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apheld their faith in the destinies of the coun- ganization, in order that with the least possible outtry by every kind of sacrifice, and by their lay Italy may not be destitute of the forces necessary blood. To-day foreign domination ceases for

to maintain her in the place which belongs to her

among great nations. The measures recently taken ever. Italy is constituted if not accomplished. relative to the administration of the kingdom, and Italians must now defend and make her great. those which will be proposed to you, above all reThe iron crown is also restored to Italy, but to specting the collection of the taxes and the accountthat crown I prefer the one, which is dearer to ability of the state, will contribute to ameliorate the me, made by the love of my people."

management of public affairs. My governpient bas On November 5th a royal decree was issued, about to open, and for extraordinary payments of

provided in advance for the expenditure for the year declaring that the provinces of Venetia shall every kind. They will ask of you the continuation henceforth form

an integral part of the king. in 1867 of the financial measures voted for 1866. The dom of Italy. The government also appointed which will be laid before them to ameliorate the as. sixteen senators for Venetia, and ordered the sessment of the taxes, and to equalize them among election of deputies.

the different provinces of the kingdom. If, as I am On December 15th the Italian Parliament fully confident, the people of Italy will not fail in was opened by the king, who delivered the fol- that activity which created the wealth and power of lowing address from the throne:

our ancestors, it will not be long before the public ex.

chequer will reach its definitive equilibrium, Italy SIGNORS SENATORS, Signors DEPUTIES : Our country is now rendered to herself. Her responsibility is is henceforth free from all foreign domination. It is equal to the power she has acquired, and the full with profound joy that I declare this to the repre- liberty she enjoys in the use of her strength. The sentatives of 25,000,000 Italians. The nation had great things we bave done in a short space of time faith in me, and I in them. This great event, by increase our obligation not to fail in our task, which crowning our common efforts, gives a fresh impulse is to know how to govern ourselves with the vigor to the work of civilization, and renders more stable required by the social condition of the kingdom and the political equilibrium of Europe. By ber promp; the liberality demanded by our institutions. Liberty titude in military organization, and by the rapid in our political institutions, authority in the govern. union of her people, Italy has acquired the credit ment, activity in the citizens, and the empire of law which was necessary to enable her to attain inde- upon all and over all, will carry Italy to the height pendence by herself; and with the aid of efficacious of her destiny, and fulfil what the world expects alliances, Italy has found encouragement and sup- from her. port in this laborious work in the sympathy of civil. ized governments and peoples, and has been further One of the main questions to be solved by sustained and strengthened by the courageous per- Parliament was the relation of the state to the enterprise of national emancipation. The treaty of church. The government was determined to peace with the empire of Austria, which will be laid propose a solution of all the pending difficulties before you, will be followed by negotiations which by a complete separation between the church will facilitate exchanges of prisoners between the and state. Before the meeting of Parliament two states. The French Government, faithful to the obligations which it contracted by the Septem- addressed a circular to the prefects, permitting

on October 22d, the prime minister, Ricasoli, ber convention, has withdrawn its troops from Rome. On its side, the Italian Government, observant of its the return of all the bishops to their sees, erengagements, bas respected, and will respect, the cluding those residing in Rome. This circular Pontifical territory. Our good understanding with was followed by another, dated November the French emperor, to whom we are bound by friendship and gratitude, the moderation of the Ro. 15th, and likewise addressed to the prefects, in mans, the wisdom of the Pontiff, and the religious which he said: “The government believes it ex. sentiment and right feeling of the Italian people, pedient to withdraw from this moment any reswill aid us to distinguish and conciliate the Catholić ervation made in the first measure, by ordering interests; and national aspirations, which are inter- that all the other bishops still absent from their tach to the religion of our ancestors, which is 'also secs, either from Rome or elsewhere, whatever that of the great majority of Italians. I neverthe. may be their residence, shall be authorized to less respect the principle of liberty, which breathes return to their respective dioceses. In comthrough our institutions, and which, broadly and municating to your excellency the present resosincerely applied, will remove the causes of the old lution of the government, serving as the com sition on our part, by reassuring Catholic conscience, plement of the measure explained in the circa. will accomplish, I hope, the wishes which I form, lar of the 22d October, the minister refers to that the Sovereign Pontiff may remain independent the instructions already given in the circular, at Rome. Italy is secure now that, besides the valor and it is onfident that the local authorities will of her sons, which through all the changes of for accurately second all its intentions." tune has never belied itself either by land or sea, nor in the ranks of the army or the volunteers, she

