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nntil 1866, was that of M. Liais, a French en- ingly numerous, and many of them belong to gineer, to explore the Rio San Francisco, one the orchid family. The fruits, instead of being of the most important rivers of Southern Bra as with us of the rose family, are almost all zil

, which passes for nearly a thousand miles myrtles. The variety of beautiful and durable through the province of Minas-Geraes, the great woods is very great, several hundred species mining and diamond district of Brazil.

fit for ship-building, for furniture, and for buildProfessor Agassiz spent ten months on the ing houses having been observed. One hunAmazons and its tributaries, and, either in per- dred and seventeen distinct species, all of exson or by members of his corps, explored most cellent quality, were procured from a lot half a of its larger tributaries, penetrating to the mile square. The aromatic and medicinal trees, boundaries of Peru. He also explored some plants, and shrubs, abound. The cinchona, the other portions of the empire. He has added india rubber, the pepper, and other valuable materially to our knowledge of this mighty trees, are found in large tracts. Animal life is river and the broad valley or plain through equally abundant. Previous to his visit to Brawhich it flows. The remarkably level region zil, but little over one hundred species of fishes through which the Amazons passes is an inter were known to exist in Brazil. During his stay esting feature, and one, which makes it emi. he discovered over eighteen hundred new spenently a highway of the nations. In a distance cies, many of them belonging to genera and of 3,000 miles from its mouth the elevation is classes elsewhere unrepresented. Among the only 210 feet, less than nine inches in ten miles. quadrupeds there were many new species. Owing to this fact, and to its great breadth and There were about sixty species of monkeys, all • depth, it is navigable for the largest steamers differing from those in other parts of the globe for a greater distance than any other river on in having prehensile tails. The intercommunithe globe. Some of its tributaries, especially cation throughout this whole region, the prothose on the south, at a distance of four or five fessor thinks, must be always by water; fast hundred miles above their junction with the steamers can, in consequence of the interlacings Amazons, have rapid cataracts or falls; but far of the rivers, visit almost every portion of the beyond the boundaries of Peru the main river valley of the Amazons, and the annual floods has done.

Professor Agassiz states that the will not permit in that region of any extended river bears three different names in different railroads. parts of its course : from the mouth of the Rio Mr. Chandless's exploration of the River PuNegro to the Atlantic it is the Rio Amazonas or rûs was deemed of so much importance and Amazons; from Tabatinga, on the borders of value that he was presented by the Royal GeoEcuador, through the territory of Ecuador, and graphical Society with the founder's medal. to the mouth of the Rio Negro, it is called the The Purûs is one of the southern affluents of Solimes or Solimens; that portion of the river the Amazons, discharging itself into that river above Tabatinga, from its source in the Andes by four mouths, near the 61st meridian west downward, is called the Maranon. The Ama- from Greenwich. Repeated attempts had been zons, throughout the greater part of its length, made to explore it previously, by commissions at least to the junction of the Napo in Ecuador, from the Brazilian Government, but they had varies very little, not more than two or three proved failures. Mr. Chandless, however, sucdegrees from a due west to east course, and is ceeded, with a crew of Bolivian Indians, in astherefore almost wholly in the same latitude; cending it for 1,866 miles, or to within about this is not the case with any other river of 20 miles of its source, and mapped it accurately. the first class. All the other great rivers of the He found the river very tortuous in its course, world pass ,over many degrees of latitude, and but unobstructed by rapids, and navigable about are of course in different climates in different to its source. The Madre de Dios, the Peruportions of their course. The Amazons is vian river, proved not to be the head waters wholly within the tropics, and within three or of the Purûs, that river having its source two four degrees of the equator; but it is not on degrees farther north. The small tribes of Inthis account so hot and sickly a climate as would dians near its sources had never been in combe supposed; the average temperature of the munication with the semi-civilized tribes lower year is 84° F., the extremes 72° and 92°, and down, and still used their primitive stone the climate is very healthful. The waters of hatchets. They had dogs, but no fowls. Tathe river are turbid and of a milky color, from pirs and capibaras were extremely numerous the white clay which they hold in suspension. in this remote solitude, and very tame. As The tributaries which rise in the mountains are Mr. Chandless approached the sources of the all of this milky color; but those which rise in stream, the river forked, and both forks were the woody plains have their waters black, or obstructed by rocks and rapids. the farthest rather of a dark amber color, or, in some cases, point reached on the north fork was 10° 36' of a deep green. The Rio Negro derives its 44" south latitude; 72° 9' west longitude from name from this dark color of its waters. The Greenwich. On the south fork, 10° 52' 52" vegetable life of the valley of the Amazons is south latitude ; and 72° 17' west longitude. The abundant, almost excessive, but it is peculiar. height above the sea level was at this point The palms are very abundant and of great va- 1,088 feet. In a second voyage Mr. Chandless riety. The lianas or parasitic plants are exceed- explored the Aquiry, the principal branch of

