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action to be then decided upon by the General of all the constituent elements of the Synod;' Assembly. The Louisville commissioners de- and when he refused to obey this direction, the clined an invitation by the Assembly to appear roll was called by the moderator himself. The and defend the action of the presbytery. On adherents of the Assembly did not answer when taking a vote (on June 1st) the resolutions of their names were called. The opponents of the the committee and the amendment of Dr. Hum- Assembly then organized. The friends of the phreys were laid on the table by motion of Dr. Assembly remained in the church after adjournThomas, and the substitute of Dr. Gurley taken ment, and likewise constituted themselves as up and passed by a vote of 196 to 37. This the Synod of Kentucky. Of the members substitute condemns the “Declaration and Tes- present, fifty-nine endorsed the Assembly, and timony” as a slander against the church, schis- ninety-nine supported the Louisville Presbytery. matical in its character, and its adoption by At the meeting of the Missouri Synod, the any church court is declared an act of rebellion majority resolved to enroll the signers of the against the authority of the General Assembly. “ Declaration and Testimony,” whereupon It summons all the signers of the “Declaration” twenty-seven ministers and elders withdrew, and all the members of the presbytery who and constituted a synod in a cordance with the voted for it, to appear before the next General order of the General Synod. Previous to tho Assembly to answer for their conduct, and pro- meeting of the Missouri Synod, Drs. Robinson hibits them from sitting as members of any and Wilson had written, signifying their purchurch court, higher than session, until their pose to go with the Southern Assembly; a few cases are decided; it dissolves any presbytery of the "Declaration and Testimony" men in that disregards this action of the Assembly, and Missouri were of like mind, but the majority vests all presbytery authority in such ministers were, at that time, opposed to such a movement, and elders of such presbytery as adhere to the declaring that they would not connect themaction of the Assembly. On the motion of Dr. selves with any other religious organization, Monfort, those members excluded under this but remain in their connection with the Old substitute were allowed to retain their seats in School Presbyterian Church in the United the Assembly until its adjournment. On May States. The Synod of New York, by_a vote 25th, the subject of reunion between the old of 111 to 7, excluded a signer of the “DeclaraSchool and the New School Presbyterian tion” (Rev. Dr. Vandyke), and endorsed the churches was reported upon. The plan sug- action of the General Assembly. The same gested was for the appointment of a committee resolution was passed by the Synods of Philaof nine members and six elders to meet a sim- delphia and Baltimore. The latter synod, by a ilar committee of the New School Assembly, vote of 27 to 11, disapproved of the action of who, after consultation, if they deemed reunion the Presbytery of Baltimore, in pot declaring desirable and practicable, were to report meas vacant a church the pastor of which, a signer ures for its accomplishment to the next General of the “Declaration and Testimony," had deAssembly. A motion made by Dr. Vandyke clared that he had left the church. It also that the Confederate Assembly be invited to condemned the Presbytery of Lewes (Maryland) join the union was laid on the table. The re- for allowing a signer of the “ Declaration and port of the committee was then adopted by a Testimony" to sit as a member. In August, large majority.

1866, a conference of ministers and laymen, The action of the General Assembly, with composed of Presbyterians dissatisfied with the regard to the signers of the “Declaration and action of the General Assembly on the slavery Testimony," led to a formal division of the question, met at St. Louis. The following deleChurch in Kentucky and Missouri. At the gates wore present: ministers from Kentucky, meeting of the presbyteries, the adherents of 8; from Maryland, 2; from Illinois, 1; from the General Assembly insisted that, in accord- Ohio, 1; from Missouri, 21; ruling elders froin ance with the decree of this year's General Kentucky, 2; from Illinois, 2; from Missouri, Assembly, the names of the signers of the 27. Resolutions were passed, in substance as “Declaration and Testimony” be not put upon follows: the roll, and in all cases where the majority of To prepare a statement of doctrines, ecclethe presbytery refused to accede to this

