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Charles of Bavaria, the Hanoverians, and the partly to Münchengrätz. An attempt of the 8th Federal army corps (the contingent of Austrians to dispute the passage of the Iser at Würtemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse- Podol (near Turnau) was unsuccessful. AnCassel, etc.), under command of Prince Alex- other attempt to arrest the march of the Army ander of Hesse, would aid them by an army of of the Elbe at Hünnerwasser (June 27th) at least 150,000. It was generally expected equally failed, and the retiring Austrian army that Benedek would assume the offensive, but was concentrated near Münchengrātz. The this he was prevented from doing because his army of Prince Frederick Charles crossed the government had failed to make in time the ne- Iser at Turnau, three-fourths of a German mile cessary preparations. Thus the war began by above Podol, and the army of General Heran advance of the Prussiaus into Bohemia, and warth at an equal distance below Podol. Thus not, as had been expected, by an advance of the union between the 120,000 men of the two the Austrians into Saxony and Silesia.

armies was consummated. The united army On the side of Prussia, eight and a half army advanced upon Münchengrätz, which Clamcorps were concentrated on the frontier of Sax- Gallas evacuated after severe fighting. не ony and Bohemia, and fully equipped, about fell back upon Gitchin (in Bohemian, Jicin), the middle of May. The chief command of all which, in the night from June 29th to June 30th, these troops the king reserved to himself. He was stormed by the Prussians. Clam-Gallas, was to be accompanied to the seat of war by but little pursued, retreated to Nechanitz. Count Bismarck, the minister of war (Von In the mean while, the Second army, under Roon), and the chief of the general staff, Von the crown prince, had also commenced operaMoltke. The troops were divided into three tions. The first troops which crossed the fronarmies. The First army (2d, 3d, 4th army tier belonged to the 5th army corps, comcorps, and the cavalry of the guard), under manded by General von Steinmetz, who already Prince Frederick Charles, a nephew of the king, enjoyed the reputation of being one of the was stationed along the Saxon frontier. The ablest generals of the Prussian army. On the Second army (1st, 5th, 6th army corps, and the 26th, the village of Nachod (near the frontier) guard-corps), under the crown prince, was sta was occupied, the Austrian garrison falling tioned in Silesia. The Army of the Elbe (8th back upon Neustadt. On the 27th a severe army corps, and one division of the 7th) was fight took place near Nachod (on the roads under command of General Herwarth von Bit- leading to Skalitz and Neustadt) between Gentenfeld, near Halle, in Prussian Saxony. In eral von Steinmetz and the 6th Austrian (HunBerlin, a reserve corps of eight regiments of the garian), army corps, under Ramming, who had landwehr had been organized. The aggregate to fall back upon Skalitz, and lost, besides the effective strength of the three armies was esti- killed and wounded, several thousand prisoners. mated at about 236,000 men, with 792 pieces About one-half of them entered a Hungarian of ordnance.

legion which was forming in Silesia, under After the rapid occupation of the Kingdom of Klapka and Vetter. The 6th Austrian army Saxony, which has already been referred to, the corps was at once reënforced by the 8th, under Prussians resolved to leave the reserve corps Archduke Leopold, who had an engagement under General von der Mülbe, as a garrison with the advancing Prussians on the 28th, near in Saxony, and to march without delay all Skalitz, and was compelled to withdraw toward the three armies into Bohemia, and effect a Jaromierz. The 1st Prussian army corps, unjunction as soon as possible. The First army der General von Bonin, had, on June 26th, ad. and the Army of the Elbe were to enter Bohe- vanced from Liebau (Silesia) to Goldenöls mia first, in order to engage the attention of (Bohemia). On the 27th, Bonin advanced as Benedek, and to facilitate the march of the far as Trautenau, but had to fall back before crown prince, who had to overcome greater the larger Austrian force under General von obstacles in crossing the mountains between Gablenz. The latter was then ordered to arSilesia and Bohemia. The entry of the First rest the advance of the Prussian guard-corps, army and the Army of the Elbe was not op- which (on June 26th) had entered into Bohemia posed by the Austrians, as the troops available from Brannan. _He encountered these troops in this direction (the 1st army corps, vnder on the 28th, at Burgersdorf and Soor, and was Count Clam-Gallas) numbered only 60,000, compelled by them to abandon Trautenau, and against 120,000 Prussians. The main body of thé to retreat to Königinhof. The Prussians lost army of the Elbe entered Bohemia near Rum- about 1,000 men, while the Austrians had from burg and advanced upon Niemes and Hünner- 4,000 to 5,000 killed and wounded, and lost wasser. Of the First army, the 4th army some 5,000 prisoners and ten pieces of ordcorps advanced from Zittau (in Saxony) upon nance. The total loss suffered up to this time Reichenberg, the first commercial city in Bohe- by the 8th, 4th, and 10th Aistrian army corps, mia, while the 3d entered Bohemia near Gor was estiu'ated at 15,000 men and twenty-four litz. On the 24th Reichenberg was occupied pieces of ordnance. On the 29th the Prussian by the vanguard of the First army. The 4th guard-corps occupied, after some fighting, the army corps on the 26th occupied Liebenau, town of Königinhof, on the Elbe, when, again, from which, after a brief fight of artillery, the 400 Austrians were captured. On the same Austrians withdrew, partly to Turnau and day, and on the 30th, the 5th Prussiap army

