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and the matter of which it consisted was evi- the same as at present, but would remain stor dently in the state of ignited gas. The coma tionary on the earth's surface. The solar wave probably shone by rejected solar light—the would also exist the same as it does now, bu. spectrum of the light of the coma differing en- would move round the earth once a month, tirely from that characterizing the light emitted instead of once in twenty-four hours as at presby the nucleus. The prism gives no informa- ent. However slow the motion, a considerable tion whether the matter forming the coma be amount of heat would be generated by friction, solid, liquid, or gaseous, though terrestrial The source from which the energy lost in the phenomena would suggest that the parts of a form of heat would be derived, would evidently comet, which are bright by reflecting the sun's be the rotation of the earth round the common light, are probably in the condition of fog or centre of gravity; for it is to this source that cloud. The nitrogen line is the only one de- the motion of the water is due. Now the eftected in the nucleus. We must wait for a fects which would take place under these circomet of sufficient splendor to permit the satis- cumstances do actually take place under the factory prismatic examination of its physical present order of things. The two sets of effects state during various changes of its perihelion caused by the lunar and the solar waves do not passage.
interfere with each other; consequently the Father Secchi, at Rome, in January, 1866, solar wave must be slowly consuming the vis made a spectrum analysis of Tempel's comet, viva of the earth's rotation round the common and found the light monochromatic (green), centre of gravity. It is this vis diva which similar to that of the nebula in Orion. The keeps the earth and moon separate from each monochromatic condition of the light he attrib- other. As the vis vita is consumed, the two utes to a molecular constitution different from must approach each other, and thus the angular that which forms the planets and stars. He motion of the moon be accelerated. The solar infers that not all the light which comes from wave does not consume the vis viva of the the comet is reflected from the sun, or, if it is moon's motion around the common centre, but so, that it suffers a singular sort of absorption. only that of the earth. Since the earth is gradu. The spectrum of the comet exhibited three ally approaching nearer to the moon in conseprincipal lines on a faintly-shaded ground. The quence of the consumption of centrifugal force, latter is probably due to light reflected from which keeps it separate from that orb, the moon the sun; the residue, the light of the comet must therefore be moving with all its original itself.
vis viva in an orbit which is gradually becomInfluence of the Tidal Wave on the Moon's ing less and less, and the period of its revoluMotion.—Mr. Adams and M. Delaunay, bave tion is consequently diminishing in length. shown by their recent investigations that the According to M. Croll's calculation, it is therechange in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit fore merely a question of time—though the accounts for only about one-half of the secular possible date of the catastrophe is incalculably acceleration of the moon's motion, viz., about remote-when the earth and moon shall come six seconds in a century. Prof. Harrison sug- together. gests that the other half might be accounted The Zodiacal Light.-M. Liandier, in the for simply by assuming that the length of the Comptes Rendus, says that he has watched the sidereal day has increased by merely .01197 of zodiacal light for several years, during the evena second in the course of 2,000 years. M. ings of February and March. In 1866 he obDelaunay subsequently showed that the re- served it from the 19th of January to the 5th tarding effect of the tidal wave, originally of May. He reports that it has the shape of a pointed out by M. Mayer, twenty years ago, perfect cone, varing in luminosity and color sufficed to account for the increase required in from a dull gray to a silver white, its changing the length of the day. He concluded that the aspect probably being caused by the condition six seconds of acceleration resulting from the of our atmosphere. In February the summit of change of eccentricity in the earth's orbit are the cone reached Pleiades, and the Twins in real, but that the other six seconds are only May. Between January and May he found it apparent. At a still later date M. Delaunay to follow the zodiacal movements of the sun. admitted that the tides produce a real accelera- M. Liandier believes the luminous cone to be a tion of the moon's motion. In a paper, pub- fragment of an immense atmosphere, which lished in the “Philosophical Magazine” last envelops the sun on all sides. If so, he says it August, by Mr. Croll (the second on that sub- may be expected to exercise an enormous ject by the author), he offered the following pressure on the sun, with a great development considerations to show that the solar wave of heat, and, if local variations occur, may exmust diminish the earth's motion around the plain the phenomena of sun-spots, through the common centre of gravity of the earth and reduction of temperature that would follow its moon, and must therefore accelerate the an- diminished pressure. gular motion of the moon. Suppose the rota Nebulæ.- About sixty nebulæ, examined by tion of the earth to be reduced to that of the Mr. Huggins during the past year, reveal a specmoon, viz., once a month. In that case the trum of one, two, or three bright lines. Their earth would always present the same side to the elements cannot be determined, and the matemoon. The lunar wave would of course exist rial of the nebulæ ja opposed to be luminous
gas. The light of three nebulæ was compared sity, and this is as 256,700 (hydrogen) to 1 (plawith that of a sperm candle burning 158 grs. an tinum). The assumption that the materials of hour, with the following result: the estimation the sun can give out no more heat, pound per being inade in the brightest part of the nebulæ: pound, than the materials of the earth, is thereIntensity of Debula, No. 4,628, IHIV- ......... Tiba
fore unfounded. Intensity of annular nebula in Lyra....