demand, siastical principles, and policy, on which to the Assembly men left, and reconstituted them- stand, as against the unscriptural and unconselves as the presbytery. The division was stitutional acts of the Assemblies of 1861 and fully consummated at the meeting of the Synods 1866, inclusive, to be adopted as the official of Kentucky (at Henderson, October 10th), and action of this conference. Missouri (Booneville, October 10th). At the To prepare a popular warning against the ermeeting of the Kentucky Synod, the clerk, Rev. rors of the General Assembly of five years back. S. S. M. Roberts, who adheres to the General To urge coöperation in this movement from Assembly, proceeded to call the roll, and, in all who are opposed to the aforesaid acts of the accordance with the directions of the General Assembly. Assembly, left out the names of the signers of It was resolved not to form a new Church the “Declaration and Testimony." After ha organization, but to appeal to the churches to ing called the list of loyal ministers, he was correct the errors of the General Assembly, and directed by the moderator to “call the names hold another conference.

soon

The conference was called for November Assembly, at St. Louis, on the 17th of May. 15th, but did not meet. The editor of the St. Prof. Hopkins, of Auburn, New York, was Louis Presbyterian was one of the committee chosen moderator. Two hundred and one of correspondence, which was to communicate commissioners were present. On May 26th, with like-minded brethren and urge their at- the Assembly provided, through a series of restendance. He confessed that he had neither olutions, for the appointment of a committee time nor inclination to perform the duty im- of fifteen, to consult with a similar committee posed upon him. The leaders of the move- from the Old School Assembly, on the subject ment had made up their minds to join the of an organic reünion. On Friday, May 25th, the Southern Presbyterian Church as as New School Assembly adopted, unanimously, possible. On November 23d, the seceders from the report of the committee on the state of the the General Assembly in Maryland organized a country. The report, after expressing at connew presbytery, to be known as the Presby- siderable length the Assembly's gratitude to tery of the Patapsco. Four ministers and three God for delivering the nation from civil war, ruling elders were present. Dr. Bullock, of for freeing it from the sin of slavery, making Baltimore, stated that a church movement was the people recognize more fully the reality of on foot in Pennsylvania, to meet this effort to Divine Providence, and watching over the maintain the standard of the church pure and churches, concludes by bearing testimony in unstained, and that union would be made with respect to our urgent needs and duties as a naall who stood by the Presbyterian doctrino un- tion, in vicw of the new era upon which we sullied.

are now entering. It said: While

the Church thus lost part of her terri 1. Our most solemn national trust concerns that tory in Kentucky, Missouri, and other border patient race, so long held in unrighteous bondage, States, some progress was made, on the other Only as we are just to them can we live in peace and hand, in reconstituting presbyteries in the late safety. Freed by the national army, they must be Confederate States. The first act of this kind protected in all their civil rights by the national was the reorganization of Holston Presbytery, scends any political or party object, we rejoice that

power. And, as promoting this end, which far tran. in East Tennessee, which took place on the 23d the active functions of the Freedmen's Bureau are of August. The new presbytery numbered at still continued, and especially that the Civil Rights the time of its constitution, four ministers and bill has become the law of the land. In respeci to live churches. Subsequently another presby; race, this Assembly adheres to the resolution passed

the concession of the right of suffrage to the colored tcry was reconstituted in New Orleans, and by our Assembly of 1865 (Minutes, page 42): * That quother in North Carolina (the Presbytery of the colored man should, in this country, enjoy the Catawba).

rights of suffrage, in connection with all other men, II. Nero School Presbyterians.—The statistics not perceive any good reason why be should be

is but a simple dictate of justice. Tbe Assembly can of the New School Presbyterians, as reported deprived of this right, on the ground of his color or in May, 1866, were as follows:

his race.”. Even if suffrage may not be universal, let it at least be impartial.

2. In case such impartial suffrage is not conceded, that we may still reap the legitimate fruits of our national victory over secession and slavery, and that treason and rebellion may not inure to the direct political advantage of the guilty, we judge it to be a

simple act of justice that the constitutional basis of Albany .

79 67 8,115 représentation in Congress should be so far altered Utica,

6,544 as to meet the exigencies growing out of the aboliOnondaga

4

8,465 tion of slavery; and we likewise hold it to be the Geneva..

110 90 8,722 solemn duty of our national Executive and Congress, Susquehanna.

37

3,513 to adopt only such measures of reconstruction as Genesee

13,112 shall effectually protect all loyal persons in the States N. York and N. Jersey.. 280 165 30,509 lately in revolt. Pennsylvania.