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corps (Steinmetz), reënforced by a part of the Henikstein, the chief of the general staff, and 6th, advanced, and, after successful skirmishes General Krismanich, the quartermaster-general, at Schweinschädel, Sa.ney, and near Jaromierz, were arrested and sent to Vienna, there to be compelled the Austrians to fall back upon the brought before a court-martial. latter town and Josephstadt, where, on the 30th The War in Northwestern Germany-Occupaof June, the 2d, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th army tion of Nassau and Frankfort-Advance of the corps were concentrated. The Prussians were Prussians into Bavaria and Baden.—After the now enabled to establish a connection with the surrender of the Hanoverians, on June 29th, all army of Prince Frederick Charles, and thus all the Prussian troops which were to be employed their armies were united, presenting, on the 1st for the occupation of Hanover and Hesse-Cassel of July, a front extending from Smidar to were united into the "Army of the Main,” under Yaromierz, distance of not more than six command of General Vogel von Falkenstein, German miles. King William, on the 30th of The only Federal troops which joined this army June, had arrived at Reichenberg, to assume were two battalions of Coburg-Gotha, and one the chief command of the combined armies. battalion of Lippe-Detmold ; together, 2,500 As it was supposed in the Prussian head- men. The whole army numbered, in three diquarters that Benedek intended to act on the visions (Göben, Beyer, and Manteuffel), about defensive, the king desired to give to the troops 47,000 men, with 90 pieces of ordnance. Of cavseveral days of rest. The movements of Gen alry there were five regiments, or about 3,000 eral Benedek, however, who, on the 2d of July, men. The Army of the Main was to conduct the threw the bulk of his army across the Elbe, operations against the Bavarians, constituttaking the Bistritz River as his front, showed ing the 7th Federa! army corps, under the the Prussians that they must expect an imme- chief command of Prince Charles of Bavaria, diate attack, and Prince Frederick Charles de- the grand-uncle of the king, and against the termined to anticipate Benedek by being the eighth army corps, which, under the command first to assume the aggressive. His plan was of Prince Alexander of Hesse, formerly a genapproved at the headquarters of the king, and eral in the Austrian army, contained the conthe crown prince ordered to advance with the tingents of Würtemberg, Baden, Hesse-DarmSecond army the next morning at 5 o'clock. stadt, Hesse-Cassel, and Nassau. The Bavarians The battle was begun by the First army at had about 44,000 men and 144 pieces of ordabout 8 o'clock in the morning at and near the nance, while the 8th Federal army corps, which village of Sadowa, which lies on the road from had been reënforced by one division of Austrian Horitz to Königgrätz, where it crosses the Bis- troops, was estimated at 47,000 men and 144 tritz. At 10 o'clock the Army of the Elbe under pieces of ordnance. The original plan of the Herwarth advanced against the Austrians from Prince of Bavaria was to form a junction with Nechanitz. Together, these two armies were the 8th Federal army corps, and by moving much inferior in numbers to the Austrians, and northward toward Fulda, to assuine the offenno decisive advantages could be expected until sive against Prussia. When he was informed the arrival of the army of the crown prince. of the movements of the Hanoverians, he made The vanguard of the latter appeared upon the an effort to hasten to their aid, and on the 30th battle-field about 1 o'clock in the afternoon, occupied Hildburghausen and Meiningen. In and, although the Austrians fought invariably the latter town, where he established his headwith the greatest bravery, soon decided the quarters, he learned that on the day before the battle in favor of the Prussian arms. At 4 Hanoverian army had capitulated. He now o'clock the whole of the Austrian army was resumed his original plan, and resolved to move retreating, hotly pursued by the Prussians. The westward upon Fulda. While advancing in this losses of the Austrians were very great. Eleven direction he encountered the Prussians on July flags, 174 pieces of ordnance, and 18,000 un- 4th, at Dermbach and Rossdorf. After a severe wounded prisoners, fell into the hands of the fight, which lasted from eight o'clock in the Prussians. The total loss of the Austrians was morning to four in the evening, and in which estimated at 40,000 men; that of the Prussians 20,000 Bavarians and 12,000 Prussians were at 10,000. Many of the Austrian generals were engaged, the Bavarians had to retreat. Their wounded. Among them were the Archdukes total loss was about 480 in killed and wounded, Joseph and William, and the corps commanders, and 370 missing; the Prussians had 400 men Count Thun and Count Festetics. On the side killed and wounded. General Vogel von Falof the Prussians, Prince Anthony of Hohenzol- kenstein, regarding the Bavarians as a more lern-Sigmaringen was mortally wounded. The dangerous enemy than the 8th Federal corps, King of Prussia was during the whole day resolved to march with the main part of his present in the thickest of the battle, and his army against them. The Bavarians, on July presence largely added to the enthusiasm of the 10th, offered some resistance at Kissingen (the Prussian troops. The Austrian troops fell back well-known watering-place), and disputed the upon Königgrätz. Feldzeugmeister Benedek passage of the (Franconian) Saale; but they was at once relieved from the chief command, were again defeated with a loss of 1,261 (77 which he was only to retain until the arrival killed, 392 wounded, and 792 missing). The of Archduke Albrecht, who was appointed his Prussians crossed the Saale, and General Falsuccessor, General Clam-Gallas, Baron von kenstein was, on the evening of the 10th, in

