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see ANNUAL CYOLOPÆDIA for 1865, page 107, pression that reform in the homes of the peop.e and the article Baptist, in the present vol was much needed. To this end, he lectured in ume).

various places until called to the ministry at BURTON, Rev. Warren, a Unitarian clergy. large, and the chaplaincy of the prison in Wor. man, lecturer, and author, born in Wilton, cester, on which duties he entered in April, 1849. N. H., November 23, 1800 ; died at Salem, Mass. At the close of the year he resigned the minisJune 6, 1866. With no better previous ad- try, and gave himself wholly to the cause of vantages than a district school, he achieved by education in the home, for the remainder of his himself a preparation for college, with the occa- life. He was chaplain to the State Senate in sional instructions of a parish minister who 1852, and to the House in 1858 and 1860; also lived two miles distant, and entered Harvard to the State convention in 1853. His efforts College in 1817, graduating with distinction in in the cause of education were unwearied. His 1821. After the usual probation of teaching, “District School as it Was," from its lively and he entered the Theological School at Cambridge, spirited pictures of the wretched condition of where his course of study was interrupted by the common school in the rural portions of ill-health, and during absence from the school New England, greatly aided in revolutionizing he preached as an evangelist, by permission of public sentiment and publio action in rural the faculty. In 1826 he completed his the- school edifices and management. His lecture on ological course, and was ordained as the first "Scenery Showing; or, Word Painting of the pastor of a new Unitarian society in East Cam- Beautiful, Picturesque, and Grand in Nature," bridge, March 5, 1828, but resigned his charge opened a new field of educational discussion and June 7, 1829. He was not again settled, for he practice. He was also the author of “Helps preferred the temporary charge of societies to to Education in the Homes of our Country," a An actual settlement. On the first of August, volume of 368 pages, published in 1863, and 1844, he entered on the duties of a ministry at containing a series of subjects of the highest large in Boston. This ministry ceased in the practical value, discussed in a most interesting autumn of 1848, leaving on his mind the im- and masterly manner.

C CALIFORNIA, one of the Pacific States of From the report of the special commissioner, the Union, having Oregon on the north, Nevada Mr. J. Ross Browne, made in January, 1867, and Arizona on the east, Lower California on we gather the following items relative to Calithe south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. fornia. The product of gold in the State has been It was admitted to the Union September 9, decreasing for thirteen years; placer mining 1850. Its actual area, long in doubt, in conse- has fallen to a very small aggregate, and hyquence of the disputed boundary between it draulic washing for gold is less profitable and and Nevada, has at last been fixed at 188,981 productive than formerly. The yield of the square miles. Its population in 1860 was 379,- quartz-mines is slowly increasing. There are 994, and is now estimated in round numbers 66 quartz-mills in the State, not all of them, at 500,000. There are forty-nine organized however, now in operation. Of these 52 are counties in the State. The Governor, till Jan, propelled by water, 11 by steam, and 3 by uary, 1868, is Frederick F. Low, whose official water and steam. The product of gold in the residence is at Sacramento, the capital. His State in 1866, partly estimated, was set down in salary is $7,000 in gold. The Legislature meets round numbers at $25,000,000. Very little biennially, its members being chosen in the odd silver has been mined in California separately years, 1865, 1867, 1869, etc. There was no gen- from that contained in the gold. Copper is eral election held during the year 1866. The becoming an important product of the State. Legislature, elected in 1865, had 32 Union Re. The following table shows the exportation of publicans and 8 Democrats in the Senate, and copper ores from San Francisco since 1862: 61 Union Republicans, and 19 Democrats in the House. The latest general election held in the State was a special one for justice of the Su YEAR. preme Court, held October 18, 1865, when

Total Tong Sanderson, the Republican candidate, received 1862..


3,860 33,221 votes, and Hartley, the Democratic can 1863..

1,337 4,208

5,553 didate, 26,245.


4,905 5,064 264 10,234 Mining is still the niost important interest 1865.. 4,146 9,050 2,591 17,787

1866.. in California, though agriculture and manufac

7,676 3,415 10,384 21,476 tures are gaining upon it. The unineral products The quicksilver mines of California are known of California, as well as those of the other States as the New Almaden mines, and have been open and Territories of the Pacific slope, have been since 1850. In August, 1863, a period of ten made the subject of special investigation during years and eleven months, the total amount of the past year by the United States Government. ore consumed was 102,313,442 pounds, and the

To New To Bos.
York. ton.