108

15,457 3. As loyalty is the highest civic virtue, and treaWest Pennsylvania.

3,299 son is the highest civil crime, so it is necessary, for Michigan.

8 117

2,497 the due vindication and satisfaction of national jus. Westeru Reserve.

103

6,306 tice, that the chief fomenters and representatives of Ohio...

51

4,355 the rebellion should, by due course and process of Cincinnati.

3,446 law, be visited with condign punishment. Indiana

3,994 Wabash

3,093

A motion to strike out the word section was Illinois..

5,049 lost. A resolution that the testimony be read Peoria

6,518 in all the churches of the denomination was Wisconsin..

1,564 Iowa..

2,429

adopted. On May 28th, the Assembly voted to Minnesota.

1,483 raise $120,000 next year, for home missions; Missouri

1,323 that the catechism be taught in all SabbathTennessee..

2,722 schools; adopted a fraternal letter to the Scotch American California. .

Presbyterian Church; responded to a letter Total........ 109 1,739 11,528 | 150,401

from the Reformed Dutch Church, professing a

closer union; adopted an able report on temThe New School Presbyterian General met perance, and a deeply-interesting narrative of simultaneously with the Old School General the state of religion The year has been one

SYNODS.

Presbyteries.

Ministers.

Churches.

Communicants.

84
91

68 71

3

41 103

134

6

89 31 113 77 65 48 61 56 89

55 42

4

84 91 44 55

6 3

33 59 28 42 46 20

29

886

of remarkable spiritual prosperity. Many hun- amend by adding an additional resolution disdreds of the churches report extensive revivals. claiming any indorsement by the Assembly

in III. United Presbyterians.-The minutes this action of slavery or the rebellion. Dr. of the General Assembly of the United Pres- Mitchell, of Texas, moved to amend the amendbyterian Church give the following statistics ment by adding the words that no opinion” of this denomination: pastors, 387; ministers, is hereby expressed on those subjects. In this without charge, 152 ; licentiates, 48; congrega- form the substitute passed by a large majority. tions, 686; families, 25,675; communicants, Some of the Northern Presbyteries were greatly 58,988; received by profession during the year, dissatisfied with this action, and proposed the 4,061; infant baptisms, 3,791 ; adult baptisms, holding of a convention to deliberate on the 475; officers and teachers in Sabbath-schools, action to be taken. The movement for a con3,233; average number of pupils in Sabbath- vention was supported by one of the North schools, 17,976. Contributions: home missions, Church papers (Cumberland Presbyterian), but $20,838; foreign missions, $112,276; freed- opposed by the other northern paper (Westmen's mission, $15,478; education, $3,482 ; ern Cumberland Presbyterian). At the close publication, $3,075: church extension, $9,636; of the year do convention had yet met. A aged ministers' fund, $2,233; salaries from con- number of Southern members desired a union gregations, $268,229; salaries by assembly, $19,- with the Southern Presbyterian Church. (See 070; general contributions, $225,324. Total, SOUTHERN PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.) $589,052. The Eighth General Assembly of V. Southern Presbyterian Church.*_The the United Presbyterian Church convened in General Assembly of this denomination comAllegany City, Pennsylvania, on May 31st, Rev. menced at Memphis, on November 15th. The D. Ř. Kerr, D. D., was elected moderator. Rev. Andrew H. Kerr, of the Memphis PresbyThe Chairman of the Committee on Foreign tery, was unanimously elected moderator. There Missions, Rev. J. Price, handed in the report, were present forty-eight ministers and thirtywhich consisted of a series of resolutions ex seven ruling elders. The chief subject of dis. pressing gratitude to God for past success in cussion in the early sessions of the General Asthe mission field; recognizing his hand in the sembly was a new book of discipline, which removal of missionaries by death; asserting it was reported by a committee previously apto be the duty of the Assembly to reënforce the pointed. One of the sections of this new book, missions in India, China, and Syria immediately; which was adopted, defined the relation of baprecommending that missionaries be allowed to tized children to the church in the following select their own field of labor; that all money terms: for salaries, etc., be consolidated into one fund;