The views of the prime minister, concerning possesses, as the ramparts of her independence, the the relations between church and state, were very bulwarks which served to oppress her. Italy stil! more fully developed in a letter to the excan therefore, and now cught, to turn her efforts to iled bishops living in Rome. increasing her prosperity. As Italians have shown admirable concord in the affirmation of their inde.

The bishops, who were exiled from their pendence, so now let all devote themselves with in. sees by decree of the Italian Government, and telligence, ardor, and indomitable constancy to the subsequently took up their residence at Rome, development of the economic resources of the penin. addressed a letter to Baron Ricasoli, after the gula. Several bills will be laid before you with this issue of his circular of October 22d. The bishops by a secure future, we shall not neglect, following were under the impression that the perinission the lessons of experience, to perfect our military or. to return, announced in the ministerial circular,

zance,

did not apply to those ecclesiastics residing in principle of liberty which it has adopted, and put Rome, and complained of this exclusion in their into practice, is not equally adopted and practised letter to the president of the council. The by the clergy:

Let your lordships remark the difference between letter of Baron Ricasoli in reply bears date Nom the condition of the church in America, and the con. vember 26th, and is as follows:

dition of the church in Europe.

In those virgin regions the church is established MONSIGNOR : I have only to-day received the letter amid a new society, but which carried with it from which you have done me the honor to address to me the mother country all the elements of civil life. from Rome, bearing date the 15th instant, on the Representing the purest and most sacred of the so. subject of the recall of the bishops to their sees. cial elements, the religious feeling which sanctions

This letter was doubly agreeable to me from the right and sanctifies duty, and carries human azpira. important reasons for which your lordships approve tions far above all earthy things, the church has that measure, and in which I am happy to concur there sought only the empire pleasing to God-the with you, and from the request that the permission empire of souls. Companion of liberty, the churcb to return to their dioceses conceded to the bishops has grown beneath its shelter, and has found all by the circular of October 22d, should be also that sufficed for free development, and the tran: extended to the bishops residing at Rome, thus de- quil and fecund exercise of its ministry. It has never monstrating your good-will and reverence toward the sought to deny to others the liberty which it enjoyed, institutions and the laws under whose shadow you nor to turn to its exclusive advantage the institutions desire to live,

which protected it. I rejoice that I anticipated your wishes in this mat In Europe, on the other hand, the church arose ter, and interpreted your sentiments aright, by de- with the decadence of the great empire that had sub. ciding on the same day as that on which your

letter jugated the earth. It became constituted amid the was dispatched, that the exception complained of political and social cataclysms of the barbarous should be removed. Of this I believe your lord- ages, and was compelled to form an organization ships will already have had full and official cogni. strong enough to resist the shipwreck of all civi.

lization amid the rising flood of brute force and The decision adopted by the government arises, as violence. your lordsbips state, from the desire that perfect But while the world, emerging from the chaos of liberty in the relations between church and state the middle ages, reëntered the path of progress should pass from the abstract region of principle in marked out by God, the church impressed upon al! which it had hitherto remained into the reality of having any relation with it the immobility of the fact.

dogma intrusted to its guardianship. It viewed with The government, therefore, no less earnestly than suspicion the growth of intelligence and multiplicayour lordships, desires that Italy may very soon en tion of social forces, and declared itself the enemy joy the magnificent and imposing religious spectacle of all liberty, denying the first and most incontestanow afforded to the free citizens of the United States ble of all, the liberty of conscience. of America by the national council of Baltimore, Hence arose the conflict between the ecclesiastical wherein religious doctrines are freely discussed, and and civil power, since the former represented subwhose decisions, approved by the Pope, will be pro- jection and immobility, and the latter liberty and claimed and executed in every town and village with progress. out exequatur or placiti.

