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roid from and after the adoption of said constitu- 188,110 acres of the best and most valuable tion of 1864. And as conclusive that some meaning lands in the State. The remaining sum of was attached to this proviso, and that the convention were desirous of preventing a more extended $1,035,822 is a total loss to the State. The enconstruction of this proviso, whereby the State tire debt, with interest, on December 31, 1866,

light become bound to individuals, ihey further was $3,575,121. No measures were adopted provided, " that no debt or liability of the State of during the year for the liquidation of this debt. Arkansas incurred by the action of said convention It was suggested to the Legislature to issuo government under the authority of either, shall twenty-year bonds, and to provide for their ever be recognized as obligatory." But to give to payment by a sinking-fund. This would put those words the extended meaning of which they an annual burden on the State of $254,000;, would be susceptible in other connections, would while her present revenue was estimated at report, which the minority are of the opinion would $500,000. The internal resources of the State be contrary to the manifest intent of said conven can hardly be exaggerated. Eight rivers, all tion, as gathered from the whole instrument. navigable to a greater or less extent, and with

7.'“How legitimate rights can be acquired un numerous tributaries navigable at certain seader authority declared to be illegal and void,” can be conceived by recurring to the fundamental prin. and contribute to a fertility and diversity of

sons, flow through the State to the Mississippi, ciple that the past cannot be recalled by the most absolute powers; that all the acts of the State, rela- soil unsurpassed. In Northern Arkansas all tive to her internal municipal laws and police regu. the grains, such as wheat, oats, rye, barley, and lations, were valid, and were only rendered invalid, corn are grown with great success, and the apsaving the exceptions named, from the adoption of said constitution of 1864. Were this not the case, it ple, the pear, the peach, the quince, and the another civil war should arise, persons entertaining grape, and all species of the melon thrive most different views might succeed, and again declare that abundantly. South of, and along the Arkansas the present constitution and all acts done under it River, which cuts the State into two nearly were, and ever had been, null and void. In accordance with these views, the minority be. these fruits are grown equally as well; and

equal parts from northwest to southeast, all lieve that all sales of lands of the United States and of the lands of persons, on account of their al others of a more tropical nature, as the fig and legiance thereto, were at all times, and are now, by apricot, are easily produced. Cotton is neverthe Constitution of the United States and the consti- theless the great staple of the State. The uptution of 1864, null and void. No legislation can pro- lands produce from 800 to 1,200 pounds of seed tect the supposed interests of persons in the purchase of the same; but that the State ought to be bound by

cotton

On the river bottoms the inher action in selling lands, which, prior to, and on crease is still larger. Timber on the uplands is the 6th of May, 1861, belonged to her, and that suita- abundant and consists of black, white, red, and ble legislation could and ought to be made, to pro- post oaks, hickory, yellow pine, dogwood, and tect the interests of persons interested therein.

maple, while on the margins of the little streams In the Senate, the minority report was sub- are the walnut, beech, elm, and yam. Coal stituted for the majority and adopted--yeas 16, has already been found and surveyed in twelvo nays 6.

counties, and in those farthest from the great The election of a Senator to Congress for the coal-basin east of the Mississippi. In other long term, and another for a short term, oc- minerals the State is very rich. casioned by the resignation of William M. Fish The Governor, in his message to the Legislaback, commenced in each House under the ture, in November, speaks of a proscriptive recent act of Congress on November 20th. party spirit, which had shown itself in portions Neither House was able to agree upon a Sen- of the State so violent as to threaten an appeal ator, and both met in joint convention on the to arms. No facts were stated, and the press 24th, when John T. Jones was elected for the urged the Legislature to call upon him for more short term. No choice was made for the long specific information, declaring an utter ignoterm. A joint convention was again held on rance of the facts upon which his remarks were tho 26th, without success; but on the 27th, based. That body, soon after its organization, Andrew Hunter was chosen, who had been for directed a select committee to consider só the last twenty-five years an itinerant minister much of the message as referred “to the deof the Methodist Church.

