« FöregåendeFortsätt »
The volunteer corps of Garibaldi had, in the longer than the government and public opinion mean while, been enlarged, and consisted about expected. At length, when Cialdini advanced the middle of July of ten regiments or five bri- into Venetia, Persano had to yield to the presgades, and two battalions of bersaglieri; alto- sure brought upon him. The first task assigned gether it numbered about 12,000. It was to to him was the capture of the island of Lissa, coöperate with the left wing of Cialdini by in- belonging to the Austrian province of Dalmavading the southwestern part of the Tyrol. The tia. Lissa lies about twenty miles south of the main line of operation proceeded from İdro Lake seaport town of Spalato. Between it and the along the Chiese River, from there to the val- continent are the islands of Lesina, Brazza, and ley of the Sarca River, and from there through Solta. By a submarine telegraph it is connected Vezzano against Trent. Some detachments were with Lesina and Spalato. The Austrians kept to operate north of this line for purposes of ob- upon the islands stores of coal, provisions, amservation and defence. The Austrians had munition, and other war material. The two strongly fortified all the passes of this moun chief ports of the islands, S. Giorgio and Cotainous region. The chief fortifications were misa, were strongly fortified. The Italian fleet Fort Lardaro (between the valleys of the Chiese left Ancona July 16th, consisting at that time and the Sarca) and the castle of Doblino, east of 28 vessels, namely: 11 iron-clads, 4 screw of the Sarca River, on the main road to Trent. frigates, 1 screw corvette, 2 wheel corvettes, 4 Only half a German mile from the Italian fron- avisos, 4 gunboats, 1 hospital vessel, and 1 storetier, on the road from the Chiese to Riva (onship. One aviso was sent to the promontory of the Garda Lake), were Fort Ampola and Fort Gargano, there to await several vessels which S. Theodosio. After crossing the frontier on were expected from Tarento and Brindisi, esthe 13th and 14th of July, Garibaldi established pecially the ram Affondatore, and to direct his headquarters at Storo. On the 19th he them to Lissa. On the 17th, in the evening, captured Fort Ampola. On the 20th his troops the fleet was rejoined by the chief of Persano's had engagements with a superior force of the staff, who had visited Lissa in disguise on board Austrians at the chapel of Locca, at Bececca, a merchant vessel, for the purpose of obtaining and Santa Lucia. The volunteers lost 500 trustworthy information of the enemy's works killed and wounded, and a considerable number and the best places of landing. The attack of prisoners (about 1,000, according to Austrian upon Lissa began on the 18th. Counter-admiral accounts). The Austrians, however, derived no Vacca bombarded the fortifications of the port material advantage from the fighting, and had of Comisa, and Vice-admiral Albini attempted to fall back to their former position. All the to effect a landing at Porto Manego, but both other engagements were of little account. In soon saw that their efforts would be unsuccessthe northern corner of Lombardy the Austrians ful. Persano with the bulk of the ironclads made raids as far as Bormio, without gaining, had attacked the chief fort of San Giorgio and however, any lasting advantage. Of the Garda silenced the Austrian forts on the entrance of Lake a small Austrian fleet kept during all this the port, save one battery. On the 19th, in the time undisputed control, as the Italian Govern- afternoon, the attack upon S. Giorgio was rement had altogether forgotten to make any newed, and an attempt made to effect a landing preparation for the possession of this lake, which at Porto Carobert; but the operations were would have been of the greatest importance for again unsuccessful. On the 20th, the Austrian the conquest of Southern Tyrol. At the time fleet, under command of the Counter-admiral when the truce was declared, the troops of Gari- Tegethoff, arrived from Fasana for the purpose baldi had advanced nowhere more than two of raising the investment of Lissa. The AusGerman miles from the frontier.
