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At this session the Legislature reënacted the the close of the war. The State Penitentiary, stay law of the former session. It was again although destroyed during the war, has been vetoed by the Governor for the same reasons as partially restored, and preparations are making were given on the former occasion. Both to place it on a permanent and successful foothouses then passed the bill by the constitution- ing. Manufacturing has received a new im. al majority. The committee on public schools pulse, and promises to become one of the prinreported a plan the leading features of which cipal branches of future industry in the State. were that a superintendent of public education GERMAN-ITALIAN WAR. The disagree. and schools should be appointed by the Gov. ment of Austria and Prussia, in the joint adernor, whose duty should be to report annually ministration of the Duchies of Schleswig and to the Legislature consolidated returns from Holstein, seriously complicated, in 1866, the school districts, and expenditures of educational relations between these two powers. Austria funds. He is to submit estimates for two years favored the claims of the Prince of Augustenin advance, and also plans for the management, burg, and not only permitted but encouraged improvement, and better organization of the public manifestations made in Holstein in Georgia schools. He is, as often as possible, favor of the Prince. The Prussian Government to deliver public returns on education, and had published, in October, 1865, the opinion of perform other duties assigned him by the act. the crown jurists, who declared that, since the The Georgia schools embraced in this act are Peace of Vienna, of October 30, 1864, the to be open to all white children of the district sovereignty of the two Duchies was exclusively between six and twenty-one years of age, vested in Austria and Prussia, and that, if the etc. The plan after some amendments was house of Augustenburg had ever possessed an adopted with a provision that it should not go hereditary right to the government of the into operation prior to January 1, 1868. Duchies (which was, however, denied by the

On November 30th the following preamble crown jurists), it had ceased since, and in conand resolution were unanimously adopted in sequence of the Peace of Vienna. The eneach house of the Legislature:

couragement given by Austria to the agitation The General Assembly would do injustice to the of the adherents of the Prince of Augustenburg great heart of Georgia, not to give some formal ex. was, therefore, regarded by Prussia as an agpression of their respect for the character, and sorrow for the condition of the illustrious prisoner of gressive act, which it had a right to guard state, Jefferson Davis. All the generous pulsations against. In its note of January 26th, Count of that heart are in full unison and sympathy with Bismarck requested the Government of Austria his sufferings and misfortunes. Its warm affections to take this view of Prussia into serious concluster round the fallen chief of a once dear but now sideration. In case the Cabinet of Vienna abandoned cause. There they will cluster and centre while men admire

all that is chivalric in nature; should give to this request a negative or evasive while they regard all that is constant in purpose; answer, Prussia must come to the conclusion while they love all that is noble in virtue; while that Austria refused to go hand in hand with they revere all that is sublime in faith, and respect her; she must, in this case, gain for its policy unfailing greatness of soul. Therefore,

The General Assembly of Georgia do resolve, That full freedom, and make such use of it as could their sincerest condolence and warmest sympathy be most corresponding to her own interests. are tendered to Mr. Jefferson Davis in his confine. In reply, the Austrian Government (note of ment; and they look forward with anxious solicitude February 7th) claimed an absolute freedom to the day when a magnanimous and patriotic presi. in the provisional administration of Holstein, dent shall put a term to his confinement, and by the and her unwillingness to allow her administrapeople for whom he so faithfully struggled, and on tion to be interfered with from any quarter account of whom he endures witń Christian fortitude whatever. As Prussia did not reply to this the hardships of a long and rigorous imprisonment. note, she was suspected by Austria of medita

Bills appropriating State aid to railroads ting aggressive acts, and the Austrian ambassawere vetoed by the Governor, chiefly on the dor at Berlin was accordingly instructed to ground that the State was not in a condition to inquire what the Prussian Government undermake a large expansion of her credit. After stood by the use she would make of the rethe passage of many local measures the Legis- covered freedom of her policy. Prussia evalature on December 14th adjourned.

sively replied that both powers returned to that The corn crop of the State was in many relation which existed between them before places disastrously affected by drought. A great the Danish war. deficiency in the supply ensued. Large dona Austria, uneasy about the attitude of Prussia, tions were made in other States for the use of began, as early as February, to arm. At the the destitute poor, as a hundred thousand bush- beginning of March, her armaments attracted els by citizens of Kentucky, etc.