To Swan






produce of quicksilver 308,756 fasks, or 23,- from washings. The gross product for 1866 519,834 pounds. From November, 1863, to was 30,029 flasks. The other quicksilver mines December, 1864, the total product was 46,216 in California did not average 1,000 flasks per flasks, or 3,566,200 pounds, to which are to be month in 1866. The following is a comparaadded 720 flasks from washings. In 1865 the tive statement of the amount of quicksilver exgross product was 47,078 flasks, or 3,604,465} ported from California to various countries pounds, to which are to be added 116 flasks since 1859:

[blocks in formation]






26,014 | 36,918 | 41,800


Borax was discovered in California in 1856, cent. of the entire agricultural product of the and since that time but one company has been State, and the yield per acre is astonishing. The formed for its production. About two tons wheat of California is especially rich in gluten, of crystal are produced daily.

surpassing in this quality the highly-prized In agriculture the State has made consider. Southern flour. The barley crop is also large, able progress; the culture of the vine is increas, exceeding hitherto wheat or any other grain ing with great rapidity, and the pure wines and crop, and forming 39 per cent. of the agriculbrandies from the Pacific coast are rapidly com- tural product of the State. A yield of 60 ing into favor in the Eastern markets. Three bushels to the acre is not uncommon, and in hundred varieties of the grape have been suc- the valley of Pajaro 14,900 bushels were raised cessfully cultivated in the State, including all from 100 acres-- an average of 149 bushels to the choicest varieties of wine-producing grapes the acre-by Mr. J. B. Hill

. The root crops are in Europe; and so diversified is the surface and enormous, and of excellent quality, as are most climate of the State, that every variety of wine of the fruits. which can be produced in European vineyards, Within the past three years, and mainly in from the light Rhenish wines and clarets to the consequence of the earnest efforts of Mr. L. M. heavy-bodied sherry, port, and Madeira, can be Prevost, the attention of agriculturists has been produced of better quality than in Europe, from turned to silk culture. The climate of Califorthe greater richness of the soil and dryness of nia is admirably adapted to this crop. The the climate. The vineyards of the sierras, being morus multicaulis grows with great rapidity, mostly on a volcanic soil, rival the southern and yields an immense quantity of leaves, and Italian and Sicilian vineyards in their produc- the worms feed on them with avidity. The worm tion. The vine in California is not subject to the is very healthy, and produces cocoons of exceloidium, or grape-disease, which has proved so lent quality. Eight hundred thousand cocoons destructive in Europe; nor is it liable to mil- were brought into market in 1865, and it was dew. In Europe the wine crop is a failure as thought that six times that quantity would be often as one year out of three; in California produced in 1866. Two large silk factories have it seldom or never fails, and the yield is uni- been established in the State, and the Califorformly much larger than that of the best years nians hope, in a very few years, to cease the in Europe. The number of vines already set- importation of silk. all of which will be in full bearing in three The manufactures of California are fast atyears—is estimated at twenty-five millions. taining a magnitude which, in the older States, The varieties of wine exported, thus far, are has been reached only by many years of slow hock, champagne, port, and claret; the last ex- growth. Woollen manufactures take a high ported the past year for the first time. The rank. Three inillion pounds of wool raised wine-growers also export Muscatel and Angelica, on the Pacific slope, besides considerable quanwhich are not properly wines, though ranked tities imported, were used to supply the woollen as such, being made by the addition of sufficient mills of the State. The principal articles manubrandy to the clarified must or unfermented factured were blankets, not simply the Mexican wine to keep it from fermenting. These con- serapé, but army and other blankets of great tain usually 18 or 19 per cent. of alcohol. excellence. The Government ordered these

The wheat product of the State is large, and largely for the army during the war, as being is constantly increasing. It comprises 34 per superior to those obtainable elsewbere. Some

cloths of excellent quality are also made. The California has taken a high position in its necessities of the mining districts led at an early educational system. The report of Hon. Joha date to the establishment of manufactories of Swett, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, miving implements, and as quartz mining in- to the Legislature, which met in January, creased, and especially as there began to be a 1866, embraced the two years 1864 and 1865. demand for mills of the best class to crush the There were, in 1865, 831 school districts in the qnartz, and furnaces for reducing refractory State, an increase of 147 since 1863, and in silver, copper, and lead ores, machine-works those districts there were 947 schools and 1,155 were established capable of turning out quartz- teachers. There were in the State, in 1865, crushers and stamps of the highest quality. The 95,067 white children between the ages of four building of steam-engines, both stationary and and eighteen years, and the whole number enlocomotive, has also risen into a thriving busi- rolled upon the public school registers for 1865 ness, and rolling-mills for the manufacture of was 50,089, an increase of 2,501 over the prerailroad iron for the Pacific Railroad have re- vious year, the average daily attendance at the cently been established. The manufacture of public schools was 29,592 in 1865, against 24,silk has commenced, and that of glass for the 704 in 1864, and 19,992 in 1863. The money supply of the rapidly increasing wine trade is for the support of the schools is derived from prospering.