trian fleet was divided into three divisions; the The left wing of Cialdini's army, consisting first consisting of seven iron-clads, under comof the division of General Medici, which was mand of Tegethoff; the second, containing seven to invade Southeastern Tyrol, numbered about heavy wooden vessels, under command of Com10,000 men when it reached Bassano (July 21). modore Petz; the third, containing seven light The Austrians had no more than 700 men at wooden vessels. Inclusive of four avisos, the the village of Primolano on the frontier, who, Austrian fleet numbered 25 vessels and 500 before the advancing columns of Medici, fell guns. Persano, in the mean while, had received back toward Grigno. Having been reënforced reënforcements, and his fleet consisted of 34 vesand now numbering about 2,000 men, the Aus- sels. Although he had reason to expect the artrians tried to arrest the Italians on July 23d, rival of the Austrian fleet on the 20th, Perat Borgo di Val Sugana, but they were defeated sano ordered a new attempt at landing to be and pursued by the whole division of Medici to made on the morning of this day by the wooden Levico, which place they had likewise to evac- fleet, under command of Albini, at Porto Caroaate during the night. The last engagement bert, and again dispatched two iron-clads for took place on the 25th at Vigolo, a village south the bombardment of the port of Comisa. of the lake of Caldonazza, and about a German Thus, when the approach of the iron-clads was mile from the railroad leading from Trent to signalled, only ten iron-clads out of the fleet of Verona. Then the proclamation of the truce thirty-four vessels were ready for battle. They put an end to hostilities.
were formed into three groups : one, containing The Italian fleet had remained inactive much the Maria Pia, Varese, and Re di Portogallo
(flag-ship), under command of Commodore Ri- two vessels to save the crew, but the captain botty; the second, consisting of the S. Martino, refused to leave the vessel, and heroically per, Palestro, Affondatore, and Re d'Italia, the last- ished with nearly all his men. The division of named of which carried the flag of Persano; Vacca and that of Ribotty, having in the mean the third, comprising the Ancona, Castelfidardo, while sailed northward, passed the Austrian and Principe di Carigno (flag-ship), under com- iron-clads, attacked the wooden vessels of the mand of Vacca. When the three divisions had Austrians simultaneously from the east and the been formed into battle array, Persano left the west, and seriously damaged the flag-ship Kaiser. Re d'Italia and went on board the Affonda- But before greater injury could be inflicted tore, which he withdrew behind the line, thus upon this part of the Austrian fleet, the Ausleaving only nine vessels opposed to the Aus- triad iron-clads returned to its aid after the detrians. The encounter of the two fleets began struction of the Re d'Italia and the Palestro. at about nine o'clock in the morning. The The battle still continued furiously for some Austrian fleet were sailing from north to south time, but without the loss of any other vessel in three lines of seven vessels each, the iron on either side. At about two o'clock the Italian clads constituting the first lines. Of the three fleet, now headed by the Affondatore, sailed divisions of the Italian fleet, Vacca commanded westward, and as the Austrians did not follow, the van, and Ribotty the rear. Tegethoff, no the battle came to an end. The Italians reticing a gap between the divisions of Vacca and turned to Ancona, and the Austrians, on the the centro division, dashed into this gap, and next day, to Fasana. The loss of the Italians bore down with all his iron-clads and three was about 900, all (with the exception of 8 wooden vessels upon the centre division of the killed and 40 wounded) belonging to the Re Italian fleet, and in particular upon the Re d'Italia and the Palestro. The Austrian loss d'Italia. This vessel made a most gallant re was also considerable, the Kaiser alone havsistance, but finally it was sunk. The Palestro ing 22 killed and 82 wounded. The Austrian (Captain Capellini), which hastened to the aid Government rewarded Tegethoff by immediate.y of the Re d'Italia, caught fire. Persano sent appointing him admiral. The Italians, both wil