the attention of Prussia. The King of Prassia, The State Lunatic Asylum bas continued in in his turn, issued (March 11th) a decree which Buccessful operation. Blacks are entitled to threatened all attempts to undermine his and admission as well as whites, but the accommo- the Emperor's joint authority in the Duchies. dations are too limited for the reception of all The decree was promulgated for the Duchy of patients. The Academy for the Blind has like- Schleswig on the 13th of March, and caused wise been in successful operation; but that for the Austrian ambassador at Berlin to inquira the deaf and dumb has not been reopened since on March 16th) whether Prussia intended

forcibly to violate the convention of Gastein. to arm. When, therefore, Austria notified Bismarck disclaimed any such intention, and (April 26th) the Prussian Government that, added that orally he could not give a more according to agreement, she would disarm in definite reply, as oral declarations were too Bohemia, but was compelled to make thorough liable to misinterpretation. If the Austrian preparations for defence in Venetia, Bismarck ambassador desired a more explicit answer, he replied that he must insist upon the reduction might formulate his inquiry in writing. The of the entire Austrian army to a peace footing. hint was not accepted, but the armament in He also expressed a regret that the Austrian • Bohemia and Moravia became more and more Government had not accepted the proposition threatening.

of Prussia conjointly to request the other FedOn the 24th of March, Prussia informed the eral Governments to cease their armaments, minor German governments that she was com- and he announced that Prussia would demand pelled by the armaments of Austria to make from the neighboring Kingdom of Saxony an preparations for the defence of Silesia; that explanation of its warlike preparations. she must also endeavor to obtain guaranties for While thus the negotiations for bringing about the future which she had in vain expected from a mutual disarmament proved a failure, the disan alliance with Austria; that, as the German cussion at Frankfort of the proposition made Confederation, in its present condition, did not by Prussia in April, for a reform of the Federal promise to Prussia any federal aid, if she was Constitution, widened rather than contracted attacked, she must exclusively rely on the States the breach between the two powers. A new which were willing to render her aid without Austrian note on the settlement of the Schlesregard to the Confederation; that, therefore, wig-Holstein question (April 26th), drew forth she must inquire about the disposition of the a reply from Prussia (May 1st and May 7th) deseveral States; but that, in any case, Prussia claring a readiness to treat with Austria conmust propose a reform of the political and mili- cerning her claim to the Duchies, but declining tary condition of the Confederation. To this to allow the interference of the German Diet note the minor States replied by referring to or any other power. As the armaments on article 11 of the federal pact, by which the both sides uninterruptedly proceeded, Saxony, members of the Confederation are obliged not alarmed at the late Prussian note, moved at the to carry on war against each other, but to bring Federal Diet (May 5th) that Prussia be requesttheir quarrels before the Diet, which would ed to give appropriate assurances to the Diet either mediate or call forth an "austragal judg- with regard to article 11 of the federal pact. ment," to which the litigant parties would have The motion was (on May 9th) adopted by 10 to submit without appeal.

against 5 votes. A motion made by Bavaria, The first armaments on the part of Prussia which showed itself very anxious to bring about were ordered on the 27th and 29th of March, a reconciliation, to request all the governments The battalions in the provinces which were most that had made warlike preparations for explaexposed were raised to their greatest strength nations, was likewise adopted, and the 1st of on the peace footing; the field artillery was June fixed as the day on which the explanations put upon the war footing, and the armament should be given. The declarations given on of the fortresses begun. Austria, in a note of that day by the representatives of the two great March 31st, explained that all the movements powers did not differ from those which had of troops in Bohemia had simply taken place previously been made in the diplomatic notes in consequence of the persecution of the Jews exchanged between the cabinets; but matters in several places, and that the Emperor had became more seriously complicated by a decnever thought of attacking Prussia. This dec- laration of Austria, that being unable to come laration, Prussia asserted (April 6th), did not to an understanding with Prussia on the Schlessatisfy her, and she insisted on the purely wig-Holstein question, she now referred the defensive character of her armament. Austria whole subject to the decision of the Federal replied (April 7th) that no military arrangements Diet, which she was ready to abide by. Prushad been made which could be taken as pre- sia, in reply, more emphatically than ever, deparations for a great war; that a discussion of clared that, if the Diet paid no attention to her the priority of the armaments was made super- proposition for a reform, which everywhere fluous by the declaration of the Emperor that was regarded as necessary, Prussia must regard he had never intended to make an attack upon the Diet as incompetent to fulfil its mission, Prussia, and that the amicable relations could and resort to other measures. The announcebe restored if only Prussia would be willing to ment made by Austria, in the same sitting of disarm. Count Bismarck (April 15th) insisted the Diet, that the Austrian Governor of Holthat, as Austria had been the first to arm, she stein, General von Gablentz, had been instructmust be the first to disarm. Austria (April ed to convoke the Estates of Holstein, in order 18th) agreed to accede to this demand of Prus- to hear the wishes of the people of the Duchies sia, and Bismarck (April 21st) promised to fol- on their fate, was regarded by the Prussian low Austria step by step.