Second. The conditions for producing heat Intensity of dumb bell nebula................TOT in the vast laboratory of the sun, are different
The nebulæ which have thus far been ex from those with which we are familiar on this amined may be divided into two great groups; earth. Combustion, with us, is always between one giving bright lines with a faint spectrum a gaseous body and another which may be background, the other giving apparently a con- either gaseous, liquid, or solid; while in the sun tinuous spectrum. The nebula in the sword- the chief combustion takes place between liquid handle of Orion exhibits three bright lines; and materials, for the liquid body of the sun is the in Lord Rosse's telescope reveals a large num- hottest. Pressure exercises an important inber of very minute red stars, wbich do not fur fluence on combustion; and the pressure of nish a visible spectrum. The bluish-green mat the atmosphere of the sun must be inconceiv. ter of this nebulæ has not yet been resolved. ably great considering the height of the atmosThe question arises: Are all the unresolved phere and the powerful attraction of the sun; nebulæ gaseous, and those which give a con- but even that is as nothing compared with the tinuous spectrum clusters of stars? Half of the pressure in the liquid body of the sun, many nebulæ which give a continuous spectrum have thousand miles down. The force of chemical been resolved, while of the gaseous nebulo attraction which impels atoms to unite in colnone have certainly been resolved.
lision, thereby causing heat, may be in some The Force which prolongs the Heat and Light way more powerful in the sun than on the of the Sun and other Fixed Stars.-Prof. Ennis, earth. The ether or ethers around the sun in his interesting treatise on the “ Origin of the may contribute to the production of heat. Stars," propounds the following theory of the Third. New combustibles may now be preforce which has given so prolonged a duration paring in the sun from materials which have to the light and heat of the sun : That the already been burned. According to the nebchemical force now active in the sun is the ular theory, what we call the simple elements conversion or conservation of the atomic force are mere modifications of one general fundamenof repulsion which once held the solar system tal matter. These modifications have arisen in a nebulous condition—that condition being during the process of condensation, and must one of inconceivable rarity. This atomic force still be forming in the sun, because the sun is must have been inconceivably great, and, be- eight times less dense than is required by the ing indestructible, must still exist. In fact, law of density in the solar system, and will conit is now, and has long been, passing off as light tinue to form until its fires are burned out, and heat through conversion into chemical and its due density is reached. Our "simple forces. But why suppose that the original re- elements" may be not only compounds but pulsive force is converted into light and heat double compounds, or compounds that are the through chemical agencies, rather than through result of hundreds or thousands of compoundelectricity or some other means? The answer ings. In this way there must have been, at is because the present action in the sun, and different periods, entirely different sets of elein the fixed stars, and the former action in our ments in the sun. After one set had combined, earth, all strongly indicate chemical action producing light and heat by the combination, This force now operates in the sun and other the resulting compound products may have fixed stars by three methods.