the Purûs from the southward, in order to as- without success sufficient to defray exponses, certain whether there was any connection be- the contractor may suddenly come upon a few tween this and the Madre de Dios, but again diamonds of such value as to make him rich at found there was none. Professor Agassiz states once. Diamonds are not, as is usually supposod, that some members of his corps ascended the found in a gangue of talcose quartz or itacolPurûs, and, about five hundred miles from its umite, but in serpentine or micaceous rock. month, found an affluent connecting it with the The returns of population in Brazil, taken in Madeira.

1865, and published in 1866, give the populaM. Liais, in his exploration of the Rio San tion of the empire as 9,106,000. This is, we Francisco, brought to light much that was of suppose, independent of the savage Indian interest and importance concerning it. The tribes, whose numbers can only be estimated river had generally been reputed to be about from very imperfect data. This population is 1,350 miles in length. He demonstrated that distributed among the provinces in the followthe main stream was 1861 miles in length, and ing proportions in round numbers: Amazonas, that some of its affluents extended even farther 70,000; Para, 250,000; Maranham, 400,000; south than the principal stream. At a litt) Piauhy, 175,000; Ceara, 486,000; Rio Grande more than 200 miles from the sea it passes do Norte, 210,000; Parahyba, 260,000; Perthrough a defile of granite, whose walls towernambuco, 1,180,000; Alagoas, 250,000; Serhigh above it on both sides, and at 192 miles gipe, 250,000; Bahia, 1,200,000; Espirito Santo, from the sea it leaps in three successive cata- 55,000; Rio de Janeiro, 850,000; the city of racts over the granite barrier two hundred and Rio Janeiro, 400,000; Sao Paulo, 800,000; Paeighty-three feet. The principal of these falls rana, 100,000; Santa Catharina, 120,000; Rio (the lowermost or nearest the sea) is two hun- Grande do Sul, 420,000; Minas Geraes, 1,350,dred and two feet in height. Though narrower 000; Goyaz, 200,000, and Matto Grosso, 80,000. than the cataract of Niagara, the volume of Buenos Ayres.—Herr Burmeister, a German water is nearly or quite as great as that of Ni- geographer, for some years resident in the city agara, and the fall more than fifty feet farther. and State of Buenos Ayres, communicated in W. Liais, who has witnessed both, thinks the 1866 to Professor Dove, of Berlin, a very elabfall of the San Francisco grander on a close ap- orate article on the climatology of the country, proach, though not so impressive when seen based on four years' observations. Buenos from a distance. The cataracts bear the name Ayres, being in the South Temperate Zone, has of Paulo Alfonso. For sixty or seventy miles its winter during the months corresponding below these falls, and for nearly two hundred to our summer, and its summer during our winabove them, the channel of the river is ob- ter months. We can only give the maximum structed by rapids and rocks, but for a distance and minimum of the thermometer and baromeof 125 miles from the sea to its mouth the river ter during the different seasons of each year, is placid and majestic in its flow, and well omitting many valuable statistics of the climate adapted for navigation by the largest vessels. in Herr Burmeister's dissertation. The maxiFor nearly 200 miles above the falls the ob- mum temperature in January, 1862, was 93° structions are numerous, but above these it is Fahrenheit; in January, 1863, 95° ; in Janunavigable for large steamers for nearly a thou- ary, 1864, 94°; in January, 1865, 86o.4. The sand miles. In this part of its course it receives minimum temperature of the same month was numerous affluents, the most important of which in 1862, 59° ; in 1863, 51°.4; in 1864, 60°; in are the Rio das Velhas, the Paracatà, and the 1865, 60°.3. In February, 1862, the maximum Rio Grande. After receiving the last-named was 93o.9 ; in 1863, 88°; in 1864, 93° ; in 1865, tributary the San Francisco is about one and 90°. The minimum for the same month in one-fifth miles in width. The extreme upper 1862 was 52o.2; in 1863, 56°; in 1864, 59o.3; portion of the river is rocky and obstructed by in 1865, 57°.6. In April, 1862, the maximum rapids; but the thousand miles of continuons was 830.8; in 1863, 81°2; in 1864, 84°2; in navigable waters traverse the province of Mi. 1865, 870.2. The minimum for the same month nas Geraes, the principal diamond and gold re- in 1862 was 47°.8; in 1863, 39o.2; in 1864, gion of Brazil