Government as a direct violation of the ConIn the mean while, Prussia had concluded an vention of Gastein, and called forth a sharp offensive and defensive alliance with Italy, and note from Count Bismarck to the diplomatic consequently the latter power had also begun agents of Prussia (June 4th), in which ba

charges Austria with a design of provoking war clared themselves for the Austrian proposition, for the purpose of improving the desperate and three against it. But as soon as the vota condition of the Austrian finances by Prussian was published, the Government of Schaumburg. war contributions or by an "honorable” bank. Lippe informed the Prussian Cabinet that it was ruptcy. At the same time, the Prussian Gov. against the motion, and disavowed its repreernor of Schleswig, General von Manteuffel, sentative at Frankfort, who had voted for it. was directed to march Prussian troops into This change of vote would have put the 16th Holstein as soon as the Austrian Governor of curia on the negative instead of the affirmativo that Duchy should convoke the Estates. When, side. Deducting the votes of the 13th and 16th therefore, on June 5th, the order of convoca- curiae, both of which were counted in to make tion was issued, the Prussian troops in Schles- up the majority of nine, there would only rewig entered Holstein (on June 7th), General main for the motion seven curiae, namely: the von Manteuffel, at the same time, inviting Gen. 1st (Austria), 3d

(Bavaria), 4th (Saxony), 5th eral von Gablentz to reëstablish with him a (Hanover), 6th (Würtemberg), 8th (Hesse-Casjoint administration of the Duchies, as it ex- sel), 9th (Hesse-Darmstadt). Against the moisted before the Convention of Gastein. The tion were cast the votes of the 7th caria (BaAustrians deny that such an invitation was re- den), 11th (Luxemburg and Limburg), 12th ceived, but the Prussians assert that it certainly (Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenwas sent. As the isolated brigade of Austrian burg, Saxe-Meiningen), 14th (the two Mecklentroops in Holstein was not strong enough to burgs), 15th (Oldenburg, Anhalt, the two arrest the advance of the Prussians, it was or- Schwarzburgs), 17th, (the Freo Cities). * If dered to withdraw-first into the southwestern Prussia herself had voted, and if Lippe-Schaum corner of Holstein, and subsequently over Ham- burg had been allowed to change her vote, burg and Harburg to Hanover. The convoca- involving the change of the vote of the entire tion of the Holstein Estates was prevented; curia, the Austrian motion would have been the Prince of Augustenburg left Holstein in rejected by 8 against 7 votes. haste, and Prussia appointed a Schleswig-Hol When the President of the Diet had pro stein' nobleman, Herr von Scheel-Plessen, as claimed the adoption of the Austrian motion, Oberpräsident (the name of the chief officer of the representative of Prussia rose to announce civil administration in the Prussian provinces) the action Prussia bad resolved upon. Prussia, of the two Duchies.

he said, regarded the adoption of the motion as On June 11th, the representative of Austria a violation of the pact of confederation. The in the Federal Diet, charged Prussia with hav- condition under which the federal law admits ing disturbed the federal peace, and moved the of "execution " against members of the Conmobilization, within a fortnight, of the entire federation had been altogether disregarded by federal army, with the exception of the three Austria. Her conduct in Holstein had been army corps comprising the Prussian contingent. equally contrary to federal treaties. The Diet The army should be ready to march within ought not to have considered the motion at all. twenty-four hours; reserve contingents and Its adoption proved to Prussia that the main the chief command of the army should be pro- object of the Confederation—the protection of vided for; and, for the execution of details, the the several members—was henceforth out of military committee of the Diet should enter the question, and on that account Prussia must into commurication with the federal military regard the Confederation as dissolved. But committee. A vote on the Austrian proposition Prussia did not regard the national basis, on was taken on June 14th, although it was ob- which the old Confederation had been reared, jected by Mecklenburg that heretofore the as destroyed, but it held fast to the unity of the Federal Diet had devoted to the most trifling German nation, and declared its readiness to subject at least three sittings—one to the pro- enter, upon the basis of the Prussian draft of position, one to the discussion, and one to the reform of June 10th, into a new Confederation vote. The result of the vote was declared to with those governments who might wish it. be, by the president of the Diet, the adoption The Prussian manifesto was virtually a decof the motion by 9 against 6 votes.

