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Together, the “bersaglieri” consists of about Against Hesso-Cassel, a corps ander General 25,000 men. The cavalry consists of 4 regi- yon Beyer, who had his headquarters at Wetzments of cavalry of the line, 7 regiments of lar. lancers, 7 regiments of light cavalry (caraleg In order to leave no enemy in the rear, it was geri), together with about 13,000 men. The necessary for Prussia to occupy, as soon as posartillery has 480 pieces of ordnance.

sible, Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, and Saxony. This Of the minor German States, the allies of part of the programme was executed with marPrussia were ready to furnish the following con- vellous rapidity. During the night, from the tingents : Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 15th to the 16th of June, the Prussian General and Saxe-Altenburg, together, 7,500 men ; von Beyer concentrated a corps near the HesBrunswick, 4,600 ; the two Mecklenburgs, sian frontier, and at 2 o'clock A. M. began his 5,500; Oldenburg, 3,500; Anhalt, 2,000; the march into the electorate. From Giessen he two Schwarzburgs, 1,800: Lippe Detmold and issued a proclamation to the “ Hessian brethSchaumburg Lippe,' 1,200 ; Waldeck, 800; ren,” stating that the king carried on war Reuss Schleiz, 7,000; Hamburg, Bremen, and against the elector, but not against the people, Lubeck, 3,600; together, 31,000 inen. Schles- who, or the contrary, would now see better wig-Holstein and Lauenburg would have been days than formerly. The troops of the elector able to furnish additional, 20,000; but they speedily evacuated all the important places, and were not organized at the beginning of the in the southernmost corner of the State effected war. Baden, which sympathized with Prussia, a junction with the troops of Hesse-Darmstadt though it was compelled to fight against it, had and other troops of the 8th Federal Army 13,000 men. Austria could rely on the assist- Corps, which soon, contrary to expectation, ance of Bavaria (63,000 men, 144 pieces of ord- was also joined by the troops of Baden. The nance), Würtemberg (28,000 men, 52 pieces of elector, who remained at his castle of Wilhelmsordnance), Hesse-Darmstadt (11,000 men, 38 höhe, and refused the conditions under which pieces of ordnance), together, 102,000 men Prussia offered to guarantee his sovereignty, and 234 pieces of ordnance. Besides these was taken as prisoner to the Prussian fortress States, the following had taken sides with of Stettin, and his country placed under PrusAustria: Saxony (24,000 men); Hanover (21,- sian administration. 000); Hesse-Cassel (11,000); Nassau (6,000); The Saxon government did not wait for the Saxe-Meiningen (2,000); Reuss Greiz (400); invasion of the Prussians, but, even before a Frankfort (1,000); together, 65,000 men and formal declaration of war, the Saxon army 135 pieces of ordnance. But these States in case marched into Bohemia, there to effect a junction of a war were likely to be at once overrun by with the Austrian troops. On the morning of Prussian troops, and could not be expected to the 16th King John left Dresden to seek a make their contingents available for Austria. refuge in Bohemia. The treasures of the royal