, and this can be more effectually 39o.2; in 1865, 43o. In May, 1862, the maxiopened to cominerce by a railroad starting from mum was 73°.6; in 1863, 71°.6; in 1864, 73o.4; the rapids or falls in the river, and extending in 1865, 65°.3. The ninimum for the samo to Babia or Pernambuco, and running in con- month in 1863 was 43o.2; in 1863, 36°.5; in nection with steamers on the San Francisco, 1864, 41°; in 1865, 38°.8. In July (a winter than by any other route. The country M. Liais month), 1862, the maximum was 640.8 ; in 1863, represents as wonderfully beautiful, and pos- 620.4; in 1864, 57°.4; in 1865, 63°.5. The sessing a delightful climate. The gold mines of minimum for the same month in 1862 was 28°; Minas Geraes are, like those of Colorado, com- in 1863, 33o.8: in 1864, 32°,4; in 1865, 30°.9. bined to a considerable extent with iron and In August, 1862, the maximum was 64°.6; in copper pyrites, and though exceedingly rich, 1863, 73°.4; in 1864, 73o.4; in 1865, 66°.2. yield but a small return to the miners by the The minimum for the same month in 1862 was rude processes hitherto adopted. The search 32° ; in 1863, 35°.6; in 1864, 34°.5; in 1865, for diamonds is so uncertain in its results, that 33°.1. In October, 1862, the maximum was it is almost a lottery. After working for a year 70°; in 1863, 78o.3 ; in 1864, 75°.6; in 1865,

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78°. The minimum for the same month in topics made in 1860-'66. These observations 1862 was 39o.4 ; in 1863, 40°.1; in 1864, made in six different voyages demonstrate the 48°.6; in 1865, 43o.2. In November, 1862, followirg facts: 1st. That a tract of the South. the maximum temperature was 86°.1; in 1863, ern Ocean and the Southern Atlantic, extend950.2; in 1864, 86°; in 1865, 89°,4. The min- ing west and southwest of the Cape of Good imum for the same month in 1862 was 47°.8; Hope from south latitude 35° to 40°, and east in 1863, 46°.6; in 1864, 53o.2; in 1865, 41, longitude from Greenwich from 0° to 14°, is re

The maximum height of the mercury in the markably cold, the temperature ranging from barometer, according to the scale of Celsius, 60° Fahrenheit to 47°, and that in either direcwas in January, 1862, 768.2; in 1863, 768.3; tion from this tract the temperature rises. in 1864, 765.6; in 1865, 769.4. The minimum There are considerable variations in the temheight for the same month was, in 1862, 755.5 ; perature of the water outside of these limits, in 1863, 751.0; in 1864, 752.0; in 1865, 753.8. due apparently to an under-current of cold In April the maxima for these respective water which forces itself to the surface at ceryears were 771.1, 762.3, 768.2, 770.0; and the tain points; thus, in August, 1860, in 40° south minima for the same month, 745.0, 753.0, latitude, and 23° east longitude, nearly south of 753.0, 753.0. For July the maxima were the cape, he found the temperature 67° F., 774.9, 772.0, 774.4, 771.6; and the minima, whereas, in August, 1863, at the same place, 756.4, 751.4, 758.4, 750.0. In October the it was 55° F. 2d. The specific gravity of these maxima were 772.S, 770.0, 769.0, 770.0; and cold waters is 1.028 to 1.027, decreasing a little the minima 755.1, 755.7, 755.5, and 753.0. as we proceed toward the southeast. In the

Chili.- In the province of Valdivia, in the Mozambique current, farther east, the specific south of Chili, there is a portion of the Andes gravity decreases to 1.0245, while the temperawhich, from the entire absence of the forests ture rises to 76° F., varying a little, however, which elsewhere cover the slopes of the moun- in different months, being 1.0255 in February, tains up to near the snow line, has received and 1.0245 in March; but the decrease in spethe name of " Cordillera Pelada,the “tree- citic gravity indicates, long before the appearance less cordillera” or “bald mountain.". This of the sky or the wind does so, the near approach mountainous region was explored in the au- to the rainy doldrums, in which the specific tumn of 1865 by Frederick Philippi, a Chilian gravity of the water ranges from 1.026 to 1.022. naturalist and botanist. He found a few small The same change occurs in the South Atlantic trees on the lower portion of the slopes, mainly as the navigator approaches the equator. The laurel and beech, but a great profusion of herbs specific gravity in the Sea of Sargasso being and flowering plants, many of species not hith- 1.0228, and the temperature of the water as erto described. Two lakes, the lake of the high as 83° F. 3d. The boundaries of the cold Barriers, and the Fernwater, high up in the waters seem very accurately defined ; for, in mountains, were surrounded with this new passing the 15th meridian east from Greenwich sub-alpine flora, in which, as in most of the in latitude 39° south, Captain Toynbee invariaSouth American countries, plants of the myr- bly came suddenly upon water at a temperature tle family predominated.