velopment of a proscriptive party spirit," and The recommendation of the Governor relative to extend the field of investigation so as to to public schools was promptly responded to by inquire in what manner the freedmen were the Legislature. A bill was introduced provid- treated in the State. The only disturbance ing for the support of these schools by levying known at the time of the elections occurred in a special tax of one-fifth of one per cent. on all Washington County. There an armed party taxable property belonging to white citizens, of about one hundred men interfered and broke and admitting to the benefit of the schools all up certain of the political appointments of their white children between the ages of six and eigh- opponents. Between the friends of the measteen years. Special officers were to be ap- ures of Congress who were desirous of inaugupointed to administer the system.

rating a Territorial Government in the State, The present debt of the State was created and who appear to be few in number, and the entirely on account of the ks, and on Jan- more active of their opponents who sustain the uary 1, 1860, amounted to $3,182,968. Of this President, a warm political feeling may have sum $2,097,145 is secured by a mortgage upon existed. The commanding officer at Fort Smith,

General Edwards, under date of October 7th, This force was the residue of the great army writes: “Union men are just as safe in this of 1,034,064 men in the national service on May State as anywhere else. We have not our 1, 1865. The work of disbanding the volunteer proportional part of lawlessness in comparison troops remaining in the service was actively with other States. There are but few instances continued during 1866, and at the close of the of violence being committed on political con- year but 11,043 men, white and colored, of this siderations, and where these have occurred the once famous and popular arm were left. The wrongs have been committed as much by one following table, showing the number of volun. party as the other.” Active efforts were made teers in the Army at different periods of the to induce capitalists and laborers to become year, illustrates the process of reduction : citizens of the State, and assurances were given January 9......

.123,356 that persons of all shades of political opinions January 20.

..115,342 were as safe in person and property within the

February 15.

81,612

March 10. State as they could be anywhere. Measures were

66,177 May 1

47,282 taken to improve and extend the various rail

June 30.

23,394 roads in operation, as conducive to public pros November 1....

11,043 perity; it is believed that in a few years the State

Thus, in eighteen months from the cessation will be traversed by them in every direction. The public sentiment of the State had become and transported to their homes. Seven-eighths

of hostilities, 1,023,021 men were disbanded favorably changed with regard to the freedmen; of this force were discharged previous to Janand measures for their education and general improvement were advocated in the most in- uary 1, 1866, and the whole number could fluential quarters. The passage of laws secur, the termination of the war, had it not been

easily have been disposed of within a year of ing to all the equal protection of person and deemed necessary to retain a considerable force property, was a proposition universally ap- of volunteers in the service pending the reproved. Few, however, could at present be organization of the regular army. So soon as found who would consent to make them full the latter shall be placed upon a permanent citizens of the State, and as such, entitled to an footing, it is not kely that a single volunteer equality of all rights

. It was apprehended that soldier will be found in the Army. the embarrassments arising in the State from a scarcity of labor would tend to increase in sub- Congress, two important bills were introduced,

During the first session of the Thirty-ninth sequent years, in consequence of the rapid dis- regulating the military peace establishment of appearance of the negro.

the United States, one of which originated in ARMINIAN CHURCHES. (See EASTERN

the Senate, and the other in the House of CHURCHES.) ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. By ator Wilson's bill, provided for five regiments

Representatives. The former, known as Sena communication from the War Department, in of artillery, six of cavalry, and thirty-seven of response to a resolution adopted by the House infantry; the latter, which was drawn up by of Representatives, it was shown that on Janu- Mr. Schenck, of the House of Representaary 9, 1866, the Army, both regular and volun- tives, differed from the former principally in teer, comprised 152,611 officers and men, organ- making the infantry force comprise fifty regiized and distributed as follows:

ments, of which ten were to be formed from

the Veteran Reserve Corps. It also aimed at apEnlisted

pointing regimental adjutants, quartermasters, Aggrito.

and commissaries, and of filling original vacan

cies in the lower grades of officers, from among Troops, volunteer service (white).