The conflict, from peculiar circumstances, has I therefore beg your lordships to consider that it greater proportions in Italy, because the church, is liberty which has produced this admirable specta- thinking that a kingdom was necessary to the indecle-liberty, professed and respected by all, in prin- pendent exercise of its spiritual ministry, founded ciple and in fact, in its amplest application to civil, that kingdon in Italy. The ecclesiastical power, from political, and social life. In the United States every the same reason, is here in contradiction, not only citizen is free to follow the persuasion that he may with the civil power, but national right. think best, and to worship the Divinity in the form From these causes originated the distrust and that may seem to him most appropriate. Side by side precaution described in my circular, which prowith the Catholic church rises the Protestant temple, voked your censure, but which were only dictated the Mussulman mosque, the Chinese pagoda. Sidé by necessity. by side with the Romish clergy the Generan consis. The bishops cannot be considered among us as tory and the Methodist assembly exchange their simple pastors of souls, since they are, at the same office. This state of things generates neither confu- time, the instruments and defenders of a power at sion nor clashing. And why is this? Because no variance with the national aspirations. The civil religion asks either special protection or privileges power is, therefore, constrained to impose those from tbe state. Each lives, develops, and is followed measures upon the bishops which are necessary to under the protection of the common law; and the preserve its rights and those of the nation. law, equally respected by all, guarantees to all an How is it possible to terminate this deplorable and equal liberty.

perilous conflict between the two powers-between The Italian Government wishes to demonstrate as church and state ? far as possible that it has faith in liberty, and is de Liberty can alone bring us to that happy state of sirous of applying it to the greatest extent compati- things which your lordships consider so enviable in ble with the interests of public order.

America. Let us "render unto Cæsar the thinks It therefore calls upon the bishops to return to that are Cæsar's, and upto God the things that are their sees whence they were removed by those very God's," and peace between church and state will motives of public order. It makes no conditions save be troubled no more. the ope incumbent upon every citizen who desires I desired to pay deference to these principles in to live peaceably-namely, that he should confine removing the probibition to the return of the bishops, himself to his own duty, and observe the laws. The and their residence in their sees. I believe that lib. state will insure that he be neither disturbed nor erty is good in profession and practice, and, further, hindered; but let him not demand privileges if he that it has the virtue of converting those who are wishes no bonds. The principle of every free state called to enjoy its benefits, that the law is equal for all admits of no distinction I trust that your lordships, returning to your of any kind.

dioceses with the sincere sentiment of respect for The government would be glad to cast off all sus- the law expressed in your letter, among a people picion, and

abandon every precaution; and if it does who wish to remain Catholic without relinquishing not now wholly act up to this wish, it is because the the rights and aspirations of the nation to which

they belong, will bless that liberty which protects March next, at latest. For the remainder of the them, and upon which the reconciliation of inter- arrears the Italian Government takes to its charge a ests, hitherto appearing irreconcilable, can alone be yearly payment at par of 3,397, 627f., which will by based.

RICASOLI. so much increase the portion of the redeemable debt

falling upon Italy. On December 7th the following treaty was Art. 4. The yearly payments indicated in the concluded between France and Italy, concern- two preceding articles, and amounting to 18,627,773f., ing the regulation of the Papal debt:

are to remain at the charge of Italy, dating from the

first half-year of 1867. The said payments will be Art. 1. The proportional part belonging to Italy made in the same manner as was fixed for the origiin the perpetual debt, and the redeemable one of the nal contracts. former States of the Church-to wit: For the Ro. Art. 5. In what concerns the life debt of the magnas at the date of June 30, 1859, and for the former States of the Church, the Italian Government Marches, Umbria, and Benevento at the date of Sep- will pay all the pensions regularly settled at the pe. tember 30, 1860, the epochs of entrance into pos- riods of the annexations to the holders belonging to session is recognized to amount, for the former to the former Pontifical provinces, and residing in the 7,892,985f., and for the latter to 7,337,160f., or to. kingdom of Italy. gether to 15,230, 145f.