of 60° to 63° F. When a mile or two west it The boundary line between Chili and Bolivia had been 47°; this gradually increased to 67 had been long å fruitful occasion of controversy in 19° to 23° east longitude. In 38° south it between the two countries, and in 1863 had commenced a little farther west, and in 40° nearly culminated in war. This was amicably south a little farther east. In 40° south latisettled in 1866 by a boundary treaty. The re- tude and 50° east longitude (from Greenwich) gion of the disputed boundary on the mainland a little to the southeast, and about 900 miles was of very little value, being a waterless desert, south of Madagascar, the captain came upon reputed to have some veins of copper and im- another considerable patch of cold water, surmense beds of nitrate of soda, but so utterly rounded on nearly all sides by warm water, devoid of moisture that it was uninhabitable. and extending over 10 or 12 degrees of longiThe Mejillones islands, rich in guano, lie off the tude. The temperature of this tract was 44° coast, between the 230 and 25th parallelis of F., and sometimes even lower. The seas are south latitude, and to the product of these both usually very high where these hot and cold countries laid claim. The treaty makes the waters meet. parallel of 24° south latitude the boundary, and Professor Karl von Fritsch, a German geoggives the right of sovereignty over the Mejil- rapher, published in Petermann's Mittheilungen lones to Bolivia, but provides that one-half of for July, 1866, an elaborate paper on the methe net proceeds of the sale of guano from teorology of the Canary Islands, the result of them shall be paid yearly to Chili.

protracted observations made by himself in IIL THE ATLANTIC OCEAN AND ITS ISLANDS. 1862 and 1863. On the north coast of Madeira, -Captain Henry Toynbee, a member of the in August, 1862, the mean temperature was Royal Geographical Society, who had already 80°.5 F. The daily fluctuation was 16°.6 F.; prepared a memoir on the temperature, specific the minimum of the month at mid-day was 73°, gravity, etc., of the seas between England and and the maximum 89°.6. At the height of India, has supplemented that memoir by a 1,000 to 2,000 feet the mean temperature of paper detailing further observations on these the month was 77o.7; the mean daily fluctu 4