laration of war. The available forces of the It is a remarkable circumstance that the most several belligerent parties, at this time, were important resolution which has ever been passed about as follows: 1. Prussia.—The infantry of by the Federal Diet, and which was to lead to the guard had 4 regiments of guard infantry, 8 the destruction of the Confederation, was not regiments of grenadiers, 1 regiment of fusileers, even carried by an undoubted majority. Of the 1 battalion of chasseurs, 1 battalion of riflemen. seventeen votes ("curiae ') which ordinarily The infantry of the line had 12 regiments of constituted the Diet, one, that of Holstein- grenadiers (numbered 1 to 12), 8 regiments of Lauenburg (the 10th curia), was dormant. fusileers (numbered 33 to 40), 52 regiments of The 13th curia (Brunswick and Nassau) was infantry (numbered 13 to 32 and 41 to 72), and equally divided. In the 16th curia, which con 8 battalions of chasseurs. On the peace footsisted of seven small States with equal shares ing, a regiment has 3 battalions; a battalion 4 in the aggregate vote-Lichtenstein, Waldeck, Reuss-Greiz, Reuss-Schleiz, Lippe, Lippe

* of the States constitating the 12th and 17th curiae,

Saxe-Meiningen and the City of Frankfort voted for tho Schaumburg, Hesse-Homburg—four States de.



companies. In timne of war, every regiment called out only when the enemy has invaded receives a fourth reserve battalion, and every the country. The whole of the Prussian army battalion of chasseurs and riflemen an addi- is divided into nine army corps, each consisting tional company. A battalion on the war foot- of 2 infantry divisions (each of 2 brigades, 4 ing numbers 1,025 men, inclusive of 22 officers, regiments, 12 battalions, and from 12,000 to or in round numbers about 1,000 men. Prussia 15,000 men, infantry, with from 600 to 700 had thus an infantry force of 253 battalions, horsemen and 24 pieces of ordnance), 1 cavalry with 260,000 combatants, ready for the field, division (of 2 brigades or 4 regiments, with 1 beside 83 battalions, with 85,000 men, as re or 2 mounted batteries, counting from 2,400 to serve troops, which partly would be employed 2,700 men), 1 artillery reserve (of 4 foot batfor garrison service. The cavalry of the guard teries and from 2 to 3 mounted batteries). consists of 1 regiment guard du corps, 1 regi Altogether an army corps has about 25,000 ment of cuirassiers, 2 regiments of dragoons, infantry, 3,600 cavalry, and 96 pieces of ord1 regiment of hussars, 3 regiments of ulans. If Prussia, in case of a great war, emThe cavalry of the line contains 8 regiments of ployed the landwehr of the second call for cuirassiers, 8 regiments of dragoons, 12 regi- garrison service, she would have ready for the ments of hussars, 12 regiments of ulans. Ou- field about 380,000 infantry, 37,000 cavalry, rassiers and ulans constitute the heavy dra- and at least 864 pieces of ordnance.