Art. 6. The demands for reimbursement which Art. 2. A sum of 1,468,617f, being already paid Italy may have to make on the Holy See are re. annually by the Italian Government to the holders served, as are reciprocally, the claims which the of the stock of the perpetual debt of the said prov. Pontifical Government may have to address to Italy. inces, the new charge falling upon Italy, virtue Art. 7. The Government of the Emperor of the of the present convention, on account of the two French will produce, in the shortest delay possible, species indicated in the preceding article is, and re- all the documents that will be necessary for the mains fixed at, the sum of 13,761,527f.

transfer to the Great Book of the Italian Debt of the Art. 3. Italy takes, besides, to her charge the inscriptions of the various kinds of Rente of which reimbursement of the interest 'due, calculated from the Holy See is discharged in virtue of the present the epochs before indicated, up to the 31st of Decem- convention. ber. The payment of these sums shall be effected in Art. 8. The present convention shall be ratified, the following manner: The last three half-years, or and the necessary papers exchanged, within a delas 20,642,291f., sball be paid in specie on the 15th of of a week, or sooner if possible.

J

JAFFA, AMERICAN COLONY AT. (Sec Mes- in the evening. Fights, quarrels, and other noisy SIAH, CHURCH OF.)

proceedings must be carefully avoided. The above JAPAN, an empire in Eastern Asia. The orders having been issued, you are requested to affis

your seal in acknowledgment and return the circular name of the Mikado or Spiritual Emperor, who after it has gone the round. resides at Miaco, in the principality of Kioto, is

Mina Motto was followed in the Tycoonate by only known by the Imperial princes. The resi- Stots-bashi, the son of Prince Nuto, and the dence of the Tycoon, or Temporal Regent, is head of the Gorogio (Council of State). The Yeddo. The population is estimated at from

new Tycoon, or, as the title now stands, Shoo35 to 40 millions of inhabitants.

The Tycoon, Mina Motto, died at Osaca in goon, was well spoken of as a man of great September, of a disease resembling dropsy, ablest among those families whose members are

energy, imbued with liberal views, and the unknown in Europe, but to which Japanese are eligible to the Tycoonate. It was reported that liable, and which they call kake. His death was he devoted his time to public business with an announced to the country by the following amount of intelligence and earnestness seldom official notification :

if ever exhibited by rulers of Japan. He was Kubosama having fallen sick, and the remedies to appear at the close of the year before a meetused having failed of success, he departed this life at ing of the great Damios having territorial rights Osaka, on the 29th of August, at six o'clock in the of their own, and define his proposed policy to morning. All building, and use of musical instru; them. As he was in favor of faithfully carrying ments are therefore to be intromitted. Shotsubashi Chiunagon, who had previously been appointed heir, out the stipulations of the treaties with foreign is from the 29th of Åugust styled Uyesama. This powers, great benefits were expected to be dedecree having been issued, you will take note thereof, iived from the meeting, and it was thought and communicate it to all householders without ex. ception. Given at the Government office, Tobe. In

some definite course of action would be deterconsequence of the intromission thus decreed, the war gates will be sbut from six o'clock in the evening, The new Tycoon applied to France for inand the side gates will be left open for passengers. structors in the reorganization of his army. The manushi and landlords will patrol day and night. The French Government agreed to his request, In unoccupied lands, and where there exist no war gates, such are to be provided at once. In all the and, by the care of the Minister of War, a mil streets the shop curtains are to be taken down, the itary mission was formed, which was directed shutters on the left and right side to be let down, and to proceed to Japan. It is composed of five perfect order to be kept. "In the lands held of the officers and ten non-commissioned officers, and Government, water-buckets, numbers corresponding is placed under the direction of Captain Chato the length of frontage, are to be placed before the noine, of the staff, who distinguished himself in wheat shops, and other places where business requi. the Chinese campaign. The other officers are ring large fires is carried on, must close at six o'clock M. Brunet, first lieutenant of artillery in the

mined upon.