State and county taxes, a direct property tax The commerce of the State is attaining large levied in the districts, and subscriptions and dimensions. The communications with the At- tuition. The public schools are made free just lantic States are now weekly by two lines, and as fast as the taxes will allow, and there were, an active commerce is carried on with the in 1865, 293 schools maintained without resort western ports of South America, the Sandwich to rate bills. Fully half of the pupils received Islands, China, Japan, and Australia. A regu- their instruction free, and the average cost of lar line of steamers of the first class, reoeiving tuition for the remaining half was only 25 cents a Government subsidy, plying to China and per month. The amount of school money reJapan, was established in December, 1866, and ceived from all sources in 1865 was $952,930, will undoubtedly be followed by other lines, against $756,999 in 1864, and $581,055 in 1863. and when the Pacific Railroad is completed, as The amount expended in building and repairit will be by 1870 or sooner, the carrying trade ing school-houses in 1865 was $257,804, an inof Asia and the whole of the farthest East crease of $164,000 over the like expenses in must pass through San Francisco.

1863. The valuation of the public school propThe Central Pacific Railroad, the portion oferty was $1,200,000, and the average cost of the great thoroughfare which California is to tuition for each pupil $10.50 for an average of build, is making rapid progress. Beginning at seven and one-third months for the year. Sacramento, which had steam communication Of the $19,657,000 expended by California with San Francisco, the road was completed for all purposes from the organization of the nearly or quite to the summit ridge of the State government op to August, 1865, nearly great range, 105 miles eastward, by January 1, $9,000,000 were uspended for educational pur1867, and the cars had been running to a point poses. The average expenditure for each child 93 miles from Sacramento since October, 1866. between four and eighteen years of age in 1865, The summit ridge is 7,042 feet above the sea was twenty cents more than iu Massachusetts. level. The gradients are better than was to The average monthly pay of the teachers was have been expected. From Sacramento to $74 for males and $62 for females, an increase Dutch Flat, 68 miles, the highest ascending in the latter case of $7.9 over 1864. The salagrade is 105 feet to the mile, or less than one ries of the female teachers were higher than in foot in 50, and the average is only 70; from any other State i:1 the Union, and almost four Dutch Flat to Blue Cañon, 10 miles, the maxi- times as high, deducting board in each case, as mum grade allowed by Government, 116 feet in Massachusetts. There was much less differto the mile, is reached several times, but the ence between the wages of male and female longest plane or continuous stretch of this grade teachers than at the East, and all the leading is only 34 iniles, and after Blue Cañon is passed educators in the State took strong grounds in it is never reached again. From this latter favor of a more general employment than at point to the summit, a distance of 264 miles, 95 present of female teachers in the public schools, feet to the mile is the highest grade, while the not on the ground of cheapness, but because average for this distance is only 84. The tun- that “to teach and train the young seems to be nel which passes the summit is 1,600 feet in one of the chief missions of woman." length, and is to be cut throagh solid granite. Aside from the public schools, there was a There are to be five other tunnels, but none of State normal school, and nearly twenty colleges them will exceed 400 feet in length. The cur- and seminaries, with a valuation of $1,500,000, vatures are better than on most roads over and an attendance of about 2,000. In 1866 the mountain-passes, the sharpest curve being one law respecting the school age of children was with a radius of 573 feet. It is expected that modified, and the enumeration was made to inVirginia City, Nevada, will be reached by Sep- clude only children between five and fifteen years vember, 1867, and Salt Lake City by Jaùuary, of age. This reduced the number of children 1870, at farthest.

of school age about 11 per cent., and the fol.

owing_results were reported in November, 1865) at about 210,000, living in about 800 vil. -866: Total number of children between five Jages, and the three towns of Candia, Canea and fifteen years of age in the State, 84,052; (Khania), and Retimo, which towns have tototal number enrolled on the school register gether a population of 35,000 inhabitants. A during the year, 50,173 ; average number be- work on "Candia, more recently published in longing to public schools, 48,091 ; average daily Greece, estimates the number of villages at attendance in public schools, 33,989. The num- 1,046, and the population at 300,000. ber of pupils enrolled in the normal school was The island of Candia, which has for about 98, of whom 88 were females and 10 males. 200 years belonged to the Turkish empire, has Seventeen counties were represented. The num- often been the theatre of bloody attempts on ber of pupils in the public schools of San Fran- the part of the people to regain their ancient cisco in 1866 was 11,552, and 4,403 were re- independence, or become united with Greece. turned as attending private schools. There were Another uprising of this kind occurred in the three high schools, seven grammar schools, and year 1866, and was not at the close of the year thirty-one primary schools in the city. suppressed. The movement began in April,

CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER, D. D., founder of when representatives from all parts of the island the religious denomination called “Disciples of ass mbled at Koutzounaria, about one hour's Christ,” born in the County of Antrim, Ireland, distance from the city of Canea, where the June, 1786, died in Bethany, Va., March 4, Governor-General of the island and the foreign 1866. On his father's side his ancestors were consuls reside. Attended by several thousands Scotch; on his mother's, French. His early of unarmed people, the Bishops of Sidonia and education was received in Ireland, under the Kissamos met with the representatives of the superintendence of his father, the Rev. Thomas towns of Canea and Retimo, and of the counCampbell

, a Presbyterian clergyman, and his try districts, and together they drew up a petiriper education at the University of Glasgow, tion to the Sultan, in which they confined Scotland. In 1809 ho emigrated to the United themselves to asking for such privileges only as States, and proceeding to Washington, Pa., had been guaranteed to them by the great where his father had previously settled, con- powers. At the same time another address tinued his studies with him until May, 1810, was confidentially transmitted to the sovereigns when he commenced preaching at Brush Run, of France, Great Britain, and Russia, which near Washington, Pa. In 1812 he, together expressed more fully the real desires of the with his wife and his father's family, was im- Cretan people. For over three months no remersed, to use his own expression, “ into the ply whatever was made by the Turkish Gov. Christian faith.” In connection with his father, ernment; but troops to the number of about he formed several congregations, which united 22,000 were gradually concentrated upon the with a Baptist Association, but protested against island, and pashed forward into the interior all human creeds as a bond of union, accepting with the design of seizing upon the strategic the Bible alone as the rule of faith and practice. points. Then, on July 22, 1866, the Grand He met with much opposition in the assertion Vizier issued a letter to the Governor-General, of this principle, and in 1827 he was excluded in which the Turkish Government refused even from the fellowship of the Baptist churches. to entertain complaints, and threatened severe From this date his followers began to form into penalties upon those who should continue to a separate body, and in , 1833 were supposed offer them. The Governor was directed, in to number at least one hundred thousand case of further persistence, to attack and dissonls. In 1841 Mr. Campbell founded Bethany perse the Cretan assemblies, and to arrest and College in Virginia. In 1823 he commenced imprison their chiefs in the fortresses. the publication of "The Christian Baptist and Ismail Pacha, the Governor, forthwith issued Millennial Harbinger," in which may be found a proclamation, in accordance with these ora complete history of the reform to which he ders. In reply, the Cretan General Assembly, was so thoroughly devoted, and which periodi- then in session at Prosnero, decided to take up cal he continued to edit for forty years. During arms, and on August 1st they addressed the this time, including his debates, which he following manifesto to the consuls of the Chrismerely assisted in bringing out, and two editions tian powers : of his Hymn Book, he issued from the press

PROTEST OF THE CRETANS ON TAKING UP ARMS. fifty-two volumes. He was a man of strong

PEOANERO, August 1, 1866. intellect, fine scholarship, and great logical The undersigned, representatives of the Christian powers.

population of Candia, met together in a General AsCANDIA (or CRETE), an island belonging to sembly of the Cretans, think it their duty to make the Turkish empire. The area of Candia, in- you witnesses of the violence which has urged them, clusive of the adjacent small islands, Dia, Yan- mate defence. Hellenes, both in origin and language,

in spite of themselves, to take up arms for their lėgiti: isades, Elasa, Kupho-nisi, Gaidaro-nisi, Gaudo, we combated, in company with our brothers of Gando Pulo, Elaphonisi, Pondico-nisi, Grabusa, Greece, during the whole of the war of indepen. Agria Grabusa, Theodoro, 3,319 square miles dence, without ever having been admitted to enjoy (the smaller islands have about thirty-two). the fruits of liberty. And yet, in assembling in this The population is estimated by Captain Spratt beyond the rights which the protecting powers ("Travels and Researches in Crete," London, had guaranteed to us by treaties and protocols; we

had only presumed to claim the privileges which the in 1821, and with the general desire of the peo Sultan had spontaneously promised us by the hatti- ple for the union and independence of the whole the sense of the humble request which we had pre- Greek race, the General Assembly of the Cretans sented pacifically, asking for fulfilment of sacred hereby sanctions and decrees: 1. The abolition, promises. After having let us wait three months, forever, of Turkish_rule over Candia and its he has now at last obtained from the Sublime Porte dependencies. 2. The annexation to Greece, a negative and menacing reply, and presents himself

their mother country, under the sceptre of his before us in arms to oppose force to right.