official and unofficial reports, at first represented the Army of the Elbe, under General Herthis battle as a great Italian victory; but soon warth von Bittenfeld, marched upon Iglau. the truth was found out, and a universal out- Upon the left wing the Second army corps, uncry of popular indignation demanded the pun- der the crown prince, proceeded toward' Olishment of Persano. The chief charges brought mütz, or rather south of it, upon Prossnitz. against him were the following: that, after all The Army of the Elbe reached Iglau without the enormous expenses made for the fleet, there encountering any resistance; and without dewas a want of artillery; that the attack was lay continued its march upon Znaym (only forty upon Lissa, but not upon Pola, which latter plan miles from Vienna), which was occupied by the would have secured coöperation with the move- vanguard on the 14th. The army of the crown ments of the army against Istria; that, by leav- prince, in its march upon Prossnitz, did not ing the Re d'Italia and going on board the Af- meet with any Austrians, but was considerably fondatore, he disturbed all the movements of delayed by the bad condition of the roads. The the Italian fleet; that, although expecting the vanguard reached Prossnitz on July 14th. On approach of the Austrians, he divided his fleet the same day it was resolved at the headquarby ordering simultaneous attacks upon San ters of the crown prince, in accordance with a Giorgio and Porto Comisa, and a new attempt proposition made by General von Blumenthal, at landing. Persano was tried first before a one of the ablest officers of the Prussian army, court-martial, and again before the Senate. The to leave one army corps behind to watch the trial lasted until April 1867, when, in accord- fortress of Olmütz, and to advance with the ance with the finding of the court-martial, he bulk of the army, in order to occupy the railwas cashiered from the naval service on the road from Prerau to Vienna, and thus to preground of “incapacity and disobedience.” serve the communication with the army of
While the left army of Cialdini invaded Prince Frederick Charles. Southeastern Tyrol, and Persano made the un In the mean while the French emperor had fortunate movement against Lissa, the Aus- continued his efforts for bringing about an trians evacuated the whole of Venetia, with the armistice, and, in the night from the 12th to exception of the fortresses. General Maroichisch the 13th of July, a secretary of the French fell back, in succession, behind the Piave, the legation took from the Prussian to the Austrian Livenza, the Tagliamento, and finally behind headquarters the conditions under which the the Isonzo. Only Palmanova remained in pos- King of Prussia was willing to consent to an session of the Austrians, having a garrison of armistice of three days. The conditions were 3,500 men. On the 26th Cialdini established not accepted by Austria; some counter propohis headquarters at Udine. Cugia, the com- sitions made by Austria were, on the other mander of the right wing, made preparations hand, rejected by Prussia. A proclamation isfor the bombardment of the forts near Chioggia sued by the Archduke Albrecht, on assuming, “. and Venice; the whole of the reserve corps on the 13th, the chief command, was again followed the main army into Venetia, and one very warlike, and showed a determination on part of it was to divert the attention of the gar- the part of Austria to make one more great risons of Verona and Legnano from other points. effort to defeat the Prussians. At the same Only one engagement took place between the time General Benedek, then at Olmütz, was retreating Austrians and the advancing Italians ordered to leave a strong garrison at Olmütz, (on the 26th, between Visco and Versa); soon and to lead the remainder of the army to after, on July 29th, an armistice was agreed Vienna. At this time Benedek had under his upon. On the whole, the line of the Judrio command about 100,000 men. Of these he was taken as the line of demarcation between left 25,000 at Olmütz; the remainder—75,000 the two armies; the road from Goritz to Pal -were to move in three army corps on the manova remained to the Austrians.
