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£115,271 in this direction alone. Besides, 25 lations of Austria and Bavaria to each other. jew churches had been originated during the (See GERMAN-ITALIAN War.) Bavaria concluded year.
peace with Prussia on August 22d. Bavaria is The annual meeting of the Baptist Missionary one of the states of Germany not included in the Society was held in London, on April 26th. North-German Confederation, but were left at The annual report stated that the receipts of liberty to form a South-German Confederation. the year had been £27,016, and the expendi BEAUMONT, DE LA BONNIÈRE, GUStures, £30,113.
TAVE AUGUSTE DE, a French publicist, born VII. CONTINENT OF EUROPE.-The statistics February 6, 1802, in the Department of Sarthe; of the Baptist churches on the Continent of died in Paris, February 22, 1866. He was eduEurope, in connection with the American Bap- cated for the law, and was made procuratortist Foreign Mission Society, were, in 1865, as substitute in the superior tribunal of the Seine, follows:
but lost this office after the July revolution. In 1831 he was commissioned, with Alexis de Tocqueville, to visit the United States, in order to study the penitentiary system established
here, and the result of their investigations was a Germany.
report, which has become a standard work on Denmark
the subject, Du Système Pénitentiaire aux Switzerland.
États-Unis.' Upon the return of M. Beaumont France
97 to Paris, he received a place under Government, Poland
268 but was soon deposed, as he refused to conduct Russia....
the prosecution in the scandalous process against
the Baroness de Feuchères. In 1840 he was Total..
elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the DeThe Baptist mission in Sweden, which had partment of Sarthe, and distinguished himself hitherto been under the care of the American as a meinber of the so-called dynastic opposiBaptist Publication Society, was, on March 1, tion, favoring electoral reform in 1847. Sub1866, transferred to the American Baptist Mis- sequently he was appointed by General Cavaig. sionary Union. The churches in Sweden con nac ambassador to England. After the Revotinue to make rapid progress, and at the close lution of 1848 he was returned as a member of of the year 1865 there were 176 churches, with the Legislative Assembly, and here maintained 6,606 communicants in nine associations. the character of a sincere republican. In 1851
VIII. Asia.- In the Asiatic divisions of the he was arrested and imprisoned for some time American Baptist Missionary Union, there were, in the fortress of Mont Valérien, and on regain. in 1865, fifteen stations where American mis- ing his liberty, retired to his patrimonial estate, sionaries reside, and about 400 out-stations. Of where he afterward resided. Besides his impor-. American missionaries connected with the Asi- tant work above mentioned, he was the author atic missions, there were 84: 41° males and 43 of Marie, ou l'Esclavage aux États-Unis (2 vols., females. Of native preachers and assistants in 1835), and L'Irlande, Sociale, Politique, et Réthese missions there were not far from 500, fiftyligieuse (2 vols., 1839). M. de Beaumont was a of them being ordained ministers.
grandson of General Lafayette. BAVARIÆ, a kingdom in South Germany. BECK, CHARLES, Ph. D., LL. D., formerly proKing Ludwig II., born August 25, 1845, suc- fessor of the Latin language and literature in ceeded his father, Maximilian II., on March 10, Harvard University, born at Heidelberg, Baden, 1864. At the outbreak of the German Italian Germany, August 19, 1798; died at Cambridge, war, Bavaria bad an area of 28,435 square Mass., March 19, 1866. His father, a merchant miles and 4,774,464 inhabitants. By the treaty of Heidelberg, died while the subject of this of peace, concluded with Prussia, Bavaria ceded sketch was still young, and his mother was subto Prussia 211 square miles and 32,470 inhabit- sequently married to Dr. De Wette, the eminent ants. The capital, Munich, had, in 1864, 167,- theologian, then professor in the University of 054 inhabitants. The army, in time of peace, Heidelberg, and afterward in the University numbers 73,158 men; in time of war, 96,515; of Berlin. Young Beck was educated at the the reserve consists of 124,721 men. In the latter institution, where he became an accomcomplications arising between Austria and plished classical scholar, and entering upon the Prussia early in 1866, the Bavarian Govern- study of theology, was ordained in his native ment endeavored to bring about a reconciliation city, July, 1822, and the following year rebetween the two powers. When these endeav- ceived the degree of doctor of philosophy and ors failed, Bavaria, with most of the middle master of arts from the University of Tübingen. states, took side with Austria. It began to After completing his theological studies he was arm on April_2d, and on June 14th, plenipo- enployed for some time as tutor at the Univertentiaries of Bavaria and Austria signed the sity of Basle, Switzerland; but his republican convention of Olmutz, regulating the force sentiments, which in his own country had suband the movement of the Bavarian troops jected him to false accusations of conspiracy in the impending war, the chief command of against its monarchical institutions, rendering the coutingents of South Germany, and the re- his liberty even here in danger, he was com