Ch. II., Art. 1. All baptized persons, although that $100,000 be raised during the present year, they may have made no profession of faith in Christ, and that all the churches be urged to observe are federally members of the Church, are under its the week of prayer at the beginning of 1867, care, and subject to its government, inspection, and for an outpouring of the

Holy Spirit. "The reso- training: but they are not subject to those forms of lutions were adopted. The Assembly appointed discipline which involve judicial process. a coinmittee of conference with the Reformed Dr. Palmer offered the following resolution, Presbyterians. It was resolved to continue the which was adopted : Church's missionary efforts among the Jews. Whereas, In view of the great controversy now pendThe sum of $15,000 was appropriated for church ing in this country upon the spirituality and indeextension during the ensuing year. The Assem- pendence of the Church as the visible kingdom

of bly agreed to hold its next session on the fourth of the fact that the Assembly did, at the time of its

ine Lord Jesus Christ upon the earth; and in view Thursday in May, 1867, at Xenia, Ohio.

organization in 1861, plant itself firmly upon the IV. Cumberland Presbyterian Church.—The ground that the Church is a spiritual commonwealth General Assembly met in May, at Owensboro', distinct from, and independent of the State, be it, Kentucky. This was the first assembly since therefore, the beginning of the war at which the commis- Miller, and George Howe, D. D., be appointed a com

Resolved, That the Rev. Messrs. T. E. Peck, A. W. sioners from the Southern States were present. mittee to prepare and report to the next General AsA committee was appointed of one from each sembly, a paper defining and limiting this whole synod to investigate the whole subject of the subject for the instruction of our people, and suitdeliverances of the preceding assemblies, and to public

testimony against the alarming defections

in

able to be adopted by the Assembly as a full and harmonize the difference growing out of the

so many branches of the Protestant church in this war and slavery. This committee, composed of country. twenty members, after protracted discussion, brought in a majority and minority report. ceive the “ Alabama Presbytery of the Asso

The Synod of Alabaina was authorized to reThe majority, in substance, proposed to pro- ciate Reformed Church," the Assembly recognounce unconstitutional the action of 1864 and 1865 on the subject of slavery and rebellion. nizing the right of all its churches to use The minority proposed in substance to let the it. It further authorized any of the synods to

“Rouse's Version” of the Psalms, if they prefer wbole matter stand where it is. These reports were discussed at considerable length on both * The official name of this branch is “ Presbyterian Church sides, and finally, Rev. Dr. Bird offered a sub- in the United States."

only to distinguish this from the so-called Old and New stitute for the whole, which it was moved to School Presbyterian denominations.