15th, and secure a point on the railroad to Close of the War in Germany-Battle of Vienna south of the places held by the PrusTobischau—The Preliminary Peace of Nikols- sians, in order to use the railroad for the furburg.–From the battle-field on Königgrätz the ther' retreat upon Vienna. The brigade of Austrian troops had on July 3d withdrawn to General Rothkirch was ordered to seize Tobitthe left bank of the Elbe. On the next day schau, in order to cover the march of the main Benedek with the main portion of his army be- body of the army upon Prerau. On the same day, gan to retreat in forced marches to Olmütz, in while the bulk of the Second army began its Moravia. Only the 10th army corps and one march southward, the reserve cavalry division cavalry division were sent through Brunn to of General von Hartmann was sent upon a reVienna, to unite with the troops
expected from connoissance to Prerau, and the 3d division of Italy within the fortifications of Florisdorf, near Prussian infantry, under General Malotki von Vienna. The capture of Austrian dispatches Trzebiatowski, to support this movement, was revealed to the Prussians the new plan of Be- ordered to seize Tobitschau and Trabeck. nedek, and accordingly the advance of the Thus a severe engagement was brought about Prussian army was arranged as follows: in the at and near Tobitschau, which lasted until two centre, the First army corps, under Prince o'clock in the afternoon, when the Prussians Frederick Charles, advanced over Chrudim and received large reënforcements, before which Neustadt upon Brunn. Upon the right wing the Austrians fell back to Olmütz The Aus
trians lost about 1,000 men and 17 pieces of later the garrison of the Austrian fortress of ordnance, while the Prussians sustained a loss Theresienstadt in Bohemia, being unacquainted of about 300. The Prussians advanced slowly, with the armistice, made a sortie against the and did not occupy Prerau until the 17th. Prussian troops guarding the railroad from Benedek, the other hand, who, on the 15th, Turnau to Prague, and ptured several hunhad advanced on the railroad from Prerau to dred prisoners, who were returned. Hulein, now deemed it necessary to abandon Preliminary Peace of Nikolsburg—Treaties the railroad, retreat over Freistadt), Holleschau, of Peace concluded at Prague, Berlin, and Wisowitz, Slawitschin, and across the Carpathi Vienna.–On the 26th the representatives of ans to Trentschin into Hungary. From there he Austria and Prussia agreed on a truce at Nikolscontinued his march along the Waag and through burg. The definitive peace was signed at Prague Leopoldtstadt, Tyrnau and Bösing to Presburg, on the 30th of August, as follows: where he expected to form a junction with the
1. Peace and friendsbip sball prevail in future army which the Archduke Albrecht had as
and forever between the King of Prussia and the sembled at Vienna.
Emperor of Austria, their heirs and successors, their When the Austrian counter propositions for
states and subjects. an armistice had been rejected by the King of
2. In order to execute article 6 of the peace prePrussia, the advance of the three Prussian Emperor of the French has officially declared at
liminaries concluded at Nikolsburg, and after the armies was resumed. The Army of the Elbe Nikolsburg, upon the 29th of that month, through his advanced from Znaym in the direction of Klos- ambassador accredited to the King of Prussia, " that terneuburg, on the Danube, sending out de- Venetia, after the conclusion of peace, would be transtachments to the right as far as Krems, and to
ferred to Italy,” the Emperor of Austria also accedes
to this declaration, and gives his consent to the union the left as far as Wilfersdorf, in order to main
of the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom with the Kingtain the connection with the army of Prince dom of Italy, without any other compulsory condition Frederick Charles. The latter, on the 16th, oc save the liquidation of these debts which shall be cupied the important railroad junction of Lun- recognized as incumbent upon the ceded territories,
in accordance with the precedent of the treaty of denburg, and on the 19th advanced as far as
Zürich. Gänserndorf, at the junction of the railroads 3. The prisoners of war on both sides shall be at leading to Vienna and Presburg. It also se once released. cured the passage over the March at Marchegg. 4. The Emperor of Austria recognizes the dissoluThe headquarters of the King of Prussia were, and gives his
consent to a new organization of Ger
tion of the hitherto-existing Germanic Confederation, on the 17th of July, established at Nikolsburg. many, without the participation of the Austrian Em. On his arrival at Nikolsburg he met the French pire. His majesty equally promises to recognize the ambassador, Benedetti, who was instructed by closer federal relation the King of Prussia will estab his government to continue his efforts for lish to the north of the Main line, and declares him. bringing about a peace. Austria now was
self agreed that the German States situated south of
this line shall conclude a union, the national connecdisposed more favorably toward peace, as the tion of which with the North German Confederation interruption of communication between Bene- remains reserved for further agreement between both dek and Archduke Albrecht, the proclamations parties, and which shall possess an international inof Prussia to the Czechs of Bohemia, and the dependent existence. movements of the Hungarian Legion under of Prussia all his rights to the ducbies of Holstein
5. The Emperor of Austria transfers to the King Klapka, which was on the point of invading and Schleswig acquired by the Vienna treaty of OcHungary, threatened new dangers. Accord- tober 30, 1864, with the understanding that if the ingly, the Cabinet of Vienna declared, in the populations of the northern districts of Schleswig evening of the 21st of July, its readiness to
shall manifest by free voting the wish to be united conclude an armistice of five days upon the
to Denmark, the districts in question shall be ceded
to Denmark. basis of the Prussian propositions, and in the 6. By the desire of the Emperor of Austria, the King morning of the 22d July it was agreed that the of Prussia declares bimself ready to permit the presarmistice was to begin on the same day at noon.