Kissingen. The Bavarians, as the 8th Federal From the 16th to the 20th of July the Army of army corps had nowhere been seen, resolved the Main was reënforced by some landwehr to retreat behind the Main.

troops, and by a brigade, consisting of the troops General Falkenstein, before pursuing the of Oldenburg, Hamburg, Bremen, and Lübeck. Bavarians across the Main, deemed it best first The loss of the army thus, from all causes, was to clear the whole country north of the Main of about 5,000; the reënforcements 10,000; the hostile troops, and therefore turned westward whole army was thus increased to 50,000. against the 8th Federal army corps. On the Of these, 10,000 remained behind for the de13th the vanguard of the Thirteenth division fence of the line of the Main, leaving to Gen(Goeben) was attacked at Laufach by three bat- eral von Manteuffel 40,000 for aggressive operatalions of the troops of Hesse-Darmstadt, who tions. Princes Charles of Bavaria and Alexander with considerable loss were pushed back upon of Hesse still had under their orders an aggreAschaffenburg. In and near this city the Prus- gate force of 80,000; but there was among them sians had, on the morning of the 14th, engage- an utter want of concert, and, instead of effectments with the Austrians and other divisions of ing a junction of their troops, they carried on a the Federal army corps, who were soon com- literary controversy on their failure to effect a pelled to evacuate the city, and fall back be- junction of their troops, and on the cause of the hind the Main. Two thousand Austrians were Prussian success. On July 21st the operations cut off in Aschaffenburg from retreat, and cap- of the Army of the Main were resumed. The Batured. Most of them were Italians, who sur varians were concentrated at Wurzburg, and the rendered rather than were captured, and re- 8th Federal army a few miles west of Wurzceived the Prussians with the cry: '“Evviva burg, on the Tauber. A distance of only a few l'Italia ! Evviva la Prussia !"