We use the name Southern Church

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roceive any of the Presbyteries of the Associate licentiates. In 1862, tho church seemed quite
Reformed Church upon the same conditions, favorable to the union; but a decided change
and, to make the way to union easier, resolved has taken place since, and at the session of the
that fifty Psalms of "“Rouse's Version” be in- synod at Fayetteville, Tenn., a majority of the
corporated in the new psalm and hymn book delegates declared against it. Some of the
about to be published. A delegate from the ministers have consummated the union for
Cumberland Presbyterian Church appeared in themselves individually, and a few others may
the Assembly, and, though without authority to do so hereafter.
make any overtures for a union of two bodies, VII. Great Britain.The Church of Scoto
he expressed the opinion that the time had land had, in 1866, 16 synods, 84 presbyteries,
arrived when some movement should be made and 1,243 congregations (including parish
in this direction.” Upon this hint the Assem- churches and quoad sacra chapels). The Free
bly acted, passing a resolution favorable to a Church of Scotland has 16 synods, 71 presby-
union, and, at a later stage, appointed a com- teries, 846 churches, 3 colleges for the educa-
inittee to confer with a similar committee from tion of students for the ministry. The United
the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The Presbyterian Church had 31 presbyteries in
Assembly had a long and important debate, as England and Scotland, 584 ministers, 592
to the future status of the colored race in their churches, and 172,752 members. The Reformed
ecclesiastical connections. Dr. Atkinson con- Presbyterian Synod ("Cameronians," “Cove-
tended that there was nothing in Scripture Danters ") has 6 presbyteries, 45 churches, and
or the standards of the church to prohibit 40 ministers. The Synod of the United Origi-
colored persons from holding the office of nal Seceders was dissolved in 1852, and united
deacon, ruling elder, or minister of God, and to the Free Church; 25 congregations, how-
that in their church sessions and assemblies, ever, refused to join that church, and still con-
they are entitled to a treatment of perfect tinue a separated body, divided into 4 presby.
equality. He contended that it was through teries. The Presbyterian Church in England
the Gospel that caste and prejudice would be has now 7 presbyteries and 105 churches.
broken down, and that any thing that stood in The General Assemblies of the Free and
the way of the Gospel should be destroyed. United Presbyterian Churches again discussed
Others contended that innovations would surely the union question, and both bodies resolved to
result in miscegenation and negro equality. send the report of the joint committee down
The resolutions adopted by the General Assem- to the presbyteries, and to instruct the commit-
bly recommend the spiritual wants of the tee to review what suggestions they had to
colored race to the particular attention of the make and report to the next general assemblies.
Church. The report on domestic missions In the General Assembly of the Church of
showed the receipts to be $34,746, and the Scotland the question of innovations came up,
whole number who received aid 'from the sus- upon overtures from numerous synods and
tentation fund, including sixteen families of presbyteries, some praying to rescind, and oth-
deceased ministers, is upward of two bundred ers to correct and explain the legislation of last
and twenty. It was ascertained that between year. In 1865 the Assembly passed a strong
ninety and one hundred church edifices were declaration against innovations in public wor-
either seriously injured or entirely destroyed ship, and calling upon presbyteries to take
during the progress of the war, about one half particular cognizance of any cases within their
of which were in the Synod of Virginia. The bounds of departure from the law and usage
committee reported that not less than $50,000 of the Church in reference thereto. Dr. Pirie
would be needed for Presbyterial missions, sus moved the adoption of an act declaring " that
tentation, and church erection the coming year. the right and duty of maintaining and en-
The report on education showed that $200 had forcing the observance of the existing laws
been contributed to the funds of the executive and usages of the Church in the particular
committee and one candidate received. The congregations or kirks within their bounds,
publication committee reported receipts by do- in matters connected with the performance
nations and sales, $18,174; and a balance in of public worship and the administration
treasury of $2,299. The next Assembly is to of ordinances, belong to, and are incumbent
meet in the First Presbyterian church, in Nash- upon the presbyteries of the church, subject
ville, on the third Thursday of November, 1867, always to the review of the superior church
“ or whenever or wherever it may orderly be courts;” and further declaring it to be the duty
called." The Assembly adjourned on Novem- of presbyteries, on becoming aware of any in-
ber 28th.

novation being introduced or contemplated, VI. Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church “either to enjoin the discontinuance, or proin the South.—The Synod of the Associate Re- bibit the introduction of such innovation or formed Presbyterian Church in the South, held novel practice, as being, in their opinion, inconin 1866, declared against a union with the sistent with the laws and settled usages of the Southern Presbyterian Church, and all nego- church, a cause of division in the particular tiations on the subject were, consequently, congregation, or as being unfit from any cause abandoned. This denomination has nine pres- to be used in the worship of God, either in byteries, sixty-six ordained ministers, and eight general or particular kirk, or to find that ne

VOL. VI.-40

A

ENTERED

CLEARED.

Lasts.

case has been stated to them calling for their 3,000,000 or the inhabitants, about 2,000,000 interference.” Dr. Lee moved that the act of of whom are Poles, and 170,000 Danes (in 1865 be rescinded. After a debate which lasted Schleswig). a whole day, the assembly divided, when the The revenue in the year 1865 (exclusive of vote for Dr. Pirie's motion was 207; for Dr. the newly-annexed territory) amounted to 173, Lee's 94-majority, 113.

934,739 thalers; the expenditures to 169,243,. VIII. British Colonies.—The union of the 365; surplus, 4,691,374. The public debt, in Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces 1866, amounted to 280,820,427. of British North America and the Presbyterian The Prussian army in time of peace nonChurch of New Brunswick, took place in the bered at the beginning of the year 1866, about city of St. John, N. B., on the evening of Sep. 212,000 men, and in time of war, inclusive of tember 2d. The Synod of the Presbyterian the landwehr of the second call, 742,498. The Church of the Lower Provinces was made up fleet consisted of the following vessels: 40 of the two bodies known by the names of the steamers (276 guns), 8 sailing vessels (140 guns), Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia and the 36 rowing vessels (68 guns). Total, 84 war Free Church. Six years ago the union took Vessels, with 484 guns. The movement of shipplace between these two bodies, and they have ping was, in 1865, as follows: been since known by the name of the Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces. The

FLAG. ministers belonging to it amounted to between

Vessele. Laste. Vessels. ninety and one hundred, diffused throughout

Prussia..