The goons, and hussars the light artillery. Thus Prussian infantry are armed with the needlethere are 25 regiments of heavy and 23 regi- gun, of which the following is a representation: ments of light artillery. A regiment has gen Fig. 1 is a central longitudinal vertical secerally four squadrons, but as the transformation tion (full size) of the breech, cartridge-chamber, of the landwehr cavalry is not yet completed, and lock, showing the breech closed for firing. there were 4 regiments of hussars and 4 regi. Fig. 2 is a central longitudinal section of the ments of dragoons of 5 squadrons each. A cartridge. The breech, M, which is hollow, is, squadron in the field has 155 men, inclusive of 5 externally, like a door-bolt, with a knob-handle, officers. In time of war, a reserve squadron is M'; and it both slides longitudinally and turns formed for every regiment, numbering 200 men in the cylindrical breech-rece er, A, into which for the heavy cavalry and 250 for the light. the barrel is screwed. Into the front part of The aggregate of the Prussian cavalry amounts, the breech, M, is screwed the needle-tube, N', therefore, to about 30,000 horses, from į tos of through which the needle, N, slides freely . the infantry. The aggregate of the reserve The needle is attached to the needle-bolt, Ř, squadrons is 10,750 men. The artillery consists which slides within the lock, L; and this latter of one brigade of the guard and 8 brigades of slides within the breech. Around the front the line. Each brigade has 2 regiments, 1 field part of the needle-bolt there is an air-chamber, regiment and 1 garrison regiment. The field in rear of and in communication with the carregiment has 4 divisions, 1 mounted and 3 dis tridge-chamber of the barrel. The main spring, mounted; each division has 4 batteries of 6 by which the needle is shot forward to ignite pieces of ordnance each. Together, a field the priming, is of spiral form and coiled around regiment has 96 pieces of ordnance, besides a the needle-bolt in rear of the collar, K', which reserve division of 4 batteries, with 4 pieces of also forms a shoulder for the sere, o', which ordnance each. A garrison regiment has 2 holds back the bolt when the piece is cocked. divisions, each of which furnishes 4 companies The sere is formed in the same piece with the for purposes of defence and siege. In addition sere-spring, C, which is connected with the to infantry, cavalry, and artillery, there are trigger, T, in such a manner as to withdraw technical troops, consisting of 1 battalion of the sere from the collar, K', and allow the pioneers of the guard, and 8 battalions of spring to drive forward the needle-bolt and pioneers of the line, which have to attend to needle. The breech, M, when brought up to the bridges, trains, field telegraphs, road and its place for firing, as shown in Fig. 1, after inearthworks, and perforin the technical services serting the cartridge, is turned by the knobat the defence of and attacks upon fortresses. handle, M', to bring the said handle in front of Each battalion has a reserve company. The the shoulder, a, on the breech-receiver; and, train consists of 1 battalion of the guard, and after firing, it is turned back away from the 8 battalions of the line, together of 1,229 men shoulder, a, and drawn back till the knoband 1,566 horses. The standing army of Prus handle is stopped. Attached to the lock, L, is sia has, accordingly, about 300,000 men, with the lock-spring, D, with a handle, D'. This 864 pieces of ordnance. Tlte landwehr of the spring is made with a catch at its front end, to first call, which embraced the discharged sol draw back the needle-bolt; and the lock is diers up to the 36th year of age, numbered made with a handle, L', by which it may be about 120,000 infantry and 7,000 cavalry. The drawn back independently of the breech, while landwehr of the second call, embracing the dis the latter is closed; but it is drawn back with charged soldiers to the 36th year of age, has 116 the breech. additional battalions of infantry, of 800 men The bullet, E (Fig. 2), is acorn-shaped, and is each, together about 93,000, and for each bat- fitted with a compressed paper sabot, F, which talion a cavalry squadron of 100 horses can be serves the purpose of cleaning the bore and on organized. This part of the landwehr is to be containing the fulminate priming, G, which is

Fig. 1.

thus arranged in front of the charge of gunpowder The sabot, bullet, and charge, are all enveloped in a paper case. The ut. most range of the projectile is 700 yards, and for accuracy of shooting the gun cannot be depend. ed upon over 300 yards.

The Austrian army, at the beginning of the year 1866, consisted of the fol

lowing divisions: infan. try80 regiments of the line, 1 regiment of imperial chasseurs, 32 battalions of field chasseurs, 14 regiments of border infantry; catalry—12 regiments of cuirassiers, 2 regiments of dragoons, 14 regiments of hussars, 13 regiments of ulans; artillery-12 regiments of artillery, 1 regiment of coast artillery; technical troops—2 regiments of engineers, 6 battalions of pioneers; troops of administration, 10 companies of the sanitary department, etc.; troops for public security ; troops for the defence of the Tyrol. A regiment of the line consists of 4 field battalions and 1 “depot cadre.” The fourth battalion is, in times of peace, used as a reserve battalion, and, in times of war, for garrison service. A battalion, on the war footing, numbers about 1,018 combatants, in 6 companies. The whole infantry force, in time of war, consisted of 240 battalions (of 3 each of the 80th regiments of the line), 38 battalions of chasseurs, 29 battalions of border infantry, together 307 battalions, with 310,000 combatants. The 80 fourth battalions of the infantry of the line, and 11 border battalions, together with 100,000 men, were used as garrison. The cavalry numbers about 30,000, and the artillery supplies about 1,000 pieces of ordnance. An Austrian army corps usually consists of 4 infantry brigades, 1 brigade of light cavalry, 1 reserve corps of artillery, 2 companies of engineers, and 2 companies of pioneers, with the necessary troops of administration. 'Austria levies about 80,000 men annually; the obligation for military service lasts 10 years, the last 2 of which belong to the reserve service. The mobilization of the Austrian army was greatly retarded by the circumstance that the reserve (fourth) battalion of each regiment was not located in the same district with the field battalions.

The Italian army, according to the organization of 1865p had 8 regiments of grenadiers of the line, 72 regiments of infantry of the line, and five regiments of “bersaglieri” (rifles). A regiment of grenadiers, or of infantry of the line, has 4 battalions; each battalion 4 companies; a company, 4 officers and 149 men. Together, the 80 regiments of grenadiers and infantry of the line had 202,720 combatants A regiment of “bersaglieri” has 8 battalions, and numbers, inclusive of officers, 5,024 men.

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