again combined, with the same effect of light First. There are reasons to believe, from the and heat, and so on in a continuous line of nature of matter, that the materials in the sun changes until the sun has attained its proper may possibly give out more heat than those in density, its fires are extinguished, and it beour earth. On this planet one substance gives comes a "lost star," like the earth and the out more heat than another of equal weight; other members of the solar system. as, for instance, a pound of hydrogen produces With regard to the ultimate identity of suns, more than four times the heat of a pound of planets, and moons, Prof. Ennis says: “We aro carbon. Between other elements there are really treading on a fixed star. Here we have similar differences. Chemical diversities seem an opportunity of leisurely observing how a endless in number, and immeasurable in ex- fixed star appears after its light has gone out. tent. Every star, so far as yet known, has a As in a forest we note the progress of the oak, different set of fixed lines in the spectrum, al- from the acorn to the tall tree, some just rising though there are certain resemblances between from the ground, others vigorous in the sapling them. It may, therefore, be concluded that growth, and others whose trunks are populated each star has, in part at least, its peculiar with mosses and lichens, and whose branches modifications of matter called simple ele- are alive with birds, so we can ses like stages ments. The peculiar elements of the sun may of progress among the heavenly bodies, our differ from ours in heat-producing power as earth included. Some are glowing with the much as ours differ from one another in den- fervor of most intense heat; others, like our
earth, are cooled on their surfaces, and with ax of 0" 874. Peters has actually found 0" 046. only volcanoes to tell of their molten history; If the light suffers no absorption in the celestia. and others, like our moon, are still further on spaces, Capella must give out much more light in their history, where even volcanic energy than the sun; and a Centauri seems to be equal has become cold and dead. Some are invari- to the sun. ably bright, and others, like our sun, ex bit Works and Memoirs.—Among the works comparatively small dark spots on their sides. and memoirs upon astronomical subjects pubSome at each rotation have their light lished in this country during the present year, slightly dimmed with spots; others again are may be mentioned the following: The Origin dimmed more and more, and still others have of the Stars, by Jacob Ennis, 12mo, D. Apat each rotation their light entirely hid. At pleton & Co., ; Memoirs of the National last we behold others whose light goes out en- Academy of Sciences, 4to, Government printtirely, perhaps to be rekindled by a temporary ing-office, Washington; Annals of the Dradley glow, and to be called by astronomers a tem- Observatory, vol. i.; a new edition (38) of porary star, and then its light is gone, dark, for- Olmsted's Astronomy, revised by E. S. Snell, ever dark, not to be a dreary solitude, but in a LL. D., Professor of Natural Philosophy in Amresurrection morn to be reillumined, like our herst College. At the meeting of the Amerearth, with the happy light of intellectual life ican Association for the Advancement of Sciand social enjoyment.
ence, at Buffalo, in August (after a suspension Asteroids.The 85th asteroid has been of meetings for five years, in consequence of named Io, which is also the designation of one the war), the following papers bearing upon of the satellites of Jupiter. On the 4th of Jan- astronomical topics were read: Spots on the aury, 1866, Dr. F. Tietjen at Berlin, discovered Sun, by Prof. E. Loomis; on the Period a new asteroid (86) of the 12th magnitude, near of Algoi, by the same; on Fundamental Star to asteroid 85, whose place he was then en- Catalogues, by Prof. T. H. Safford, of Chicago. gaged in determining. It has received the At the August meeting of the National Acadname of Semele. Mr. Pogson, at Madras, dis- emy of Sciences, John N. Stockwell read a covered an asteroid (87) on the 16th of May, paper on the Secular Acceleration of the Moon's whose_magnitude de estimated at 11.5. Dr. Mean Motion ; Prof. B. Pierce, on the Origin of C. H. F. Peters, at the Hamilton College Ob- Solar Heat; Prof. T. Strong, on a New Theory servatory, discovered on the 15th of June, No. of Planetary Motion ; and Lewis M. Rutherfurd, 88, a little brighter than stars of the 12th mag- on Astronomical Photography. nitude. The last two asteroids are named re AUSTRIA.* Emperor, Francis Joseph I., spectively Sylvia and Thisbe. The 89th asteroid born Angust 18, 1830; succeeded his uncle, was discovered by M. Stephan, the director of Ferdinand I. (as King of Hungary and Bohemia the Marseilles Observatory, in the constellation called Ferdinand V.), on December 2, 1848. of Capricorn. It is estimated at the 9th mag- Heir apparent, Archduke Rudolph, born August nitude. On the 11th of October, Dr. Luther, 21, 1858. of Bilk, near Düsseldorf, discovered the 90th In consequence of the German Italian war, asteroid, which is of the 11th magnitude. The Austria lost the crown-land of Venetia, which discovery of the 91st asteroid at the Marseilles was annexed to Italy. The cession of this provObservatory, reported by M. Le Verrier to the ince reduced the area of Austria to 239,048 French Academy, completes the list announced English square miles, and the population to
32,573,002. Of this total population 21,521,713 The Astro-Photometer.-Zollner gives the are Roman Catholics ; 3,536,608, Greek Cathofollowing results of his recent observations with lics; 2,921,541 (non-united) Greeks; 1,218,750, the astro-photometer.