2,264 55,326 57,590

those who had been officers or soldiers of the Troops, volunteer service

volunteers; favored promotion by seniority in (colored)

2,393 63,373 65,766 several departments of the Army; and was conTroops, regular service.. 1,124 25,463 26,587

sidered to do injustice to officers of the reguGeneral staff and retired officers, regular Army.. 621

621

lar service. The Senate bill passed the body in General and staff officers,

which it originated early in the session, but volunteer service.. 1,018

1,018 made no further progress, the House adhering 1st battalion Veteran Re

tenaciously to its own bill. As it was feared serve Corps, not attached

that between the rival projects no bill whatto companies...

609

609 2d battalion Veteran Re

ever would be passed, which under existing cirserve Corps...

448 460 cumstances would have proved detrimental to Signal Corps...

74 the interests of the country, Gen. Grant was

induced to send the following communication Total.... 8,057 144,668 152,725

to the Secretary of War, recommending the Deduct officers of the regu

Senate bill, which, on May 17th, was laid before lar army in rolunteer ser

Congress by the President: vice......

114

114
HEADQUARTERS ARMIES OF TIE UNITED STATES,

WASHINGTON, D. C., May 16, 1566. Grand total Army of the

Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War : U. S., Jan. 9, 1866..... 7,943 144,668 | 152,611

Sır: In view of the long delay, in the lower House

OfR'rs.

men.

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at once.

of Congress, in agreeing upon a plan of reorganiza. this point, the committee agreed upon the Sen. tion of the Army suitable to our present require ate bill, with some amendments, which immements, and the urgent necessity for early action, I am induced to present the matter to you officially, diately passed both Houses almost unanimously, and to ask the attention of Congress to it, believing and on July 28, 1866, became a law. Its main that when they have the matter fairly before them, features may be thus recapitulated: The peace they will do what should be done speedily.

establishment of the country will consist of five At the present time settlements are springing up regiments of artillery, ten of cavalry, and fortytween the Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean, where five of infantry. The artillery regiments are to heretofore the Indians were left in undisputed pos. have the same organization as was prescribed session. Emigrants are pushing to those settlements by law for the fifth regiment of that arm in and to the gold-fields of the Rocky Mountains by 1861. The cavalry regiments are to consist of every available highway. The people flocking to the six previously in the service, of twelve comand entitled to the protection of the Government. panies each, with four new regiments, similarly They are developing the resources of the country organized, of which two are to be composed of to its great advantage, thus making it our interest as colored men; the original vacancies in the well as our duty to give them military protection. grades of first and second lieutenant to be This makes a much greater force west of the Missis. filled by selection from among the officers and

A small military force is required in all the States soldiers of volunteer cavalry, and two-thirds of iately in rebellion, and it cannot be foreseen that this the original vacancies in the higher grades from force will not be required for some time to come. It officers of volunteer cavalry, and one-third is to be hoped that this force will pot be necessary from officers of the regular Army, all of whom to enforce the laws, either State or national. But have served two years in the field during the the difference of sentiment engendered by the great war which has raged for four years, will make the war, and been distinguished for capacity and presence of a military force necessary to give a feel- good conduct. The President is authorized, at ing of security to the people;

all classes disposed to his discretion, to arm and drill any portion of To maintain order, the Government has been the cavalry force as infantry or dismounted compelled to retain volunteers. All white volunteers cavalry. The forty-five regiments of infantry have become dissatisfied, and claim that the contract are to consist of the first ten regiments, of ten with them has been violated, by retaining them after companies each, now in the service; of twentythe war was over. By reason of dissatisfaction they

seven regiments, of ten companies each, to be are no longer of use, and might as well be discharged formed by adding two companies to each bat

The colored volunteer has equal right to claim his talion of the remaining nine three-battalion discharge, but as yet he has not done so. How long regiments; and of eight new regiments, of ten will existing laws authorize the retention of this companies each, four of which are to be comforce, even if they are content to remain ? for the reorganization of the Army which, in my opin: the grade of first and second lieutenants are to . The United States Senate passed promptly a bill posed of colored men, and four to be called the

