members and 9 probation- on mulattoes and negroes, except the right of ers. In Rosario the Sunday school has about 20 intermarrying with whites, of voting, serving scholars, and the day school 40. The settlement on juries, mingling in public schools with whites, of Californians on the border of the Indian terri- and doing militia duty; to regulate the labor tory would soon be visited by a missionary. Es- system; to encourage immigration, etc., etc. In peranza has a Protestant population of 500 souls, the House, on November 16th, a resolution was mostly Germans. The government has agreed offered, setting forth that President Johnson to aid the Protestant school with $25 Bolivian was entitled to and would receive the support


and gratitude of the people of Arkansas, in which would embrace many of our best and wisest pursuing the policy exhibited in his official acts, citizens, must, of necessity, be rejected by the peo. and standing between the citizens and the un

ple of Arkansas. holy legislation of radical majorities. A motion The committee say that they have particto lay on the table was lost-yeas, 17; nays, 55, ularly remarked one peculiar feature in the It was referred to the Committee on Foderal first section of the proposed amendment; that Relations.

is, the portion which declares, “nor shall any On December 8th the following resolution State deprive any person of life, liberty, or was offered:

property without due process of law.” “This That this General Assembly, and the people of the is almost identical in language with the fifth State of Arkansas, tender our gratitude to General amendment to the Constitution, and if this proJefferson Davis, for the noble and patriotic manner in which he conducted the affairs of our government, object designed, what assurance have we that a

vision already in existence will not secure the sure him of our most earnest and heart-felt sympa- similar one will not be disregarded.” They thy while with unexampled fortitude he endures in decline to recommend it on the

further grounds Northern prisons unparalleled suffering as a martyr that it imposes new and additional obligations to liberty; and that although we may strive to forget on the people not contemplated or intended is and ever shall be enshrined in every true South. when the general amnesty was proclaimed, on ern heart. May he outlive bis persecution, to com- May 29, 1865. They say: "The people of Arfort his family, honor his country, and adorn the kansas have accepted and performed all the world!

conditions of the surrender and general amIt was referred to the Committee on Federal nesty, and with wonderful unanimity have acRelations.

cepted the results of the war, and according to On December 10th the following was offered, all law are entitled to all their rights as guaranand referred to the same committee:

teed by the Constitution, and to be restored to Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of mitted in good faith, with an earnest desire to

the Union as before the war. They have subArkansas, That to calm the troubled waters of our political atmosphere, we ratify the Constitutional make the United States a cominon country, to Amendment of the Constitution of the United States, be cherished in our hearts and defended by our as recommended by his excellency Governor Murphy.

“We cannot tell what may be in storo The views of the Legislature on various pub- for this State. She and others may be forced to lic questions were expressed in the reports of take this amendment, and even harsher terms; committees, and the debates. On December but as valuable as restoration may be, the peo10th the Committee on Federal Relations in the ple of Arkansas can never agree to purchase it Senate reported the following resolution relative at such a sacrifice of principle, dignity, and to the Constitutional Amendment proposed by self-respect as is demanded in the adoption of Congress :

this proposed amendment. We had better bear Resolved, That the General Assembly of the State

our troubles, trials, and deprivations, and even of Arkansas declines to ratify the amendment, add. wrongs, in dignified silence, than commit an ing article fourteen to the Constitution of the United act of disgrace, if not annihilation, such as States, as proposed by joint resolution of Congress. would result from the adoption of this amendThe reasons urged by the committee in

ment by the Legislature.”

support of their recommendation were as follows:

No action was taken by the Legislature rela1. It is not known, nor can it be, to the State of

tive to the passage of this amnendment previous Arkansas, that the proposed amendment was ever

to the recess at the close of the year. But acted upon by a Congress of such a character as is a commission, to be sent to Washington, was provided for by the Constitution, inasmuch as nearly provided for, which was to consist of the Presione-third of the States were refused representation dent of the Senate and three members of that in the Congress which acted upon this amendment.

2. This proposed amendment was never submitted body, seven members of the House, and three to the President for his sanction, as it should have citizens, not members of the Legislature, to be been, according to the very letter of that Constitution appointed by Governor Murphy. The Governor under which Congress exists, and which it has sought declined to appoint. The object of the comto amend.

mission was to confer with the Federal Gov. 3. The great and enormous power sought to be conferred on Congress by the amendment, by giving ernment respecting their mutual relations. This to that body authority to enforce by appropriate commission was in part induced by the assemlegislation the provisions of the first article of said bling in convention at Fort Smith of citizens amendment, would, in effect, take from the States calling themselves “Loyalists,” who addressed all control over their local and domestic concerns, and virtually abolish the States.

a memorial to Congress for the removal of the 4. The second section seems, to the committee, an existing State government, by the passage of effort to force negro suffrage upon the States; and an "enabling act," authorizing them to form a whether intended or not, it leaves the power to bring new State government. this about, whether the States consent or not; and On November 23d the following resolution the committee are of the opinion that every State Legislature should shrink from ever permitting the

was offered in the House, and passed unanipossibility of such a calamity.