Lutherans 1,963,730, Reformed; 60,887, UniThe light of the sun, in comparison to that tarians; 3,944, members of other sects; 1,043,of the star Capella, is as 55,760,000,000 to 1, 448, Israelites. As regards nationalities
, the with a probable error of about 5 per cent. empire has now 7,877,675 Germans, 11,044,872
The following is Zollner's estimate of the Northern Slavi, 3,955,882 Southern Slavi, 581,comparative light of the sun with several of the 126 Western Roumanians (Italians, etc.), 2,642,planets :
953 Eastern Roumanians, 4,947,134 Magyars, Prob. error.
1,210,949 persons of other races. Sun
6,994,000,000 times Mars..........5.8 per ct. Thé receipts in the budget for 1866 were esti-
mated at 495,004,238 florins, and the expendiout ring).
.5.0 tures at 535,143,384 florins. The public debt 8,486,000,000,000 times Uranus....6.0 amounted, on January 30, 1866, to 2,831,211,195 79,620,000,000,000 times Neptune..5.5 florins. The portion reimbursable and bearivg 619,000 times Full Moon ..........2.7
interest is represented by 720,787,485 florins: By comparing surfaces, the sun = : 618,000 not bearing interest, 313,334,643 florins; and times the full moon, with a probable error of the portion not repayable, and bearing interest, 1.6 per cent.
1,797,060,043 florins; and bearing no interest, From the above estimates, it may be inferred that the sun, at a distance of 3.72 years way of
* For the latest commercial statistics received from Aus.
trla, and for an account of the Austrian Reichsraih, set light, would appear like Capella with a paral- ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1865.
for the year.
29,022 forins. A sum of 125,473,744 florins is tions, but insisted on her right of arming against required to pay the annual interest on the public Italy, in order to protect not only her own frondebt, which has increased since the end of De- tier, but the frontier of Germany. This note cember, 1865, by 234,831,693 florins.
ended the diplomatic correspondence concernThe strength of the army on the peace and ing the armaments, and henceforth both powers war footing was, in December, 1865, as follows: prepared for the great struggle. An invitation Peace footing. War footing.
(May 28th) from the great neutral powers to take Infantry..
171,428 489,788 part in a peace conference was accepted by Cavalry.
39,183 41,903 Austria, upon the condition, however, that from Other troops.. 45,122 93,962
the negotiations every combination should be
excluded which would tend to give to any one Total...... ..255,733 625,653
of the powers an aggrandizement of territory. The navy consisted, in December, 1865, of 66 Thus the last attempt to prevent war failed. steamers, with 13,580 horse-power
, and 723 guns; On June 1st Austria formally appealed for a and 51 sailing vessels, with 340 guns.