pelled to seek refuge in the United States, and Liege, and Alost; and the number of senators accordingly arrived in New York in Decem- by four, namely, one each for Brussels, Luxember, 1824. Soon after he became connected, as bourg, Mons, and Ghent. The state elections teacher, with the Round Hill School at North- held in June, resulted favorably to the Liberal ampton, Mass., until in 1830, he, in connection party, increasing the ministerial majority in with two other able teachers, established a the Senate, which was previously eight, to school at Phillipstown, on the Hudson, opposite twelve, and in the House of Representatives, West Point. În 1832 Prof. Beck was elected where it was before the elections twelve, to to the chair of Latin language and literature eighteen. The new Chambers were opened at Cambridge—an office which he held with en on November 13th, by the king in person. tire acceptance for eighteen years—discharging The king announced that Belgium's relations its duties with unvarying fidelity, and a zeal with foreign powers were of a most friendly and dignity which won the love and respect of character, and said: "In the midst of the great all with whom he came in contact. Upon his events which have disturbed a great part of retirement from the professorship he devoted Europe, Belgium has remained calm and conhimself to literary pursuits and classical studies, fident, deeply impressed with the rights and some of the fruits of which appeared in a work duties of neutrality. This neutrality she will of great research, published three years since, continue to preserve in the future as she has entitled “The Manuscripts of the Satyricon of done in the past, with sincerity, loyalty, and Petronius Arbiter, described and collated.” In strength.” The king then announced that sev1843 Dr. Beck was chosen a member of the eral bills would be laid before the Chambers in American Oriental Society; in 1845 of the reference to the abolition of imprisonment for American Academy of Sciences, and in 1865 debt, the amendment of the laws on detention received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard of prisoners whilst under accusation, the extraUniversity. He was also for two years a Rep- dition laws, the removal of the restrictions on resentative of Cambridge in the State Legisla- the gold and silver manufacture of articles. ture, and did good service in other offices of a The king also announced the conclusion of a more private character in the town and neigh- treaty of amity with Japan. In reference to borhood. He was a man of large views and high the recent rifle meeting at Brussels, he said: public spirit, and though, more than most men, “The Tir National has furnished the Belgian delighting in the leisure for literary pursuits, he militia with an opportunity of fraternizing with was ready for any sacrifice which might accrue the militia of neighboring countries. Belgium to the benefit of the city, State, or Republic he will be happy to see renewed on her soil those had adopted as his own. He was specially in- peaceful contests, in which are engendered relaterested in the charities created by the war, tions of mutual friendship and esteem, which the Soldiers' Fund, the Sanitary Commission, the future can but extend and fortify." Tho and the agencies for the care and education of king concluded his speech as follows: "To acthe Freedmen, in whom he felt not only the complish the tasks of Government I need the common interest of humanity, but that of an loyal concurrence of the Chambers. May all American patriot.
hearts at the commencement of this new reign BELGIUM, a kingdom in Europe. King remain united in love of our country and its Leopold II., born April 9, 1835, succeeded his institutions!” father, Leopold I., on December 10, 1865. Heir On February 25th the Count of Flanders, apparent, Prince Leopold, born February 18, brother of the king, received from the Legis1858. Area, 11,313 English square miles; popu- lature of Roumania (the Danubian Principallation, according to census of 1864, 4,940,570. ities) an offer of the crown of that country.