Beginning of the War-Occupation of Sax- house and of the State were removed to the ony, Hesse-Cassel, and Hanover, by Prussian same country. Within a few days the whole Troops.-Immediately after the Federal resolu- of Saxony was, without offering any resisttion of the 14th of June, Prussia summoned ance, in the hands of the Prussians. Several the governments of Hanover, Saxony, and railroads were torn up and the large bridge Hesse-Cassel to reduce their armies to the over the Elbe at Riesa was burned down by peace footing of the 1st of March, and to join the Saxons, uselessly ; for these acts were not the new German Confederation upon the basis required to protect the escape of the Saxon of the Prussian draft of the 10th of June. In troops, and to the Prussians they did no harm. case of their compliance, Prussia promised to The kingdom of Hanover was invaded, on guarantee their rights of sovereignty within the 16th of June, by General Vogel von Falk. the bounds of the new German Confederation. enstein, at the head of the 13th division, which All the three governments declined, where- had been concentrated at Minden. On the upon, Prussia, on the 15th, declared war against 17th the city of Hanover was occupied. The them, and on the 16th marched troops into the kivg had left his capital on the 16th, in order countries now considered as hostile. Prussia to join with the crown prince the Hanoverian had, for this purpose, organized the following army which was rendezvousing at Göttintroops: 1. Against Saxony, the so-called “ Ar. gen. From Schleswig and Holstein General my of the Elbe,” under General Herwarth von von Manteuffel marched into Northern Hanover, Bittenfeld, composed of the 8th Prussian army and (June 18th, 1 o'clock, a. M.) surprised the corps (of the Rhine provinces), which had been fortress of Stade, where a large amount of war reënforced by one division of the 7th (West- material was captured. The Hanoverian troops phalian) corps. The headquarters of this army rapidly marched southward, in order to unite were in the southeastern part of the Prussian with the Bavarians, a corps of whom had adProvince of Saxony, between Torgau and Eilen- vanced northward and occupied Coburg. On burg. 2. Against Hanover, a division under the 21st King George issued a farewell proclaGeneral von Manteuffel, in Schleswig-Holstein, mation to his people, and with about 15,000 and the 13th division of the Westphalian army men and 56 pieces of ordnance marched through corps, under General Vogel von Falkenstein, Prussian territory (Heiligenstadt, etc.) into the which had been concentrated at Minden. 3. Thuringian States. Only small detachments of

the Prussians, in union with the troops of Saxe- fortified position between the fortresses of Pes Coburg-Gotha, were here opposed to the Hano- chiera and Verona, by occupying, upon the verians. New negotiations between Hanover heights south of the Lake of Garda, the triangle and Prussia failed (June 24), and the Hanove- formed by Valeggio, Castelnovo, and Somma rians now made an attempt to break through Campagnå. The troops which were to be emthe Prussian line somewhere between Gotha ployed for these movements were the 1st, and Eisenach. The Prussians were rapidly re- 2d, and 3d army corps, which, together with enforced both from the east and the west, and some reserve troops, numbered about 146,600 on the 27th General Fliess, at the head of about men, and had 228 pieces of ordnance. Of these, 7,000 men, attacked the Hanoverians at Lan- about 117,000 men with 192 pieces of ordnance gensalza. Before the larger number of the were immediately available in case of battle. Hanoverian army, which fought with the ut- The Austrians, to meet the attack, had about most bravery, the Prussians had to fall back 73,000 men and 272 pieces of ordnance avail. with a loss of 321 men in killed and wounded. able. As, however, the Bavarians did not come to

On the 24th of June the 1st army corps was the relief of the Hanoverians, and the latter ordered to advance upon Castelnovo, where it convinced themselves that the Prussians had was to establish its headquarters. The division amassed a vastly superior force south of them, Cerale was to advance directly upon this place, a capitulation was concluded on the 29th of the divisions Sirtori and Brignore were to march June, in virtue of which all the war material upon S. Giustina and Sona; the division Piaand ammunition were surrendered to the Prus- nelli to remain on the right bank of the Mincio. sians. The men were disarmed and sent home; The Third army corps was to seize Somma Camthe officers retained their swords, and pledged pagna and Villafranca, and the reserve cavalry themselves not to use them in this war against to occupy Quaderni and Mozzecane. South Prussia. King George and the crown prince the latter position, two divisions of the 2d were left at liberty to go where they pleased. army corps were stationed as a reserve at Ro