Imperial Guard; M. Messelot, sab-lieutenant According to reports from Japan received in in the 20th Regiment of Foot-Chasseurs; M. December, the Prince of Satsuma had sent a Descharmes, sub-lieutenant in the Empress's very large collection of curiosities and speciRegiment of Dragoons; and M. Dubousquet, mens of the produce of his province to the holding the same rank in the 31st Regiment of World's Fair at Paris. One of the firm of the Line. The members of this military mis- Glover & Co. had left Yokohama for Nansion embarked at Marseilles in December 1866. gasaki, there to take charge of the prince's Their duty will be to organize the Tycoon's younger brothers on an expedition to Europe. army, both as respects the matériet and the Fourteen young Japanese gentlemen, in charge persons.

of the Rev. Mr. Lloyd, were to leave YokoA civil war graw, in August 1866, out of the lama, also bound to see the Paris Exhibition. punishment which the United States. England, Rev. Mr. Brown, American Missionary in Japan, and France, conjointly inflicted on the Prince also sent a number of Japanese youth to the Negato, for his attacks on foreign vessels that United States, to be educated. They expect to passed through the Inland Sea, as the channel remain in this country five or six years, that between the main island is styled. In the set- they may acquire a knowledge of our religion, tlement of the case between the Tycoon and institutions, arts, sciences, and laws. They are the foreigners, an indemnity was exacted from all men of official rank, belonging to the departthat ruler, who mulcted the Prince, who re- ment of Statsuma. Their names are, Captains sisted the claim, and hence the war. Choshiu, Shimada and Hisamats, and Lieutenants Chara, Prince of Negato, being well provided with Kudo and Yostuda. Three of them are young foreign implements of war, and having an army men, and the other two are men in middle life. drilled on the European model, was enabled to On November 26th a great fire occurred at gain many advantages over the Tycoon, who Yokohama, causing a loss of over $5,000,000. had failed to avail himself of the instruction of The town of Yokohama was almost entirely foreigners. On August 4th intelligence reached unknown by name to the outside world preYokobanna from Osaca, to the effect that in vious to the negotiations of the treaty between three engagements the troops of the Tycoon the United States and Japan-after the mission had prevailed against those of Choshiu. The of the late Commodore Perry in 1853–existing scene of the action was Oshimangoori, in the only as a scattered commercial and export subprovince of Soowo, one of the two provinces urb of the great imperial capital, Jeddo. Sinco comprising the estate of Mori. The troops en- that time it has grown rapidly into notice, and gaged on the side of the Tycoon were 5,000 or at the moment of the great conflagration it 6,000 men, under the command of Matsdaira maintained the same relation to Jeddo as the Okino-kami, and some infantry and artillery ports of Amoy and Hong-Kong do to the more (about 1,200) drilled in the European style. It inland industrial centre of China. Indeed, it appears that Simonosaki was occupied by the may be said that Yokohama was built up for Tycoon's troops before the war began. Subse- Japan within a dozen years by foreigners, parquent advices confirmed this news, and added ticularly by Americans and English. The town that the Tycoon's troops occupied Oosima, and is situated about twenty-three miles south of Choshiu's forces made an attack on the side Jeddo, on the Gulf of Jeddo and the southeast of the Straits. They were, however, repulsed, coast of the island of Niphon. The course of but not before they had destroyed several trade and communication outward runs from towns. In the operations Choshiu lost two Jeddo to Nangasaki and thence to Yokohama, the ships. The new Tycoon gained important ad- travel being reversed, from Yokohama inward, vantages over Choshiu, and in December it was to persons coming from abroad. Its public buildreported that the war had been stopped for the ings, temples, parks, and gardens are constructed present by the Mikado, and that Choshiu obeyed and ornamented in the usual Japanese style; but the order, declaring that he had never fought considerably modernized by the introduction of against the Mikado, but against a party unjustly improvements from abroad. The population of opposed to him.