decision on the Schleswig-Holstein question to The relations between Austria and Prussia the Federal Diet. The Prussian Government were, from the beginning of the year, most un- having maintained, in a note of June 3d, that friendly. In a note, of February 7th, Austria Austria, by the proposition made at the Federal declined to acknowledge the grievances ex- Diet, had violated the treaty of Gastein, and pressed in a Prussian dispatch of January 26th, thereby justified Prussia in falling back upon the with regard to the Austrian administration of provisions of the treaty of Vienna (a common the duchy of Holstein, and defended its right occupation of the duchies), the Austrian Govof independent administration. In the course ernment, on June 9th, replied that the arrangeof March Austria began to arm, and on Marchments between Prussia and Austria could not 16th established a council of war in the cities of be prejudicial to the rights of the ConfederaPrague, Pisek, Tabor, and Pilsen. On the same tion, and that Prussia had already previously day the Austrian Government addressed a cir- violated the treaty of Gastein (for instance, by cular to the Governments of the Germanic Con- having the question of succession decided by federation concerning its relations with Prussia, the crown syndics, by imposing fines based and intimated that it would appeal to the Con- upon this decision, etc.) Hostile movements of federation. In reply to the remonstrances of Prussia against Saxony, Hanover, and Hessethe Prussian Government, the Austrian envoy Cassel having begun on June 15th, the emperor at Berlin declared, on March 31st, that his Gov- on June 17th addressed a manifesto to the people ernment had not the remotest thought of of the empire, which Count Mensdorff commuattacking Prussia, and that the emperor had nicated to the representatives of Austria at forno intention to act contrary to art. 11 of the eign courts. On June 18th, the first Austrian Federal pact. The same assurances were re- troops crossed the Prussian frontier, thus actu-, peated in a note of April 7th, and the hope was ally opening the war against Prussia and Italy, expressed that, as Austria had not taken any which, after the short duration of a few weeks, extraordinary inilitary measures, Prussia would ended in the total defeat of Austria, and the not execute the military orders that had recently loss of one of her richest crown-lands. The prebeen given by her. In a note of April 18th Aus- liminaries of peace between Austria and Prussia tria declared her readiness to disarm on a fixed were signed at Nicholsburg on July 26th. Beday (April 25th) if she could rely upon the same tween Austria and
Italy an armistice was signed conduct on the part of Prussia. The Prussian on August 11th. The definitive treaty of peace Government having virtually assented to that between Austria and Prussia was signed at proposition, Austria declared, in a note of April Prague, on August 23d, and that between Aus26th, that she would disarm on the Bohemian tria and Italy at Vienna, on October 4th. (For frontier before Prussia, hoping that the arma a full history of this war, see the article GERment in Italy would not be regarded as being MAN-ITALIAN War.) directed against Prussia. In a second note, of The German provinces of Austria were the same date, Austria arged a mutual under- greatly agitated relative to their future relastanding in the Schleswig-Holstein question, tions with Germany. On September 9th a and indicated the concessions which she was meeting of the deputies of the German Diets ready to make to Prussia, namely, the definite of Austria was held at Aussee, Steiermark, to cession of the military positions of Kiel, Rends- consider the measures to be adopted for deterburg, and Sonderburg; a cession of territory for mining the position of the German population the establishment of fortifications at Düppel and of Austria, and for preserving their connecAlsen; the union of the duchies with the Zoll- tion with Germany. The meeting recognized verein; and the construction of a canal from the the formation of a united German party as inGerman Sea to the Baltic. It was also inti- dispensable, and that the principal of dualism, mated that if Prussia should refuse to accede to with the restriction that certain matters be recthese propositions, Austria would appeal to the ognized as common affairs and dealt with by Confederation. These propositions appearing common parliamentary treatment, was the only unacceptable at Berlin, Àustria again, in a note arrangement by which real liberty could be atof May 4th, assured Prussia of her pacific inten- tained. It was further agreed that the state of
things imperatively called for a clear definition certain, cause it to be respected under all cir. of the competency of the representative assem- cumstances, and they will find in me a support blies, with a reservation in favor of the main- which will never fail them. It remains for me tenance of the peculiar institutions of the dif- to express to you the satisfaction I experience ferent countries, as well as for a revision of the upon entering into regular relations with you, constitution by a legal and general representa- and to beg of you to be kind enough to facilition of the countries this side the Leitha. tate my duties by seconding the efforts I shall