tion was 20°; the minimum temperature of the been also engaged in surveys in almost al. the month at noonday was 69o.5, and the maxi- waters of the globe. In the Mediterranean, mum 89o. At the height of 2,000 to 4,000 feet Captain Mansell and Commander Wilkinson the mean temperature of the month of August have been engaged in making accurate maps was 68°; the mean daily fluctuation 199.3; of the coasts and islands of the Grecian Archithe minimum temperature of the month at pelago. The coasts of China and Japan, the noonday 60°, and the maximum 770.8. In Íslands of Formosa and Labuan, and a part of Teneriffe, at the Villa de Orotara, 1,260 feet the coasts of Java and Borneo, have been exabove the sea-level, the mean temperature in plored by Commanders Bullock and Ward and September, 1862, was 75°; the mean daily fluc- Masters Wilds and Stanley. Colonial surveys tuation 169.6; the maximum temperature have been made in Nova Scotia, Newfound of the month at noonday 670.8; the maxi- land, and the West Indies, British Columbia mum 85o. On the same island, at the height South Africa, New South Wales, Queensland of 7,500 feet, the mean temperature was 70° ; Victoria, and South Australia. The British Ord. the lowest temperature of the month at noon nance Survey Office is very actively engaged day 58o.1 ; and the highest 830.3. In the in the preparation and publication of extensive Cañadas, or highest inhabited portion of the and complete maps of the British Islands, the peak, about 11,250 feet above the sea-level, the results of its long and carefully executed topomean temperature was 59°; the mean daily graphical surveys. It has published a map of fluctuation 34°.6; the lowest temperature of England in 110 sheets, one of Scotland in 120 the month at mid-day was 41°.5; the highest sheets, and two of Ireland in 205 sheets. It 78°.3. At Palma, in Santa Cruz, in October, has also a map of England in preparation on a 1862, the mean temperature of the month was scale of six inches to a mile, of which 2,994. 78°.3; the mean daily fluctuation 11°,5; the sheets have already appeared. A parish map of lowest temperature of the month at noonday England and Scotland, on a scale of a little more 73°, and the highest 84o. On summits varying than 25 inches to the mile, is also in progress; from 3,000 to 6,500 feet, the mean temperature of which 13,857 sheets have already been pubfor October was 54°.5. At lower summits, on lished. The ordnance officers have, besides the same island, from 1,000 to 3,300 feet above these, prepared plans of 165 cities on scales of the sea, the mean temperature of the same one, two, tive, or ten feet to the mile, and have month was 76°.8; the mean daily fluctuation published 2,376 sheets of these. The plan of 25°; the lowest temperature of the month at London, on a scale of five feet to the mile, ocmid-day 670.5 ; the highest 890.9. At Pal- cupies alone 819 sheets. ma, in November, 1862, the mean temperature 2. France.-R. A. Peacock, Esq., a member of the month was 72o.9 ; the mean daily fluc- of the Royal Geographical Society, London, and tuation 19°; the lowest temperature of the a resident of the Island of Jersey, has been enmonth at noonday 67°; the highest 78°.8. gaged for some years past in investigating the In January, 1862, at Hiero, near the sea-level, westerly coasts of France and its islands, with a the mean temperature of the month was 70°; view of ascertaining the amount of the losses the lowest temperature of the month at mid- of land on these coasts by the irruption of the day 63°.5; the highest 76. In Golfo, about sea within the historical period, and bas for1,000 feet above the sea, the mean temperature warded an interesting memoir to the society, for January was 63°.5; the minimum at noon- giving the result of his inquiries. He finds day 57°, and the maximum for the month evidence of vast losses of territory, at numerous 72°.5. At Valverde, about 2,400 feet above points, particularly in St. Owen's Bay, Jersey, the sea, the mean temperature for January near St. Heliers, and in St. Aubin's Bay, the was 61o.2 ; the minimum for the month at Ecrechou and Direou Isles, on the Norman noonday 57°.4; and the maximum 67o.5. coast, on the north and northwest coast of The mean daily fluctuation for the month Contances, in the Bay of Mont St. Michael, and 13o.4. The statistics of the temperature of near St. Malo, in the Forest of Sciscy, where a these islands afford the best guide to invalids town and several monasteries were carried away who are seeking a mild and equable island cli- by the sea, and on the coast of Guernsey. mate as to the location best adapted to their Dr. Carl Vogel has published, during the condition.

past year, an admirable topographical map of IV. EUBOPE. 1. Great Britain.—The ad. the Thuringian Forest, on a scale of 1 to 150,miralty surveys of the British Islands have 000, and special maps of portions of it on a been prosecuted during the past year with com- scale of 1 to 60,000. On these maps the colors mendable zeal, the western coast of Scotland are so deepened as to indicate the elevation of and the Hebrides, the Sound of Mull

, Cardiff each portion, and give a clear idea of the surRoads and its neighborhood, the Downs, Yar- face, highways, etc. Nothing can be more mouth, and Lowestoft Roads, the coast between admirable in execution than the maps of this Winterton and Southwold, the neighborhood description and those of physical geography, of Spithead, and the bar of Portsmouth Har- for which the German geographers are famous. bor, the Medina River at Cowes, and a part of The Thuringian Forest is completely represented the Channel Islands, having been carefully sure on these maps; in its hills and valleys, its rocks veyed. British officers and war-vessels have and forest tracts, and its character of soil and

surface is more fully detailed than it could be ond and smaller island, called Mikro (or little) by a volume of description.