The budget of 1866 (which has been voted The Belgian Minister of Foreign Affairs on the by the Chambers) fixes the receipts at 164,. same day officially announced to all the Belgian 043,290 francs, and the expenditures at 158,- legations and the consulate of Bucharest that 579,256 francs. Public debt on May 1, 1866, the prince definitively refused this offer. In the 676,749,514 francs. The Belgian army, accord- latter months of the year, a difficulty arose ing to the latest statement, consisted of 86,- with Holland, with regard to the question of 272 men. The imports in 1864, amounted to the Scheldt dues. M. Rogier, the Minister of 688,878,000 francs, the exportations to 596,- Foreign Affairs, stated in the Senate, on De893,000 francs. The movement of shipping cember 22d, that if Holland refused to recogduring 1863 was as follows: Arrivals, 4,130 nize the rights of Belgium, the Government vessels, with 794,596 tons, of which there were would refer the question to the guaranteeing 863 Belgian vessels, with 87,358 tons; clear powers. ances, 4,116 vessels, with 779,223 tons. The BLUNT, EDMUND, an eminent hydrographer merchant navy, on December 31, 1864, consisted assistant surveyor of the U.S. Coast Survey; of 107 vessels, together of 34,977 tons. born in Newburyport, Mass., November, 1799;
In March an Electoral Reform Bill was died in Brooklyn, N. Y., September 2, 1866. He adopted by both Houses of the Legislature, was a son of Edmund M. Blunt, author of the which augments the number of representatives “ American Coast Pilot." In early life he mani. by eight, namely, two for Brussels, and one each fested a decided taste for practical mathematics, for Antwerp, Louvain, Charleroy, Phillippeville, and, when scarvely seventeen, made the first ad
curate survey of the harbor of New York. In the Gran Chaco, all of which is exclusively and un1819 and the year following, he made the first questionably. Bolivian by right. At the same time survey of the Bahama Banks, and the shoals of pation and Government of Bolivia a right in favor George and Nantucket, and in 1824 surveyed of Brazil to the possession of that strip of country the entrance of New York harbor from Barne- comprised between the Bahia Negra and the river gat to Fire Island. In 1825 and 1826 he ran Jaurú, on the right bank of the aforesaid Paraguay the line of levels from the river San Juan to the
River. Pacific Ocean, for the purpose of building a duty to maintain and defend the dignity and integrity
The Government of Bolivia, owing to its bounden canal on the Nicaragua route. From 1827 to of the nation, cannot pass unnoticed an act of such 1830, as a private enterprise, he surveyed Long great and such weighty consequences as this unheard. Island Sound from New York to Montauk of violation of the public law of nations. But it can." Point, the Government up to that period having treaty could have wished to present to the whole
not be persuaded that the governments making this taken no steps toward developing a knowledge civilized world so scandalous an example as is given of the coast of the United States. On the or- in these articles which sanction as just the use of ganization of the United States Coast Survey in force as well as usurpation. 1832, he was appointed assistant, holding that
The Government of Bolivia unhesitatingly asserts position up to the time of his death. In 1855 its belief that said treaty may have a false and spuand 1856 he furnished the points to determine the Provisional President of the republic, who is
rious origin. Under this supposition his excellency the exterior line of New York harbor. While anxious to have official information concerning the on the Coast Survey, his attention was directed falsity or authenticity of the said treaty, has ordered to the inferiority of the lights in the American that I should address your excellency on the sublight-houses, and he was the proposer and advo- ject; and I hope that this request will be received
as a new proof of the uninterrupted good relations cate of the introduction of Fresnel's system of that unite both goveryments. I take occasion, etc., signal-lights, which has since contributed so
JOSÉ RAYMONDO TABORGA. largely to render our_light-house system the
To Señor JOSÉ ANTONIO SARAIVA, Minister for For. best in the world. He was also a mechanic eign Affairs of the Empire of Brazil. of great inventive genius, as is evinced by the Bolivia maintains that her eastern limits reach dividing-engine, built from his plan and under to the Paraguay River, and run from the mouth his direction.