miles separated the two armies, but nevertheless After the engagement at Laufen, Prince there was no coöperation. Amidst constant Alexander of Hesse transferred his headquar- shirmishes, the Prussians, from the 23d to the ters to Frankfort-on-the-Main. But when he 25th, drove the Federal troops back across the received the news of the passage of the Saale Tauber toward Wurzburg. The most serious by the Prussians, he concluded to withdraw his engagements were those at Hundheim (July whole corps to the southern bank of the 23d), Bischofsheim (July 24th), Gerichsheim Main, and to effect a junction with Prince and Helmstadt (July 25th). The retreat of the Charles of Bavaria, and he notified the rump Federal troops upon Wurzburg, for the first Diet that he was unable any longer to protect time brought about a union of all the forces them. The members of the Diet consequently opposed to the Prussians. They still mustered left for Augsburg. On July 16th the first Prus- from 70,000 to 75,000 men against a Prussian sian troops entered the city. General Falken- force counting no more than one-half that numstein issued a proclamation, in which he as- ber. The Prussians, nevertheless, continued sumed the administration of the Duchy of their advances. On July 26th they came into Nassau, of the city of Frankfort, and of those contact with the first Bavarian troops, who, districts of Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt after some firing, fell back toward Wurzburg. which had been occupied by the Prussian On the 27th an advance of the whole Prussian troops. He imposed upon the city Frankfort line against Wnrzburg was ordered. The divia contribution of six million florins. In a let- sion of General Göben was ordered to attack ter to the king he recapitulated the opera- Fort Marienberg, and began firing upon the tions of the Army of the Main since the 1st of fort early in the afternoon. When the firing July, stating that since then he had prevented had lasted about two hours, information was the junction of the Bavarian and the 8th received from the Bavarian headquarters, that, Federal army corps, driven back the Bavarians at the headquarters of King William at Nikolsafter a number of successful engagements across burg, a truce had been agreed upon, which was the Main, defeated the 8th Federal army corps to end on the 2d of August. As General Manat Laufach and Aschaffenburg, and occupied teuffel had not yet received any notification from the city of Frankfort; that the enemy, after his own government, he only agreed to a truce suffering a loss of more than 5,000 men, was of 24 hours. Soon the news received from the south of the river Main, and the whole country Bavarians was confirmed, and accordingly a north of the Main in possession of Prussia. On cessation of hostilities between the Army of the July 19th General Falkenstein was recalled Main and the Bavarians arranged. The truce from the chief command of the army of the did not formally include the troops contained Main, and appointed governor of Bohemia. He in the Federal army corps; but it was known was succeeded by General von Manteuffel, who that all the States belonging to the 8th army at once imposed upon the city of Frankfort an

corps were represented by agents at Nikolsadditional suin of twenty-five million thalers. burg, and hostilities between this corps and the Frankfort violently remonstrated, and one of Prussians ceased therefore likewise. The 8th the senators implored the intervention of the army corps dissolved without waiting for the 2d French, English, and Russian Governments. of August. The troops of Baden marched homo This step was without effect, but appeals to the on July 30th; those of Würtemberg left on the King of Prussia subsequently effected a reduc- same day; the Austrians went home through tion of the demanded sum.

Munich, and the troops of Hesse-Darmstadt

through Mannheim into the province of the ber of these divisions was increased to fourteen, Rhine-Hesse. The Prussian troops took up quar- which were divided into five army corps, nameters between Mühlbach, Wintershausen, Bis- ly: four army corps of the line (each of three chofshausen, Werthheim, and Lohr, General divisions), under the command of Generals CaManteuffel establishing his headquarters at dorna, Pianelli, Brignone, and Petitti

, and a reHeidingsfeld, south of Wurzburg.