Veteran Reserve Corps. Original vacancies in could possibly be, and it would supply the minimum be filled by selection from among the officers and requisite force. It gives but a few thousand addi- soldiers of volunteers; and of those occurring tional men over the present organization, but gives a in the higher grades, half are to be filled from The public service, guarding routes of travel over officers of volunteers, and half from officers of the plains, and giving protection to the Southern the regular Army, all of whom must have served States, demands the occupation of a great number of two years during the war, and been distinposts. For many of them a small company is just as effi: Veteran Reserve Corps are to be officered by

guished for capacity and good conduct. The cient as one with more men in it would be. The bill before Congress, or the one that has passed the Sen. appointment from officers and soldiers of volunate, gives increased number of rank and file of each teers or the regular Army, who have been company. It is an exceedingly appropriate measure wounded in the service, but are nevertheless in this particular, for it provides for the increase competent for garrison or similiar duty. All be smallest unit of an organization that can be persons receiving appointment in any branch of used without materially injuring discipline and effi- the service must have previously passed a satisciency.

factory examination before a board of officers, The belief that Congress would act promptly on convened under the direction of the Secretary this matter, if their attention were called to it, has in: of War, and such appointments are to be withduced me to respectfully ask your attention to it all out regard to previous rank. Persons who if you deem it proper, that this, with such indorse- have served in any capacity under the Conment as you may be pleased to make, be laid before federate Government are precluded from holdCongress through the Speaker of the House.

ing any office or position in the Army of the Very respectfully, your obedient servant, U. S. GRANT, Lieutenant-General.

United States. The infantry companies are to

have a maximum strength of one hundred men, Finally, at a late hour of the session, a com and a minimum strength of fifty men, and the mittee of conference was appointed to recon- organization, with respect to officers, will be simile the differences between the two bills. The ilar to that of the first ten regiments of infantry chief struggle was with regard to the number in the service. The number of bands in the of Veteran Reserve regiments to be incorpo- army is reduced to fifteen, to be assigned to rated in the army. Mr. Schenck having yielded brigades in time of war, and in tine of peace to

66

assembled brigades, or to forts or posts at were enlisted for the regular Army, and that at which the largest number of troops shall be the latter date its strength was 38,545 men. ordinarily stationed. Enlistments into the cav- This is exclusive of one thousand Indian scouts, alry must be for the term of five years, and into authorized by the act of July 28, 1866, of whom the artillery and infantry for three years, and six hundred have been assigned to Lieut.-Genrecruits may be enlisted into the Veteran Re- eral Sherman, for his Division of the Missouri, serve Corps from men who have been wounded two hundred to Maj.-General Halleck for the in the military service of the country, provided Division of the Pacific, and two hundred to they are found to be fitted for garrison or other Maj.-General Sheridan for the Department of light duty, to which, when enlisted, they are the Gulf. As soon as the ranks of the Army to be assigned. The general officers of the are well filled, it is intended to place restricArmy are to comprise one general, one lieu- tions upon the recruiting service, in order to tenant-general, five major-generals, and ten diminish the number of men received, so that brigadier-generals, who are entitled to the same it will correspond to the number required to pay, emoluments, and staff as heretofore pro- keep up the strength of the regiments as they vided by law.

become reduced by casualties or other causes. The military establishment of the country, as This will be done by raising the standard of qualireorganized by the act of July 28, 1866, will fications as to height, age, etc., which will at the thus consist of ten regiments, or one hundred same time improve the personnel of the army. and twenty companies, of cavalry, five regi The following table gives the commanding ments, or sixty companies, of artillery, and for- officers of the new regiments of cavalry, inty-five regiments, or four hundred and fifty fantry, and Veteran Reserve Corps, so far as

companies, of infantry. Should all the com- appointed at the close of 1866:
panies be filled to their maximum strength of
one hundred men, the army would comprise a No. of Description.

Colonels.

Reg't. total of nearly 76,000 men, rank and file, of all arms, who may be thus classed:

7th.. Cavalry... Andrew J. Smith. Artillery ...

7,000
Sth..

John I. Gregg.
14,000

9th.. Cavalry..

" (cold). Edward Hatch. Infantry.

55,000
10th..

Benjamin H. Grierson,

12th..

11th.. Infantry Wm, S. Ketchum.
Total......
76,000

C. C. Augur.
13th..

Isaac V. D, Reeve. The present strength of companies has been 14th..