the city fluctuates to a very great extent, being In the latter months of the year the country made up at certain seasons, almost entirely by was suffering from a deficiency in the rice crop, that portion of the seven hundred thousand aggravated by the war, which caused that staff citizens of Jeddo who are called down by the of Japanese life to rise in price to nearly three- demands of trade and finance to meet the hunfold its ordinary value. Considerable discon- dreds—sometimes thousands of foreigners who tent prevailed, and many rice riots occurred, in make it their temporary residence. It is one of which the American minister, General estimated that the resident population of the Van Valkenburg, was stoned, and the British town and the adjacent villas does not exceed Consulate was also attacked with the same ninety thousand persons. Yokohama is the missives. No importance, however, was at- residence of the United Sates and other foreign tached to the émeute by the General, or the Consuls to the empire. Its stores and wareBritish authorities. The Japanese officials were houses always contain a heavy stock of very in nowise accountable for this last attack on expensive goods, the contents of the principal foreigners, and the outrage was the work of a “shops" being roughly valued quite lately at few ignorant and hungry people.

£600,000, on which insurances to the extent of

£233,000 were effected - £163,000 of which was changed from an ad valorem to a specific rate six taken in London, and £70,000 in China. A treaty months after the signature of this convention. of commerce and navigation between Italy and sixth regulation attached to the above-named treat

ART. 3. The permit fee, hitherto levied under the Japan was signed on the 25th of August, and ies, is hereby abolished. Permits for the lading or was to go into operation on January 1, 1867. shipment of cargo will be required as formerly, but

On June 25th the Japanese Government made will hereafter be issued free of charge. the following commercial convention with the the port of Kanagawa (Yokohama), and on and from

ART. 4. On and from the 1st day of July next, at governments of the United States, Great Britain, the ist day of October next, at the ports of Nangasaki, France, and Holland :

and Hakodate, the Japanese Government will be pre

pared to warehouse imported goods, on the applica. The representatives of Great Britain, France, the tion of the importer or owner, without payment of United States of America, and Holland, having re- duty; The Japanese Government will be responsible ceived from their respective governments identical for the safe custody of the goods, so long as they re instructions for the modification of the tariff of im. main in their charge, and will adopt all the precau. port and export duties, contained in the trade regu- tions necessary to render them insurable against fire. lations, annexed to the treaties concluded by the When the importer or the owner wishes to remove aforesaid powers with the Japanese Government in the goods from the warehouse, be must pay the du1858, which modification is provided for by the 7th ties fixed by the tariff; but if he should wish to reof those regulations :

export them he may do so without payment of duty. And the Japanese Government having given the Storage charges will in either case be paid on deliv. said representatives, during their visit to Osaka in ery of the goods. The amount of these charges, to. November, 1865, a written engagement to proceed gether with the regulations necessary for the manimmediately to the revision of the tariff in question agement of said warehouses, will be established by on the general basis of a duty of five per cent. on the common consent of the contracting parties. the value of all articles imported or exported :

Art. 5. All articles of Japanese production may be And the Government of Japan being desirous of conveyed from any place in Japan to any of the ports affording a fresh proof of their wish to promote open to foreign trade, free of any tax or transit duty trade and to cement the friendly relations which other than the usual tolls, levied equally on all traffic, exist between their country and foreign nations: for the maintenance of roads or navigation,