ent territory of the Kingdom of Saxony to occupy On the 21st, the 8th division of infantry (of the extent it has hitherto enjoyed, reserving to him.
self on the other hand to determine more exactly the the army of Prince Frederick Charles), which contribution of Saxony to the cost of the war, and had crossed the March at Göding, had ad- the future position of the Kingdom of Saxony within vanced as far as Stampfen, near Presburg. On the North German Confederation by special peace the same day, the 7th division crossed at treaty to be concluded with the King of Saxony. On Marchegg and joined the 8th.
the other hand, the Emperor of Austria promises to
recognize the new arrangements to be established by placed under the command of General Fran- the King of Prussia in North Germany, including the secky, who was ordered to make a reconnois- territorial changes. sance toward, and, if feasible, an advance 7. In order to come to a settlement as to the propupon Presburg. This inovement was executed erty of the hitherto-existing confederation a commisin the morning of the 22d, when at Blumenau, least six weeks after ratification of this present treaty,
sion shall meet at Frankfort-on-the-Main within at near Presburg, a severe engagement occurred at which all demands and claims upon the Germanio with an Austrian brigade, which was gradually Diet are to be brought forward, and liquidated within reënforced by all the brigades of the 2d army resentatives to this commission, and all other mem.
six months. Prussia and Austria will send repcorps.
The engagement was still undecided bers of the hitherto-existing confederation are at when it was terminated by the official an- liberty to do the same. nouncement of the armistice. Several daye 8. Austria remains entitled to remove or otherwise
dispose of the imperial property in the Federal for on the Rhine and Main were to cease on and tresses, and to adopt a similar course with the ac.
after 1867. The Bavarian telegraph stations knowledged share of Austria in morable Federal in the territory of the North German Confederproperty. The same holds good of the entire movable property of the Confederation,
ation, and in the Grand-duchy of Hesse, were 9. The officials, servants, and pensioners belong. transferred to Prussia. Bavaria surrendered to ing to the staff of the Diet are secured the pensions Prussia such documents in the archives of Bamto which they are entitled, or that have been already berg as refer exclusively to the former burgment, however, undertakes the pensions and assist: graves of Nuremberg and the margraves of ance-moneys to officers of the former Schleswig- Brandenburg of the Franconian line. In order Holstein army and their relicts, hitherto defrayed to settle Prussia's claim to the picture-gallery, from the Federal funds.
which was formerly at Dusseldorf, and was later 10. The amounts of the peasions granted by the brought to Munich, Bavaria will designate three parties interested. The sum of 449,500 Danish ris German courts of appeal, from which one dollars in four per cent. Danish state bonds, in the will be selected by Prussia as arbiter. From custody of the Austrian Government, and belonging strategical and commercial reasons the frontier to the Holstein finances, shall be returned thereto is rectified by the union of a few Bavarian disimmediately after ratification of this present treaty. tricts to Prussia. (See Bavaria.) No natives of the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig, and no subject of their majesties the King of Prussia
The treaties with Würtemberg, Baden, and and the Emperor of Austria, shall be prosecuted, Hesse-Darmstadt were also concluded at Berdisquieted, or injured in person or property on ac lin (July 12th, August 21th, September 3d). count of his political conduct during the recent occur. Würtemberg was to pay eight million, Baden rences and the war.