Charles C. Lovell, fixed at sixty-four privates for artillery, cavalry, 15th..

Oliver Shepberd. and infantry, and one hundred and twenty-two

16th..

Caleb C. Sibley. 17th..

S. P. Heintzelman. privates for light batteries of artillery, making 18th..

H. V. Carrington. an aggregate strength of 54,302 men. From 19th..

Samuel K. Dawson. the annual report of the Secretary of War, it 20th..

Frederick Steele. appears that at the close of 1866, the two new

21st..

George Stoneman. 22d...

David S. Stanley. white regiments of cavalry were recruited, or

23d...

Jefferson C. Davis. nearly recruited, and that, of the fifty-four com 24th..

A. C. Gillem. panies required to convert into regiments the 25th..

Gordon Granger. single battalions of the nine three-battalion regi- 26th..

J. J. Reynolds. 27th..

John E. Smith. ments, authorized by the act of 1861, forty

28th..

Charles H. Smith. eight had been completed and sent to their

29th..

0. B. Wilcox. regiments. The four Veteran Reserve regiments 30th..

John D. Stevenson. were on active duty, and measures had been 31st..

P. R. de Trobriand, taken to recruit the colored regiments from the 32d...

Thos. L. Crittenden, 33d...

Thos. H. Rogers. colored volunteers still in the service. During

84th..

A. V. Kautz Lieut.-Col.). the war the volunteer service was so much more

35th..

Charles Griffin. popular than the regular Army, that it was found 36th:

John Gibbon. impossible to fill up the ranks of the latter to 37th..

George W. Getty. the extent authorized by law. Soon after the 38th..

(cold). Wm. B. Hazen.

39th.. general disbandment of volunteers commenced,

Joseph A. Mower. 40th..

Nelson A. Mills. in the summer of 1865, recruiting for the regu- 41st.

Geo. W. Schofield (Major). lars became more successful, and since the pas- 42d... (Vet. Res.). Daniel E. Sickles. sage of the act of July 28, 1866, bas proceeded 48d...

John C. Robinson. 44th..

Thos. G. Pitcher. so satisfactorily that there seems no reason to

45th..! doubt that the maximum strength of 54,302

Wager Swayne. men, now fixed upon, will be reached before the By General Orders, No. 95, the two addisummer of 1867. The whole subject of re- tional regiments of cavalry composed of white cruiting for the regular Army, and disbanding men, are to be known as the 7th and 8th, and volunteers, is by law placed under the super- those composed of colored men as the 9th and vision of the Adjutant-General's office. By the 10th. The ten regiments of infantry in the serreport of this officer it appears that from Octo- vice at the commencement of the war retain ber 1, 1865, to October 1, 1866, 36,674 recruits their old designations. The first battalions of

66

16

the nine three-battalion regiments, organized 5. The Department of the South, Majorin 1861, retain the designation of the regiments General Daniel E. Sickles to command, to em. to which they belonged, and under the new or brace the States of North and Sonth Carolina. ganization will be known as the 11th, 12th, Headquarters at Charleston. Fifth regiment 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th regi- of cavalry, 4 companies ; Third regiment of arments of infantry. The second battalions of the tillery, 1 light battery ; Sixth regiment of inthree-battalion regiments become respectively fantry, 10 companies; Eighth regiment of infanthe 20th, 21st, 22d, 230, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, try, 10 companies. and 28th regiments of infantry; and the third 6. The Department of the Tennessee, Mabattalions the 29th, 30th, 31st, 320, 33d,. 34th, jor-General George H. Thomas to command, 35th, 36th, and 37th regiments of infantry: to embrace the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, The four regiments to be composed of colored Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Headquarmen will be designated the 38th, 39th, 40th, ters at Louisville. Fifth regiment of cavalry, and 41st regiments of infantry. The remain- 4 companies; Second regiment of infantry, 10 ing four regiments will be designated the 42d, companies; Fifteenth regiment of infantry, 10 430, 44th, and 45th regiments of infantry, Vet- companies; Sixteenth regiment of infantry, 10 eran Reserve Corps, and will be regarded as a companies; Twenty-fourth regiment of infandistinct organization, in which promotions will try, 10 companies; Twenty-fifth regiment of be regulated accordingly.

infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-third regiment In the following table will be found a list of of infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-fourth regithe several military departments into which the ment of infantry, 10 companies; Forty-fifth country has been divided, with the troops as- regiment of infantry, Veteran Reserves, 10 comsigned to each:

panies. 1. The Department of the East, Major-Gen 7. The Department of the Gulf, Majoreral George G. Meade to command, to em General Philip H. Sheridan to command, to brace the New England States, New York, embrace the States of Florida, Louisiana, and New Jers-y, Pennsylvania, and Fort Delaware. Texas. Headquarters at New Orleans. Fourth Headquarters at Philadelphia. First regiment regiment of cavalry, 12 companies ; Sixth regiof artillery, 10 companies; Third regiment of ment of cavalry, 12 companies; Ninth regiment artillery, 10 companies; Fourth regiment of ar- of cavalry, 12 companies; First regiment of artillery, 3 companies; Fourth regiment of infan- tillery, 2 light batteries; Fifth regiment of artry, 7 companies; Forty-second regiment of tillery, 6 companies; First regiment of infantry, infantry, 10 companies.

10 companies; Seventh regiment of infantry 2. The Department of the Lakes, Briga- 10 companies; Seventeenth regiment of infandier and Brevet Major General Joseph Hooker try, 10 companies; Twenty-sixth regiment of to command, to embrace the States of Ohio, infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-fifth regiment Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. of infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-ninth regiHeadquarters at Detroit. Fourth regiment of ment of infantry, 10 companies; Forty-first artillery, 1 light battery; Fourth regiment of regiment of infantry, 10 companies. infantry, 3 companies; Forty-third regiment of 8. The Department of the Arkansas, Briginfantry, Veteran Reserves, 10 companies. adier and Brevet Major General E. 0. C. Ord

3. The Department of Washington, Briga- to command, to embrace the State of Arkansas dier and Brevet Major General E. R. S. Canby and Indian Territory west. Headqnarters at to command, to embrace the District of Column- Little Rock. Fifth regiment of artillery, 1 bia, Alexandria and Fairfax Counties, Virginia, light battery; Nineteenth regiment of infantry, and the States of Maryland and Delaware, ex10 companies; Twenty-eighth regiment of incept Fort Delaware. Headquarters at Wash- fantry, 10 companies; Thirty-seventh regiment ington, Fifth regiment of cavalry, 3 compa- of infantry, 10 companies. nies; Fourth regiment of artillery, 7 companies ; 9. The

Department of the Missouri, MajorTwelfth regiment of infantry, 10 companies ; General Winfield S. Hancock to command, to Thirtieth regiment of infantry, 10 companies; embrace the States of Missouri and Kansas, and Fortieth regiment of infantry, recruiting in the Territories of Colorado and New Mexico. Washington; Forty-fourth regiment of infantry, Headquarters at Fort Leavenworth. Second Veteran Reserves, 10 companies.

regiment of cavalry, 2 companies; Third regi4. The Department of the Potomac, Brig- ment of cavalry, 12 companies; Seventh regiadier and Brevet Major General John M. Scho- ment of cavalry, 12 companies; Fourth regifield to command, to embrace the States of ment of artillery, 1 light battery; Third regiVirginia, except Alexandria and Fairfax Coun- ment of infantry, 10 companies; Fifth regiment ties, and West Virginia. Headquarters at Rich- of infantry, 10 companies; Tenth regiment of mond. Fifth regiment of cavalry, 1 company; cavalry, 12 companies; Thirty-eighth regiment Fifth regiment of artillery, 1 light battery and of infantry, 10 companies. 4 companies; Eleventh regiment of infantry, 10. The Department of the Platte, Brig. 10 companies ; Twentieth regiment of infantry, adier and Brevet Major General Philip St. 10 companies; wenty-first regiment of infan- George Cooke to command, to embrace the try, 10 companies; Twenty-ninth regiment of State of Iowa, the Territories of Nebraska and infantry, 10 companies.

Utah, so much of Dakota as lies west of the VOL. VI.-3

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