of the Jaurú, through the centre of the main BOLIVIA, a republic in South America. channel of the Paraguay in the dry season, folProvisional President, Mariano Melgarejo (since lowing its course through the swamps de los December, 1864). The frontiers of the republic Jarayes, far to the southward of the Bahia not being yet regulated, the area is differently Negra (Black Lake, or Lake Negro, as our estimated from 22,500 to 39,638 geographical atlases call it). From the mouth of the Jaurú, square miles. The population was, in 1858, es the line runs directly northwest until it meets timated by J. Ondarza, a Bolivian geographer, at the waters of the Guaporé at a point opposite 1,742,352, exclusive of 245,000 savage Indians; the mouth of the Sararé. making a total of 1,987,352. The army consists The long dispute with Chili concerning the of about 2,000 men, besides the national guard. southwestern frontier which, for twenty-three The receipts of the republic amounted, in 1864, years, had threatened the peace between these reto 2,471,000 piastres, and the expenditures to publics, was settled, in 1866, by a treaty. - Dur2,435,000. The civil war, which disturbed Bo- ing the past few years the conflict had assumed livia throughout the year 1865, was brought to a very threatening aspect. Some Frenchmen a close by the decisive victory of President had discovered that the land was rich with Melgarejo over his opponents at Viacha, near guano, and desired to work it; but in the disLa Paz, in January, 1866. Bolivia joined the puted state of the title they could not get posalliance of Chili and Peru against Spain, and, session with any certainty of being able to work like her allies, expelled all the Spanish resi- it long enough to realize a fair return. They, dents from her territory. When the secret therefore, offered to lend to Bolivia three miltriple alliance concluded, in 1865, between Bra- lions of dollars for the right, and furnish arms, zil, the Argentine Republic, and Uruguay be- etc., the money thus loaned to be expended in came known, Bolivia deemed it her right to purchasing ships for the defence of the coast enter an energetic protest, as the treaty assigned of Mejillones. General Santa Cruz, an enemy to both the Argentine Republic and Brazil a of Chili, was at that time Bolivia's representapiece of territory which has always been tive at Paris, and he agreed to the transaction. claimed by Bolivia. The following are the The deposits were to be worked on the joint most important portions of this protest : account of the French firm and Bolivia. Thus OFFICE OF FOREIG ALAL, THEY Baseba), }
matters stood when the war with Spain broke Sexor: * * * It appears strange to the Bolivian
out. Bolivia concluded to join the alliance of Government that the high allied powers, in settling Chili
, Peru, and Ecuador against Spain. A rethe basis as to what extent of territory they are to sult of this alliance was that a treaty has been take from the republic of Paraguay, their common drawn up between the two countries, by which enemy, should comprise therein a large portion of the boundary line is definitely settled at 24° of said treaty, which
assigns to the Argentine Cone south, thus dividing the disputed territory and federation that vast extent of country embraced on the deposits at the same time. The French the west bank of the Paraguay, in what is known as firm, Arnaud by name, agreed to advance ,
loan to each of the republics of $3,000,000, the cane-juice-already in the raw sugars remaking $6,000,000, for the privilege of work- fined in England, amounts to from 7 to 10 lbs. ing the deposits under a triple partnership, viz.: to the ton. Chili, Bolivia, and the French firm, each taking The modes that may separately be resorted a fair share of the profits. By this course of to for restoring the power of bone-black, are action a war was prevented between the two those of—1, washing it with hot water; 2, nations; a large loan was given to each; unity charging with water and leaving several days of feeling was engendered, and the danger of to ferment; 3, washing with very dilute chlorforeign interference prevented.