Opening of the Austrian-Italian WarThe verbella and Marmirolo. The commander-inBattle of Custoza-Garibaldi on the Fron- chief of the Austrians, Archduke Albrecht, was tier of Southern TyrolThe Italian Fleet at under the impressior that the Italians intended Ancona.-The formal declaration of war by Italy to march directly through the valley between against Austria took place on the 20th of June. the Mincio and the Adige, to secure a passage The Italians opposed to the Austrians four army of the latter river, and then to effect a junction corps. The 1st, consisting of 4 divisions, under with Cialdini. He resolved to direct the main General Durando, who had his headquarters at attack upon the left flank of the advancing ItalLodi, was to operate against the Garda Lake and ians; and in the evening of the 23d ordered the Upper Mincio; the 2d (3 divisions), under that his troops, on the morning of the 24th, Cuchiari, had its headquarters at Cremona, and should form a line running from Sandra over was to advance upon Mantua and the Lower S. Giustina, Sona to Somma Campagna, then Mincio; the 3d (4 divisions), under Della Rocca, immediately advance so as to form the line of was placed behind the two preceding ones, and Castelnovo, S. Giorgio, and Somma Campagna. had its headquarters at Piacenza; the 4th (5 On the 24th of June, at 3 o'clock in the morndivisions), under Cialdini, had its headquarters ing, the 9th Austrian army corps advanced at Bologna, and was intended to operate against from S. Lucia (near Verona) upon Somma Camthe Lower Po and the Lower Adige. The pagna; the Fifth army corps, which on the 23d Austrians, in their turn, had three army corps had occupied Sona, advanced upon S. Giorgio, (the 5th, 7th, and 9th), under the chief command the reserve division, which had been stationed of Archduke Albrecht, who had distinguished at Sandra, upon Castelnovo. The cavalry brihimself at Novara; two occupied strong posi- gades, to the left of the 9th army corps, detions on the Mincio and the Adige, in the celebrated Quadrilateral , while one held possession figures have been used to explain the position and move

on , of Eastern Venetia and Istria. The 3d

army corps, under Archduke Ernest, with its headquarters at Laybach, first formed a general re

A. Sortie of troops from the fortress of Peschiera. serve, but was soon moved northward to re B. Reserve division of infantry.

C. Fifth army corps. enforce the army in Germany, The Italian

D. Brigade Scudier of Seventh army corps. declaration of war was signed by General E. Bulk of Seventh army corps. La Marmora, and addressed to Archduke Al

F. Ninth army corps.

G. Reserve cavalry. brecht. It announced the beginning of hostil'ties within three days. On the 23d of June the preparations of the Italians for an attack were

I. Army corps (Durando).

1. Divisions Cerale of First army corps. completed. Having erroneously inferred, from the information received by them, that the Aus

Brignone“ trians did not intend to defend the country be

Cugia of Third army tween the Mincio and the Adige, but would await the Italians behind the Adige, the Ital

Crown prince. ians resolved to pass the Mincio and secure a II. Reserve troops of Second army corps

ments of the two armies :

AUSTRIANS.

ITALIANS.

66

2. 8.

Pianelli

6G

Sirtori

8.
9.

7.
10.

Govone.
Bixio.

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ployed in the plain. Early in the morning the missing. To the left of the main army of the battle began both upon the western and the Italians, Garibaldi, at the head of about 6,000 eastern banks of the Tione. Upon the western volunteers, was threatening the passes of Southbank the Austrian reserve division, coming ern Tyrol. One band of volunteers crossed the from Sandra at 7 o'clock, met the vanguard of frontier as early as the 22d, and thus gave to the Italian division Cerale and pushed it back the Austrians a reason for complaining that the upon Oliosi. Against this place the