5.262 427,411 5,181 419,567 Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Foreign...... 5,165424,678 5187 427,970 Island, and Newfoundland, and one or two in

Total........ | 10,427 | 852,089 10,868 847,597 New Brunswick. The Synod of New Brunswick consisted of between twenty and thirty The merchant navy, in 1865, consisted of ministers, chiefly in the Province of New 1,200 vessels, of a total burden of 180,821 lasts. Brunswick. The name of the now united The disagreement of Prussia with Austria in body is the Presbyterian Church of the Lower the Schleswig-Holstein and the Federal-German Provinces—the designation of the larger body questions, assumed, soon after the beginning of before the union.

the year 1866 a threatening aspect (see AUSTRIA, PRUSSIA, a kingdom in Europe. Reigning GERMANY, and the GERMAN-ITALIAN WAR), and king, William I., born March 22, 1797; suc- led, in June, to the outbreak of a great war, ceeded his brother, Frederic William III., on and the withdrawal of Prussia from the Ger January 2, 1861. Heir-apparent, Prince Fred- man Confederation. The success of Prussia in eric William, born October 18, 1831. (For a the war exceeded the boldest expectations. full account of the Constitution of Prussia, see The ability of the generals, the bravery of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1865.) The year 1866 troops, and the efficiency of the needle-gun, aswill be memorable for the large increase of the tonished the world. After a brief and decisive area, population, and power of the kingdom. campaign, Prussia dictated the terms of a treaty In consequence of the German Italian war, the of peace with Austria and the South German Government of Prussia annexed the States of States, by which Austria renounced all conHanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, and Frankfort, nection with the German Confederation, conthe Ducbies of Schleswig and Holstein, and sented to the construction of a new German some districts ceded by Bavaria and Hesse- confederation under the leadership of Prussia, Darmstadt. Thus the area of Prussia rose from and ceded to Prussia her claims to Schleswig 108,212 English square miles to 135,662; and and Holstein, which accordingly were incorpothe population from 19,304,843 to 23,590,543. rated with the Prussian monarchy. The Gor

As regards the religion of the inhabitants, ernment of Prussia by right of conquest alsó the relation of Protestant, Roman Catholic, and annexed (by decrees dated September 20th) the other denominations, is as follows:

Kingdom of Hanover, the Electorate of HesseCassel, the Duchy of Nassau, and the Free City of Frankfort, and formally took possession of

them on October 8th. Small districts were Prussia proper....

60.23 86.81 2.96 also ceded to Prussia by Bavaria and HesseThe former Principalities of Ho

Darmstadt. (See BAVARIA and HESSE-DARNhenzollern...

1.89 96.81 1.80 The Territory of Yahde.

$4.74 7.06 8.20

STADT.) The annexed states are provisionally Lauenburg.....

99.91 0.06 0.03 to remain under a separate administration, unSchleswig-Holstein..

99.87 0.20 0.54 Hanover ..............

87.49 11.75

til the preparations for the introduction of the

0.76 Hesse-Cassel.......

82.82 14.58 2.60 Prussian Constitution and their conversion into Nassau.............

52.11 46.27 1.62

Prussian provinces shall have been completed. Frankfort .,......

69.87 21.51

8.62 Hesse-Homburg ............

77.70 18.08

Ministerial orders introduced, however, in NoDistricts ceded by Hesse-Darm

vember the system of general liability to milistadt........

94.90 1.78 8.26 Districts ceded by Bavaria.......

tary service. The aggrandizement of Prussia

led to a demand on the part of France for the In whole of Prussia........ | 64.64 | 82.71 2.65 cession of some Prussian territory. The demand To por-German nationalities belong nearly met with a firm refusal, and was cousequently

PER CENT. OF

Proteg.
tante.

Roman All others
Catholics.

4.22

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