hydric acid; 4, exposing to the slow action of BONE-BLACK, ReviviFICATION or. Mr. H. air and moisture; 5, reburning, that is, heating Medlock, treating of this subject in a brief but in closed retorts, to redness. Commonly two very satisfactory article in the Chemical News, of these modes are combined, as, by washing of February 17, 1865, notes the fact that the with water and then reburning; or, fermenting, principal source of expense in a sugar refinery drawing off the liquid, and then replacing it (see SUGAR, MANUFACTURE OF, etc.) is that of the with fresh, acidulated with 1 to $ per cent. of animal charcoal; so that, to the refiner com- chlorhydric acid. This, and a little acetic acid mencing with new black [some loss continually formed during fermentation, dissolve out some being of course involved, still] it is a great de- of the retained lime; but they also attack the sideratum to have the means of keeping the bulk lime-salts of the bone, rendering the latter friaof the material in a condition of unimpaired de- ble and causing waste. colorizing power,
Ure (Supplement) describes four modes of In bone, the phosphate of lime forms a struc- reburning bone-black; namely, 1, the common ture showing innumerable and almost micro- inethod of burning in iron pipes, in which, howscopic cells; while the gelatine enters these, and ever, the black is liable to be unequally acted on, binds the whole also into one mass. of the and the pipes to be destroyed by corrosion; 2, whole, the gelatine constitutes about .310, tho that of Parker, improved by Chantrell
, of burnphosphate of lime .631, and the other salts .059 ing in fire-clay chambers, not liable to be corparts. In charring (distilling) the bone, the roded, and which is now coming into more gelatine is decomposed, giving off volatile mat- general use; 3, Mr. Torr's method of burning ters, leaving the bone finely porous, and each in rotating cylinders; and, 4, that of MM. cell and pore lined with particles of minutely; Laurens and Thomas, of reburning in a proper divided carbon. Although the specific physical apparatus by superheated steam. The latter or chemical principle involved in the decolor- two, though expensive, both give excellent reizing and purifying of syrups and like liquids by sults. The authority just quoted also remarks: bone-black is not yet clearly understood, it is, “ To reburn charcoal, the best methods are at least, known that the admirable fitness of the those which most rapidly remove the water, black for the refiner's use is to be explained by raise the temperature of each grain of charcoal the fact of its detaining and withdrawing from to a uniform temperature (sic) of 700° F., and the syrups, up to the point at which its capacity which admit of its being readily cooled without in this respect becomes saturated, both the ma- contact with the air.” terials which impart color, odor, or fermenting Some years since it was a quite general practendency, and also various metallic oxides and tice to use the same black (wastage excepted) salts which such liquids contain.
for a period of six months, more or less, returnWhen, from such absorption, the purifying ing every day the portions used on the precapacity becomes saturated, and lost, the cause ceding, or, as often as the decolorizing power is commonly assumed to be that the carbon par- failed. At the end of such period, the charcoal ticles have become coated over with the aību.
was laid aside as no longer available; and lat. minous and other gummy matters of the solu- terly, it has then commonly been employed for tion, and the porosity of the black thus impaired, the making of "superphosphate of lime," for Mr. Medlock admits this to be one cause; but, fertilizing. The plan now resorted to by many as has recently been urged by Leplay and others, refiners, is that of washing the black, as it coines he, too, regards as the principal cause the ac- from the filters, with water, then' reburning, cumulation in the pores of lime (and of course sifting out occasionally such fine dust as will to its carbonate also) from the sugar solution. some extent necessarily result, and as the water This view is supported by the facts that the may not have removed, and then returning mere repeated reburning of the bone-black, al- again into the filters; varying this course, howthough this must remove all organic matters the ever, as often as may be judged necessary, with latter has retained, does not completely restore a view to freeing the black more effectually of its purifying power; and that, under such treat- lime, by removing the contents of the filters ment alone, any bone-black eventually becomes after use directly into "fermentation tanks," worthless.' Corenwinder, an eminent German adding water acidulated with a little (about onechemist, has stated as axiomatic the principle half of one per cent.) chlorhydric acid, and althat, “The decolorizing power of charcoal in lowing to ferment for seven days; then drawing sugar-refining is correlative to its power of ab- out and washing, in order to remove the chloride sorbing lime.”