In making the consuls of the Christian powers majesty the King of the Hellenes, George I. witnesses of the above facts, we now take up arms

3. The execution of the decree is confided to in our own defence, and render the authorities re the courage of the brave Cretan people, to the sponsible, in the eyes of the civilized world, for the aid of their noble compatriots, and all Philhelconsequences.

(Signed by the representatives of the Christian lenes, to the powerful intervention of the great population of Candia.)

protecting and guaranteeing powers, and to the

puissance of the Most High." On the following day, August 2d, the Gov The Turkish Government, in the mean while, ernor issued a counter-proclamation to the in- had been pressing forward reënforcements, habitants of the island, not referring all to which it drew partly from Egypt, the Viceroy the grievances of the Cretans, but simply an of which country was reported to have offered nouncing that the local authorities would dis- to purchase the island from the Porte on terms perse by force of arms any assembly they might similar to those on which he had previously encounter, and forbidding every villager to har- obtained the Red Sea provinces of Souakim and bor or in any way assist or join the chiefs of Massowah. The commander of the Egyptian the revolt. The contest now assumed the char- troops (Saim Pacha) represented himself as auacter of a religious war. The Turkish popula- thorized to treat with the insurgents. The tion committed the most outrageous cruelties latter accordingly sent delegates, but soon found against the Christians, and even attacked seve- out that the Porte was not willing to abide by ral foreign consulates, among others that of the the stipulations Saim Pacha would make, and United States, when the consuls remonstrated they accordingly recalled their delegates. against the atrocities. Several foreign govern Fighting throughout the island began on Sepments were induced by these events to order war. tember 9th. The reports of the progress of the vessels to Candia for the protection of the for- struggle widely differed as they came from eigners and native Christians. The insurgents Turkish or Greek sources, but during the first assembled in the mountains, especially in the weeks the Cretans appear to have gained imdistrict of Spbakia, in the southern part of the portant advantages. On the 14th of September island, a force of about 20,000 men, and many Kirith Mustapha Pacha, having arrived in the women and children from the plains were re- character of imperial commissioner, issued a moved there to protect them from the barbari- proclamation promising concessions to the Christies of the Turks. In the same month the tians, and granting five days during which Cretan Assembly made a direct appeal to the they could make their submission. He also President of the United States, asking the in- ordered the burning of the villages and other tercession of the United States to obtain the in- barbarities committed by his troops to be stoptervention of the great powers. On September ped, but this order was not obeyed. On the 2d the representatives of the several eparchies 14th and 16th of September two regiments of met in General Assembly at Sphakia, and pub- Egyptian troops, under Ismail Pacha, arrived. lished a declaration of independence from On September 17th the Cretan Assembly pubTurkey, and of annexation to Greece. This lished a proclamation, in which the Cretans document recites the part taken by Candia in were exhorted to reject the specious words by the struggle for Grecian independence in 1821– which this imperial commissioner tried to lure 29; the fate awarded her by the great powers; them, as they could have little to expect from the violation by Turkey of the conditions pre " the man who, during thirty years, oppressed scribed by those powers; the several revolts of our country, and hung upon trees so many gen1833, 1841, and 1858, when certain privileges erous martyrs of liberty.” On the 19th the were wrested from their rulers, which have Assembly issued another proclamation, enjoinnever been carried into execution. It speaks of ing upon the Cretans humane conduct toward the advantages of civilized government as con- prisoners and unarmed people, in return for trasted with the retrograde influence of the rule Moslem barbarity. They should not be driven of the Koran. It refers to the recent respectful to retaliation, but on their side conduct the petition for redress, and to the insulting man war on Christian principles, sparing the weak ner in which it had been refused. It declares and defenceless. On the 22d of September the that the Christian population never under Turk- combined Turkish and Egyptian forces, numberish rule enjoyed security for their lives, honor, ing 20,000 men, assaulted the Cretan camp, exor property ; that they are now especially sub- tending from Malaxa to Keramia, and were jected to acts of violence, barbarism, and sacri- repulsed. The next day the insurgents, having lege, and are driven to the mountains for refuge received 2,000 reënforcements, assumed the ofor into exile. It then declares that "for all these fensive, and drove the Turks on board their reasons, and in accordance with the oath taken ships, with a loss of 3,000 prisoners. The Cretans

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