mously. Subsequently it was concurred in by 5. The third section, as an act of disfranchisement the Senate:

Be it resolved by the General Assembly of the State ing and effect. It then submitted the following of Arkansas, That a joint committee, to be composed

propositions : of the separate Committees on Federal Relations, of the Senate and House of Representatives, is hereby 1. That the Constitution of the United States, ang created, with instructions to prepare and report to each House a memorial to the President and Con- ties, are the supreme law of the land, any thing in

all laws made in pursuance thereof, and all trea. gress of the United States, setting forth the true po- the constitution or laws of any State to the consition of the State of Arkansas, and the spirit and

trary, notwithstanding. wishes of the people thereof, with regard to the res 2. That the people of this State have now, and altoration of the Union in all its parts; and the meas

ways have had, the exclusive right, as a free people, ures which might be most eficient in restoring a

of governing themselves, and of exercising and enjoy condition of harmony; and the cooperation of all the ing every power, jurisdiction, and right pertaining States in the promotion of the national prosperity in to a State which was and is not delegated to the a manner consistent with the honor and dignity of United States. the citizens of the respective States.

3. That aside from the fact that the end and obThe reasons urged for the adoption of the is the safety of the people and the preservation of

ject of all government, especially in the United States, resolution were stated to be a conviction that property, and that, by tacit reservation of the people, the people of the Northern States had been de- the State has, in exercising the powers of govern

either in convenceived by misrepresentations made to them as to ment by the consent of the pe the opinions of the people of the Southern States, to ruin the one or destroy the other; that the Bill of

tion assembled or by ordinary legislation, no power and the motives which dictated their actions: Rights, in every constitution of the State, has de whereas justice to the people of Arkansas and clared, that no man shall be imprisoned or disseized their posterity demanded that the truths of his- of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or in any way tory should be known. The present Legislature deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the was the first official body convened for four years that no ex post facto laws, or law, impairing the obliwhich represented all parts of the State. Every gation of contracts, shall ever be made in this State. shade of political opinion had an opportunity to 4. That the conventions of 1861 and 1864, being represent itself through a free election, and in both conventions of the people, were equal in power the resolution they resolved to appeal to the and authority to declare that the entire action of the

and authority. That while the latter had the power better judgment of the American people. former was not, from the time of the adoption of

The views of the Legislature respecting the the latter, binding and obligatory, and that all the action of the State in her legislative capacity action of the State, of whatever character, under during the war, and indirectly her relations to the authority of the convention of 1861, was no longer the Union, were expressed in connection with adoption of the constitution of 1864, saving the ex.

binding, but null and void from the time of the some questions arising out of certain land sales ceptions therein stated; yet the convention of 1864 by her agents during the war. The question had no power to declare that acts done under said presented was, to what extent the present con convention of 1861 and its constitution relating to in. stitution of the State repudiates or makes null ternal government and police regulations in the and void the action of the authorities between the national Government, never were binding and May 1, 1861, the day on which the State se- obligatory upon the people of this State, but void ab ceded, and the adoption of the present consti- initio. This character of ec post facto and retrotution. The Judiciary Committee made a ma

spective ordinances and legislation is beyond even jority and a minority report. The former took der a law, even a convention cannot undo it. The

the power of a convention; for if an act be done un. the ground that the Legislature itself had ac- past cannot be recalled by the most absolute power, knowledged the present constitution as the su And by maintaining that the convention of 1864 did preme organic law of the State, by assembling do this, would be, in effect, declaring a hiatus in the in obedience to its commands. This consti- government of the State from 1861 to 1864, during tution declared the entire action of the con

which there was no civil authority whatever; where

as, it appears not to have been so considered by said vention of 1861 to be null and void, and never convention of 1864, for they recite the object of their binding, nor any action of the State under its convening to be, among other things, to continue authority. But it provided that this declaration ourselves as a free and independent State.” should not be so construed as to affect the

5. That the ordinance of secession of the con.

vention of 1861, and all other actions of said convenrights of individuals, change county boundaries, tion and the State under its authority, in contraveninvalidate the acts of justices of the peace, con tion of or in conflict with the Constitution, constituveyances, marriages, etc. The words “rights tional laws, and treaties of the United States and the of individuals were too vague, indefinite, and delegated powers of the General Government were ambiguous to mean any thing specially, and be so, aside from any declaration to that effect in the must be regarded as inoperative

and void; there- constitution of 1864. fore, with the exceptions specifically named, all 6. That all parts of the constitution are to be actions of the State done under the authority reconciled with each other and the general subject, of the convention of 1861 must be treated as

and therefore the proviso “that this ordinance shall null and void, and this included sales of land.

not be so construed as to affect the rights of indi.

viduals," from the public history of the country at The minority report admitted the present the time of its adoption, the manifest object in view constitution to be the supreme organic law of and general purview of the ordinance, was intended the State, and asserted that the same rules of to protect the rights of individuals in all internal interpretation and construction were applica- which were not void ab initio by reason of conflict

municipal laws and police regulations of the State, ble to it as to any other constitution of the with the delegated powers and just authority of the State for the purpose of ascertaining its mean United States, and which were rendered nuli and

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