And it has been calculated that of calcium which has resulted from action of the lime—the remains of that used in treating the acid on the absorbed lime; when, finally
the coal is reburned as before, and returned cipitating the matters rendering, syrups, etc., to the filters. Such a method being properly turbid, and that more completely than 'is efcarried out, there is no necessity of throwing fected with blood. The specifications for their aside the charcoal after a stated period; but its United States patent of the year already named) use is continued until, being gradually removed cover the use, separately or in succession as may in form of fine waste, it must be replaced by be required, of steam, of solution of carbonate
of soda, of dilute chlorhydric acid, and of the Leplay and Cuisinier': Process, with Steam, monobasic phosphate of lime; clarification with and Alkaline and Acid Solutions. The authors phosphates; and the collecting of the ammoni. named presented before the Academy of Sci- acal gases expelled from bone-black during reences, Paris, on the 10th of February, 1862, a vivification, thus incidentally also obviating new theory of, and process for, the revivifica- their escape into the atmosphere. tion of bone-black. They had found that the Prof. Calvert's statement of the practical apcommon supposition, to the effect that the black plication of this method is briefly as follows: loses and again has restored within it, at the After escape of all the syrup from the filters, same time, its absorptive powers for all the dif- the black is washed through in them with hot ferent sorts of impurities, is erroneous; that water, and the viscid, ammoniacal, saline, and such powers are not simultaneously exhausted; coloring matters are then removed, and some that, when exhausted, they can be revived in of them in successive parts, by—1, throwing in succession, and require different means; and steam from below; 2, washing through with that, in the process of reviving, the total ab- alkali, in a weak solution; 3, washing with a sorbing power of the black can be increased. weak solution of chlorhydric acid, to dissolve
Thus, the authors state that the absorption out lime; 4, completing the removal of coloring for the viscid, azotized, ammoniacal, sapid, and matters, by washing again with alkali; and 5, odorous matters in a saccharine solution is ex- adding solution of biphosphate of lime, to inhausted in about four hours' time (referring evi- crease the absorbent powers of the coal
. So dently to the case of beet juice and syrups, in far as objection has been raised against this which such matters aboand], and is to be re- process on the ground that its application is stored by passing a blast of steam through the tedious, the same objection would appear more charcoal in the filter, as may be done an in or less to hold against all revivifying processes definite number of times; that the absorption which are in the highest degree effectual. And for free alkalies, lime, and salts, is exhausted in whether the process itself prove practicable or from 24 to 32 hours, and is to be restored by not, yet the highly original results at which pouring on the charcoal in the filter a weak so- the authors named have arrived will still poslution of chlorhydric acid, and afterward wash- sess much theoretical value. Their influence, ing thoroughly with water; that, if the black indeed, appears to be already shown in the were not sooner revivified, the absorption for character of the more recently devised procoloring matters would be lost in a period from cesses, as in that of Mr. Beanes, who would 30 to 40 times as long as the first-a power, to seem to have used, and in some respects imaid in restoring which, a weak boiling solution proved on, certain of the ideas of MM. Leplay of a caustic alkali (or of its carbonate, as of soda] and Cuisinier. is to be applied. All the operations indicated Beanes's Process with Chlorhydric Acid Gas.can be performed on the charcoal directly as it The statements of Mr. Medlock, already cited bestands in the filters; or, if it be removed from cause of their general application, were made them, in similar receptacles. Finding, more in connection with his account of the reviviover, that the bibasic phosphate of lime (2 Cao, fying process of Mr. Edward Beanes, of KilHO. POs), while it is mainly insoluble in wa- burn, England, now to be considered. The ter, possesses a much higher absorbing power object aimed at by the latter was that of defor the impurities in syrups than does the tri- vising a plan by which the absorbed lime and basic phosphate (3 Cað. Pos) naturally present carbonate of lime may be removed from the in the bone, the authors complete their process contents of the filters, without attacking the hy pouring upon the charcoal the filters a lime-salt the ne. dilute solution of the monobasic phospbate of In Mr. Beanes's original process, the bonethe same base (CaO, 2HO, POs, known also as black, removed from the cylinders, dried and the "biphosphate"): by reaction of the two rendered quite hot, is then treated by throwing salts thus commingled, some bibasic phosphate through the mass a current of perfectly dry results in the coal; and, though the addition chlorhydric acid gas: this is apparently abmay in part have in view the restoring of ab- sorbed, and in enormous quantities, reacting in sorbent power lost through the previous action reality with the previously absorbed lime in of chlorhydric acid on the bone, yet it is stated the black to form chloride of calcium, which is that, as the actual result, the decolorizing and highly soluble; while, as stated, the phosphate purifying powers of the latter are made even of the bone is not attacked. Subsequently, a greater than when it was fresh, and than after portion of untreated black is mixed with that any mode of merely reburning.
so purified, the former serving to neutralize MM. Leplay and Cuisinier have also em any still uncombined acid; and, the chloride of ploye1 the tribasic phosphate of lime for pre- calcium being washed out, as is done in a few