His Excellency Midzuno Idzumi no Kami, a mem Art. 6. In conformity with those articles of the ber of the Gorojiu and a Minister of Foreign Affairs, treaties concluded between Japan and foreign powers, bad been furnished by the Government of Japan which stipulate for the circulation of foreign coin at with the necessary powers to conclude with the rep- its corresponding weight in native coin of the same resentatives of the above-named four powers, that is description, dollars have hitherto been received at to say: of Great Britain, Sir Harry S. Parkes, the Japanese custom-house in payment of duties at Knight Commander of the most honorable Order of their weight in boos (commonly called Itchiboos), the Bath, her Britannic Majesty's envoy extraordinary that is to say, at a rate of 311 boos per 100 dollars. and minister plenipotentiary in Japan; of France, The Japanese government being, however, desirous Monsieur Leon Roches, commander of the Imperial to alter this practice and to abstain from all interOrder of the Legion of Honor, minister plenipoten- ference in the exchange of native for foreign coin, tiary of his Majesty the Emperor of the French in and being also anxious to meet the wants both of Japan; of the United States of America, A. L. C. native and foreign commerce, by securing an ade. Portman, Esq., chargé d'affaires, ad interim; and of quate issue of native coin, have already determined Holland, Monsieur 'Dirk de Graeff van Polsbroek, to enlarge the Japanese mint so as to admit of the Knight of the Order of the Netherlands Lion, politi- Japanese government exchanging into native coin of cal agent and consul-general of his Majesty the the same intrinsic value, less only the cost of coin. King of the Netherlands. The following convention age, at the places named for this purpose, all foreign comprising twelve articles:

coin or bullion in gold or silver that may at any time Art. 1. The contracting parties declare in the be tendered to them by foreigners or Japanese. It names of their respective governments that they ac- being essential, however, to the execution of this cept, and they hereby do formally accept as binding measure, that the various powers with whom Japan on the citizens of their respective countries, and on has concluded treaties should first consent to modify the subjects of their respective sovereigns the tariff the stipulations in those treaties wbich relate to the hereby established and annexed to the present conven. currency, the Japanese government will at once protion. This tariff is substituted not only for the origi. pose to those powers the adoption of the necessary nal tariff attached to the treaties concluded with the modification in the said stipulations, and on receiv. above-named four powers, but also for the special ing their concurrence, will be prepared from the 1st convention and arrangements relative to the same of January, 1868, to carry the above measure into tariff which has been entered

into at different dates effect. The rates to be charged as the cost of coinage up to this time between the Governments of Great shall be determined hereafter, by the common conBritain, France, the United States, and Holland on sent of the contracting parties. one side, and the Japanese Government on the other. Art. 7. In order to put a stop to certain abuses The new tariff shall come into effect in the port of and inconveniences complained of at open ports relaKanagawa (Yokohama) on the 1st day of July next, tive to the transaction of business at the customand in the ports of Nangasika and Hakodate on the house, the landing and shipping of cargoes, and the first day of the following month.

hiring of boats, coolies, servants, etc., the contract. Art. 2. The tariff attached to this convention, ing parties have agreed that the governor at each being incorporated from the date of its sigpature in open port shall at once enter into negotiations with the treaties concluded between Japan and the above the foreign consuls, with a view to the establishment, named four powers, is subject to revision on the 1st by mutual consent, of such regulations as shall effectday of July, 1872. Two years, howerer, after the ually put an end to those abuses and inconveniences, signing of the present convention any of the con- and afford all possible facility and security both to tracting parties, on giving six months' notice to the the operations of trade and to the transactions of in. others, may claim a readjustment of the duties on dividuals. It is hereby stipulated, that, in order to tea and silk on the basis of five per cent. on the protect merchandise from exposure to weather, these average value of those articles during the three years regulations shall include the covering in at each port last preceding. On the demand, also, of any of the of one or more of the landing places used by foreigncontracting parties, the duty on timber may be ers for landing or shipping cargo.

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