Austrians Italians had begun hostilities before the time soon sent an additional brigade of the Fifth corps agreed upon. Several skirmishes took place be(from S. Giorgio), while two other brigades ad- tween the volunteers and the Austrians from vanced upon s. Rocco. At 1 o'clock P. M., June 220 to July 3d, but none of great imCerale, bravely fighting, had to fall back before portance; in one of them, near Bagolino, Garioverwhelming numbers toward Monte Vento. baldi himself was wounded. He himself was wounded; one of the briga The Italian fleet was assembled on the middiers, Villarey, killed. General Durando, the dle of May at Taranto. The chief command commander of the First corps, tried to rally the was given to Admiral Persano, who divided it division, but was likewise wounded. At two into three squadrons—a battle squadron, a reo'clock the Austrians stormed the Monte Vento, serve squadron, and a coast or siege squadron. and the division Cerale had to retreat to Va- On being informed of the declaration of war, leggio. The pursuit of the Austrians was partly the admiral, on the 21st of June, left the port delayed by an advance of the division Pianelli of Taranto, and on the 25th anchored in that from the right bank of the Mincio, which, to- of Ancona. The Austrian counter-admiral, gether with other troops belonging to the First Tegethoff, who, in 1864, had distinguished himarmy corps, covered the retreat. After the self in the German-Danish war, made on the evacuation of the Monte Vento, the division 26th and 27th a reconnoissance off the port of Sirtori, at S. Lucia (on the Tione), as its left flank Ancona, but withdrew without bringing on a was uncovered, had to retreat, amidst uninter- fight. rupted fighting, over Monte Mamaor to Va The War in Bohemia-The Advance of the leggio. It was 3 o'clock when, thus, the entire three Great Prussian ArmiesThe Battle of left wing of the Italians had been dislodged from Sadowa or Königgrätz.–At the time when the its position. On the eastern bank of the Tione Prussians began hostilities against Saxony, Hanthe battle had been raging from an early hour over, and Hesse-Cassel (middle of June), the in the morning near Custoza. The division Austrian army in Bohemia consisted of six comCugia, advancing upon Staffalo, and supported plete army corps, two divisions of heavy and by the division of the crown prince, became two divisions of light artillery, under the folengaged with the 9th Austrian corps, which lowing commanders : 1st army corps (Bohohad occupied Casa del Sole and Berettara. mian), under Count Clam-Gallas, general of The division Brignone, led by La Marmora him- cavalry; 2d (Austrian and Styrian), under Fieldself, while advancing from Custoza upon Monte marshal Lieutenant Count Thun-Hohenstein; Godio, was attacked by the brigade Scudier, 4th (Moravian and Silesian), under Field-marof thé 7th Austrian corps. The latter was shal Lieutenant Festetics de Tolna; 6th (Hunsoon reënforced by the two other brigades of garian), under Field-marshal Lieutenant Ramthe corps, while it forced the division Brig- ming; 8th, under Field-marshal Lieutenant none to fall back upon Custoza. The division Archduke Leopold ; 10th, under Field-marshal Govone was ordered to take the place of Lieutenant von Gablentz. The divisions of heavy the division Brignone. Soon the 7th Aus- cavalry were commanded by Prince William of trian corps received large reënforcements from Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg and Major-Genthe Fifth corps, which had been successful at eral Zaitsek; those of light cavalry by Prince Monte Vento and S. Lucia; and now the fight Francis Lichtenstein, general of cavalry, and raged again between Monte Godio, Staffalo, and Major-General Prince Emerich von Thurn and Custoza, until 5 o'clock, when, entirely out- Taxis. Each of the six army corps was to flanked on the left, Cugia had to evacuate the count 30,000 men and 80 pieces of ordnance; heights of the Monte Torre and of Madonna each cavalry division 2,700 combatants, and 16 della Croce, and to retreat upon Prabiano and pieces of ordnance. The artillery reserve had Villafranca. The retreat of the Italians was 12 batteries or 96 pieces of ordnance. The made in good order. Not until 7 o'clock did the whole Bohemian army was to consist of 190,000 Austrians occupy Custoza. The Italians imme- with 640 pieces of ordnance. It was, morediately withdrew their whole force across the over, to be reënforced by the 3d army corps, Mincio, and subsequently even behind the Oglio. under Archduke Ernest, and to form a junction

Cialdini, who was to have crossed the Po in either in Bohemia or in Saxony with 23,000 the night from the 25th to the 26th, withdrew Saxon troops. The whole army was placed his troops from the river, and on the 28th estab- under the chief command of Feldzeugmeister lished his headquarters at Modena, in order to be Benedek, the most popular general of the Aus. nearer the main army. The Austrians reported trian army. Chief of the general staff was a loss of 960 killed, 3,690 wounded, and about the Baron von Henickstein, and quartermaster, 1,000 captured; while the loss of the Italians was general, General Krismanich. Austria hoped stated at 720 killed, 3,112 wounded, and 4,315 that the Bavarians, under command of Prince

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