11. The Emperor of Austria engages, in order to six million, Hesse-Darmstadt five million forins. cover part of the cost incurred by Prussia in the war, Hesse-Darmstadt was to enter for its province to pay the King of Prussia the sum of forty million of Upper Hesse the North German ConfederaPrussian dollars. From this sum, however, shall be tion, and cede to Prussia Hesse-Homburg and deducted the amount of the war costs the Emperor several other districts. (See Hesse-DARMSTADT.) of Austria, by article 12 of the aforementioned Vienna treaty of October 30, 1864, has still to claim from the The following are the conditions of the treaty Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein—i. e., fifteen mil. between Austria and Italy, signed October 30: lion Prussian dollars, and, as an equivalent for the free provisionment the Prussian army shall enjoy in the Austrian districts it occupies until the conclusion Austria consents to the union of Venetia with Italy';
The mutual exchange of all prisoners of war; of the peace, a further sum of five million Prussian the frontiers to be ceded to Italy are those which dollars, so that only twenty million Prussian dollars constituted the administrative frontiers of Venetia remain to be paid in casb. Half of this sum shall be while under Austrian domination. The military defrayed in cash simultaneously with the exchange commissioners appointed by the two contracting of the ratifications of the present treaty; the remain- powers, shall be charged to trace the line of demaring half, three weeks later at Oppeln. 12. The evacuation of the Austrian territories oc. of the debt assumed by Italy is 35,000,000 forins,
cation with the shortest possible delay. The amount cupied by the Prussian troops shall be completed payable by eleven instalments, within a period of within three weeks after the exchange of the ratifica- twenty-three months. The Monte Lombardo-Venetions of the peace treaty. From the day of the ex. change of the ratifications the Prussian governing liabilities. Its assets are three and a half million
tio is transferred to Italy, with its actual assets and generals will confine their functions to the purely florins, and its liabilities 36,000,000 florins. With military sphere of action,
regard to the Venetian railways, until a further ar13. All treaties and conventions concluded between rangement is arrived at, the revenues of the two netthe contracting parties previous to the war, in so far works of railway north and south of the Alps will be as they are not necessarily rendered invalid by the allowed to accumulate in order to calculate the gross dissolution of the Germanic Confederation, shall
revenue which should serve as a basis for the valuation herewith reënter in force. The general cartel convention between the German Federal States of Feb- engage to prepare a convention, in which the railway
of the kilometric guaranty. The contracting parties ruary 10, 1831, in especial, together with the supple. company would take a part, for the separation of the mentary clauses belonging thereto, retains its validity between Prussia and Austria. Nevertheless the railway. The Venetians residing in Austria are to
two networks and the completion of the unfinished Austrian Government declares that the coinage treaty have the right of preserving their Austrian nationconcluded January 24, 1857, loses its chief value to ality. All objects of art, as well as the archives beAustria through the dissolution of the German Fed. longing
to Venetia, will be restored without exceperal relation, and Prussian Government declares tion. The iron crown of Lombardy will also be itself ready to mediate in negotiations for the discon- given up to Italy. The treaties which formerly subtinuance of this treaty between Austria and the remaining participators in the same. The contracting into force for one year, during which period fresh
sisted between Austria and Sardinia will again come parties equally reserve to themselves to enter into negotiation as early as possible for a revision of the arrangements can be concluded. Another provision commercial and custom treaty of April 11, 1865, in
of the treaty stipulates for the restitution of the pri. the sense of increased facilities to mutual traffic. In which has been sequestrated by the Italian Govern
vate property belonging to the Italian ex-princes, the mean time the aforesaid treaty shall reënter
ment, with the reservation of the rights of the State, force, with the understanding that it is reserved to either of the contracting parties to terminate it after by both Austria and Italy to all persons condemned
of one-third. A complete amnesty will be accorded six months' notice to that effect.
for political offences; to deserters from either army; The peace with Bavaria was signed at Berlin and to persons compromised by their political con: on August 22d. Bavaria engaged to pay to duct. The emperor also decided to renounce the Prussia thirty million floring in three instal. title of King of Lombardy and Venetia, and decreed ments, the last instalment six months after the bis majesty's other titles, whether the latter be fully
accordingly that in future it shall be omitted among exchange of ratifications. The navigation dues given or otherwise.