serve army corps under General de Sonnaz. As Austria after the battle of Königgrätz Cialdini began his operations on July 5th, by seemed to be determined to continue the war concentrating a considerable artillery force beagainst Prussia with greater efforts than before, fore the works of Borgoforte, on the Po. After it was resolved at the Prussian headquarters tó bombarding these forts for a few hours, he left concentrate at Leipsic a second reserve army the siege of Borgoforte to the Fourth division, corps under the chief command of the Grand- under command of General Nunziante, and folduke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. This army was lowed his other divisions which had marched composed of 3 Prussian brigades, 2 divisions of down the Po. In the night from the 7th to the Prussian artillery, 1 brigade of Mecklenburg- 8th of July three bridges were thrown across Schwerin, and 1 brigade of Brunswick and the Po, one for the left wing of the army at Saxe-Altenburg; altogether 25 battalions, 16 Carbonarola, one for the centre of the army at squadrons, and 11 batteries, or 20,000 infantry Sermide, and one for the right wing at Feloniand 2,000 cavalry. The Grand-duke of Meck- ca. On the 8th seven divisions of Cialdini's lenburg-Schwerin was assisted in the command army crossed the Po. The next movement was of the corps by the Prussian lieutenant-general a march to the right for the occupation of the von Horn, who in the Bohemian campaign road leading from Ferrara over Rovigo to Pahad distinguished himself as leader of the 8th dua. On this road new military bridges across Prussian division. The new army corps was

the Po were constructed at Ponte Lagoscuro directed to invade Bavaria from the northeast, and Santa Maria. During the night from the and thus to coöperate with the Army of the 9th to the 10th of July the Austrians blew up Main. The corps left Leipsio on July 20th, and their works at Rovigo and the railroad bridge arrived at Baireuth on July 28th, the same day over the Adige at Boara. On the next day when General Manteuffel had agreed upon a Cialdini established his headquarters at Rovigo. truce. On the 29th the Grand-duke of Mecklen- Having thus secured the passage of the Adige, burg, in the name of the King of Prussia, took the Italians marched upon Padua, which was possession of the Bavarian province of Úpper occupied on the 14th. To all these operations Franconia. On the same day an engagement no resistance was offered by the Austrians. took place between the Prussian troops and a The siege of Borgoforte by General Nunziante Bavarian battalion, in which 209 men of the lat- lasted from the 5th of July until the 17th. On ter were captured. Soon after the Prussian com- that day the Austrian forts of Monteggiana, mander was notified of the truce concluded be- Rocchetta, and Bocca di Gauda were silenced; tween Prussia and Bavaria, and hostilities ceased, and the Austrian garrison left Borgoforte in the

Besides the Prussian armies already mentioned night and withdrew to Mantua. In occupying two other bodies of troops had invaded Bavaria Borgoforte on the next day, the Italians found during the last days of the war. The 1st re- several magazines and more than 70 pieces of serve army corps, under command of General ordnance. von der Mülbe, had penetrated from Bohemia Cialdini, in the mean while, had united his into the Upper Palatinate, and on the 29th divisions near Padua, and resumed his advance another corps had been marched into Rhenish movement on July 19th. As Napoleon strongly Bavaria. On August 1st a body of Prussian urged the Italian Government to conclude a troops took possession of the cities of Heidelberg truce, it was of great importance to occupy preand Mannheim, in Baden.

viously as much territory as possible. Cialdini The War in Italy during the Month of July. commanded about 70,000 men, and expected to The Naval Battle at Lissa.- Immediately after have an additional reserve of 70,000 men. The the Emperor of Austria had offered to Louis Austrians had no more than 35,000 men at their Napoleon the cession of Venetia, the larger disposal. One division of Cialdini was sent to portion of the Austrian army in Venetia was Vicenza, which since July 15th had been occuwithdrawn in order to be employed against the pied by a vanguard. All the other troops adPrussians. Besides the garrison of the fortresses vanced to the northern bank of the Brenta. only the corps of Field-marshal Lieutenant Ma- The right wing, under the provisional command roichich remained in Venetia, and a small body of Cugia, marched upon Meytre, in order to inof regular troops, reënforced by provincial rifle- vest Venice on the land side, and to cooperate men in the Tyrol, under the command of Major- with the fleet which lay off the Dalmatian islGeneral Kuhn.

and of Lissa, after the occupation of which it Thus the Italians met with but little resist was to move against Venice. The centre of the ance to their new advance into Venetia, which army, under command of Cadorna, was to prothis time took place under command of General ceed through Treviso and along the main road to Cialdini. The government placed at first nine Isonzo River. The left wing was to invade the divisions under the immediate command of Southern Tyrol from the southeast. The reserve Cialdini. In the third week of July the num corps was to watch the line of the Adige.

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