The relations of Austria with Italy seemed, at make in order to fulfil them according to the the beginning of this year, to improve, by an intentions of our august master, and so that too order of the Austrian ministry (February 16th), much regret may not be felt for a predecessor extending the provisions of the Austro-Sardin- so justly surrounded by the esteem and contiian treaty of commerce of 1851 to all mercban- dence of his subordinates." dise arriving in Austria from any part of the The policy of Baron Beust raised great hopes Italian kingdom. The arming of Austria against among the
Hungarians, but created a great deal Prussia led, however, to an alliance between of dissatisfaction among the Germans. Prussia and Italy, and to a participation of the One of the most indispensable reforms, in the latter power in the German Italian war. The opinion of the Government, was that of a total conclusion of peace united the larger portion of reorganization of the army. It was semithe Italian suojects of Austria with Italy; but officially announced that the chief points of the there remains a strong Italian party in Southern proposed reform of the Austrian military organiTyrol which demands annexation to Italy, and zation would be as follows: The army to be supwhich is likely to be the cause of future trouble plied with breech-loaders; simplification of the between Austria and Italy. (See ITALY.). commissariat regulation; a new audit system,
In October Baron von Beust, formerly Minis- and prompt examination of all military accounts; ter of Foreign Affairs in the kingdom of Saxony, the improvement of the educational institutions was appointed by the emperor Minister of for the army; the formation of officers' schools; Foreign Affairs. It was understood that the strict examination for those aspiring to become chief aim of the new ministry would be to officers and staff officers; a new law of promoconciliate all the different nationalities of the tion; changes in the organization of the general empire, and, in particular, the Hungarians. staff; reform of the military penal laws; alleIn a circular, dated November 2d, and addressed viations of the burdens of the public treasury to the diplomatic agents of Austria abroad, by a considerable reduction in the number of Baron von Beust spoke of the policy to be pur- officers, and the partial cessation of promotions; sued by the Government as follows:
and special ordinances with regard to furloughs " His majesty the emperor has deigned to and removal from active service. This anappoint me his Minister of Foreign Affairs. nouncement created great dissatisfaction, espePenetrated by unbounded gratitude for this sig- cially in Hungary. nal mark of confidence, I have no other ambi On October 27th a man was arrested in tion than to render myself worthy of it, and to Prague, charged with an intent to assassinate devote my whole life to the service of his majes- the emperor. The Austrian papers stated that ty. While desiring to profit by the experience when the emperor was leaving the Czech theI have gained elsewhere, I consider inyself
, how- atre at Prague, an English captain (Palmer), ever, separated from my political past from the who was among the crowd of spectators, saw day on which, thanks to the will of his impe- a man near him raise his right hand, in which rial and apostolic majesty, I became an Austrian, he held a small pistol. Captain Palmer struck and I shall only preserve in my new position down his arm, and seized him by the collar. the testimony of a deeply venerated sovereign The man immediately slipped the pistol into whom I feel I have served with zeal and fidelity. the side-pocket of his paletot. On inquiring, it It would suppose in me, especially at the com was found that he was a journeyman tailor. mencement of my new career, a strange forget. When arrested he dropped a piece of black silk, fulness of my duties to believe me capable of in which were found powder, three caps, and bringing to them preferences or resentments two large pieces of lead. The pistol was loaded from which in trutlı I feel completely exempt. and cocked, but it had no cap on. This was, I beg you, sir, not in my own interest, but in however, found opposite the principal entrance that of the emperor's service, to thoroughly to the theatre, by two young men, after the understand this, and to make it understood in emperor had left. The investigation of the the conversations you may have on this subject. affair left it, however, doubtful as to whether The Imperial Government, all the efforts of the man arrested really meant to take the life which must tend to remove the traces of a dis- of the emperor. astrous war, will remain faithful to that policy The difficulties between Austria and Hunof peace and conciliation which it has always gary remained unsettled. In consequence of followed; but while the unfortunate issue of a the disastrous result of the German-Italian recent struggle renders this a necessity, it at the war, the Austrian Government showed a dissame time imposes upon the Government the position to grant most of the demands of the duty of showing itself more than ever jealous Hungarians, but no full agreement had been of its dignity. The imperial mission will, I am arrived at at the close of the year when, on the