Kaimeni appeared within this crater, and haé Dr. Thomas Petersen, a Danish naturalist, still the remains of an old crater in it. In 1650 explored in 1865 the Austrian Alps, and ascer another island appeared on the northeast coast tained the highest the principal peaks. His of Santorino, but it soon sank. In 1707 another measurements of some of the Orteler and Adam- little island, called Neo (or new) Kaimeni, rose ello groups were given in the volume of the to the west of Santorino, and between Palæo and ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1865; but his full re- Mikro Kaimeni, and attained a height of about port, in regard to the entire Austrian Alps, 250 feet, and a circumference of a mile. The was not made public until some time in 1866. surface was more or less disturbed around this He divides these mountains into seven groups, spot for six years, finally terminating its volwhich he names: the Orteler group; the Ad- canic action in 1712. In the century and a amello group; the Ötzthaler group; the Stu- half since that period, there has been little baier group; the Zillerthaler group; the group marked volcanic action, save that in the comof the Tauern heights; and the Marmolada group. modious harbor formed by the old crater of The Orteler group has 22 summits above 10,000 Santorino, and called the Bay of Exhalations, feet in height; and of these the Orteler Peak is it has been a well-known fact that there were 12,356 Vienna feet=11,586 American feet in mineral springs, which contained sulphuric height, and Mount Zebru, or the King's Peak, waters, and that the acid gases from these 12,195 Vienna feet=11,435 American feet. were sufficiently active to cleanse in a few The Adamello group has 13 summits above days the foul copper bottoms of ships of all 10,000 Vienna feet in height; of which four their impurities. On January 26, 1866, volexceed 11,000 Vienna feet; viz., Mount Adam- canic action again commenced with considerello, Mount Falcon, Como Bianco, and Presa- able violence; a portion of the island of Neo nella. The Vienna foot is about .07 less than Kaimeni, called Cape George I., where was a the American foot. The Ötzthaler group has small village, called Vulkano, bathing-houses 28 peaks, about 10,500 Vienna feet, half the (for the mineral waters), and a chapel, began to number ranging from 11,000 to 12,000 feet. subside slowly, finally being covered to the The Stubaier group has but eight summits ris- depth of three feet or more. The passage being about 10,000 feet, and only two above 11,- tween Palæo and Neo Kaimeni began to rise 000 feet. The Zillerthaler has ten peaks over till from a depth of 70 fathoms it was less than 10,000 feet, and two of them above 11,000 feet. 12 fathoms, a new island called Aphræssa The Tauern group has 26 lofty summits, all (from a Greek war vessel, which was in port above 10,000 feet, and one-half the number ex- during a part of the eruption, and narrowly esceeding 11,000, while the Great Glockner rises caped destruction from the falling stones and about 12,000, and the Little Glockner is but 46 lava blocks) rose to the southwest of Nec feet lower. The Marmolada group has nine Kaimeni, and finally increased till it joined that summits above 10,000; and one, the Marmolada island, and at another point in the southeastern di Penia, 11,056 feet in height. Here then in portion of Neo Kaimeni, the volcanic action enthis cluster of mountain groups, known as the larged and elevated the island. The volcanic disAustrian Alps, we havə 116 summits rising charges, for a period of five months, were very above 10,000 feet, and 38 of them above 11,000 great and intense in their character, but in June feet, while three exceed 12,000 feet. Fire of the they seemed to be gradually subsiding, and late Swiss Alpine peaks are higher than any of these, in the season showed no signs of return. but nowhere else in Europe is there so great a The measuring of an arc of latitude, which has number of peaks of uniformly high elevation. been for some years in progress in Europe, 18

Mention was made in the ANNUAL CYCLO- not yet completed, though there is little exPÆDa for 1865 of the appearance of a new cept the verification of the surveys yet to be volcanic island in the Ægean Sea, the date of accomplished. The 47th parallel, which was which was not then very satisfactorily ascer- the one first selected, has been abandoned, and tained. It now appears that the appearance of the 52d selected, and the portion to be measthis addition to the previously formed volca- ured extends from Valentia, on the west coast nic islan:l group was within the year 1866. of Ireland, to Orsk, on the river Ural, in EastThe ancient Thera, now Santorino, is the ern Russia. Saratov was reached at the close largest of a cluster of islands in the Ægean of 1865, and Orsk about the close of 1866. Sea, and it and the adjacent isles of Therasia V. Asia, Asia Minor.-Considerable addiand Aspronisi are simple segments of the for- tion has been made during the past year to our mer rim—the now broken edge of a vol- minute knowledge of Palestine, by the laborg canic crater of immense size, being six or seven of careful explorers from England and France, miles in diameter, and of great depth. Portions but the results of their surveys are not yet fully of this crater have at different periods within before the public. The flora and fauna of the the last 2,000 years been subject to renewals of valley of the Jordan (which, it will be remem volcanic activity. The oldest of these, which bered, in its lower portion, is far below the level resulted in the formation of a volcanic island, of the Mediterranean), have been carefully exnamed Palæo Kaimeni (or old burnt island) oc- amined, and found to be of a tropical character. curred in the year 197 B. C. In 1573, a sec Persia.-Russian geographers have recently

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